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大学英语自学教程下UNIT15

时间:2009-11-18 05:39来源:互联网 提供网友:hanlong   字体: [ ]
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[00:04.28]The Computer and The Poet
[00:06.48]计算机和诗人
[00:08.67]The essential problem of man in a computerized age
[00:15.02]remains the Sameas it has always been.
[00:17.80]  电子计算机时代人们的基本问题仍是一直存在的问题相同。
[00:20.58]That problem is not solely how to be more productive more comfortable,
[00:23.82]问题不仅仅是如何才能更多产,更舒服,
[00:27.06]more content,but how to be more sensitive,
[00:29.94]更满足,而且还有如何才能更灵敏,
[00:32.81]more sensible,more proportionate,more alive.
[00:35.77]更明智,更均衡,更有活力.
[00:38.74]The computer makes possible a marvellous leap in human pwficiency
[00:42.28]计算机使得人类进步的惊人飞跃成为可能.
[00:45.82]it pulis down the fences around the practical
[00:51.46]and even the theoretical intelligence.
[00:54.10]它拆除了禁锢着实践甚至理论信息的围栏.
[00:56.74]But the question persists and indeed grows
[01:02.20]whether the computer will make it easier or harder
[01:04.84]但是计算机使人类更容易还是更难于了解他们自己到底是谁,
[01:07.47]for human beings to know who they really are,
[01:10.56]认明他们自己真正的问题,
[01:13.64]to identify their real problems,to respond more fully to beauty
[01:17.71]并对美做出更全面的反应,对生活予以充分评价,
[01:21.79]to place adequate value on life,and to make their world safer than it now is.
[01:26.66]使世界比现在更安全?
[01:31.53]Electronic brains
[01:35.58]can reduce the profusion of dead endsinvolved in vital research.
[01:39.16]  电脑能减少生命研究中的许多死胡同.
[01:42.74]But they can't eliminate the foolishness and decay
[01:48.80]that come from the unexamined life.
[01:50.93]但它们不能消除来自未经权衡的生活的愚蠢和腐朽.
[01:53.06]Nor do they connect a man to the things he has to be connected to
[02:00.32]the reality of pain in others;
[02:02.66]它们也没有把一个人和与这相关的事情
[02:05.00]the possibilities of creative growth in himself;
[02:07.66]---别人的痛苦现实,本人创造性发展的可能性,
[02:10.32]the memory of the race; and the rights of the next generation.
[02:14.24]种族的烙印,下一代的权利联系在一起.
[02:18.16]The reason these matters are important in a computerized age
[02:24.80]is that there may be a tendency to mistake data for wisdom,
[02:28.02]  这些事情在电子计算机化时代之所以重要的原因是有可能错把数据当做智慧,
[02:31.25]just as there has always been a teniency to confuse logic with values
[02:38.69]and intelligence with insight.
[02:41.18]正如总是可能把逻辑与价值,智力与混淆起来一样.
[02:43.66]Easy and convenient access to facts can produce unlimited good
[02:51.21]only if it is matched by the desire and ability to find out
[02:57.68]what they mean and where they would lead.
[03:00.62]容易,方便地获得的事实只有与查明它们的意义和导向的愿望和能力相适应,
[03:03.56]Facts are terrible things if left spreading and unexamined.
[03:07.09]它们太容易被看做已有定评的可靠事实,
[03:10.62]They are too easily regarded as evaluated certainties
[03:17.09]rather than as the rawest of raw materials
[03:22.37]crying to be processedinto the texture of logic.
[03:25.40]而不是迫切需要处理,使之具有逻辑条理的原始材料中最原始的材料.
[03:28.43]It requires a very unusual mind,
[03:33.39]White head said,to undertake the analysis of a fact.
[03:36.48]怀特里德说,对事实进行分析需要非同寻常的思想.
[03:39.56]The computer can provide a correct number
[03:42.08]计算机可以提供正确的数字,
[03:44.60]but it may be an irrelevant number until judgment is pronounced.
[03:48.28]但只有有了明确的判断,它才会是有意义的数字.
[03:51.97]To the extent,then,
[03:55.49]that man fails to distinguish between the intermediate operations
[04:02.05]of electronic intelligence and the ultimate responsibilities of human decision,
[04:06.02]  因而,在人不能区分电子智力的中间运算与人的决定的最终责任的情况下,
[04:09.99]the computer could prove a digression.
[04:12.37]计算机可能被证明是一种节外生枝.
[04:14.75]It could obscure man's awareness of the need to come to terms with himself
[04:18.29]它可能模糊了人还需要满足于自身条件的这种意识.
[04:21.83]It may foster the illusion that he is asking fundamental questions
[04:29.69]when actually he is asking only functional ones.
[04:33.02]它可能助长一种错觉,当他实际上只是在问功能时,却认为他是在问基本问题.
[04:36.35]It may be regarded as a substitute for intelligence
[04:42.59]instead of an extension of it.
[04:44.93]它可能会被认为是智力的替代而不是扩展,
[04:47.27]It may promote undue confidence in concrete answers.
[04:50.60]它可能使人过分相信具体答案.
[04:53.93]"If we begin with certainties," Bacon said,"we shall end in doubts
[04:57.90]"如果我们开始于确定,"培根说,
[05:01.87]but if we begin with doubts,
[05:03.79]"我们将结束于疑惑;
[05:05.71]and we are patient with them we shall end in certainties[05:09.15]而如果我们开始于疑惑,我们将会结束于确定."
[05:12.58]The computer knows how to conquer error,
[05:15.06]计算机懂得如何克服错误,
[05:17.54]but before we lose ourselves in celebrating the victory,
[05:20.42]在我们庆祝胜利迷失自我之前,
[05:23.29]we might reflect on the great advances in the human situation
[05:26.57]我们可能仔细考虑人类处境发生的巨大进步,
[05:29.85]that have come about because men were challengedby error
[05:32.88]因为人类受到错误的挑战,
[05:35.91]and would not stop thinking and exploring until they found
[05:41.47]better approaches for dealing with it.
[05:43.60]直到找到更好的处理错误的方法才会停止思考和探索.
[05:45.73]Give me a good fruitful error,full of seeds,
[05:48.62]"给我一个内含丰富的错误,充满了希望的种子,
[05:51.50]bursting with its own corrections."
[05:53.72]充满对自身的纠正,"
[05:55.94]Ferris Greenslet wrote,
[05:57.93]费里斯.格林里特写道,
[05:59.92]"You can keep your sterile truth for yourself
[06:02.70]"你可以自己保留贫乏的真理."
[06:05.48]The biggest single need in computer technology is not for increased speed
[06:09.71]  计算机技术最大的需求不是要提高速度或扩大容量,
[06:13.94]or enlarged capacity,or prolonged memory,or reduced size,
[06:17.97]或处长存储,或减小尺寸,
[06:21.99]but for better questions and better use of the answers.
[06:25.57]而是要提出更好的问题,更好地利用其答案.
[06:29.15]Without taking anything away from the technicians,
[06:34.50]we think it might be fruitful to effect some sort of junction
[06:38.28]丝毫不是贬低技师,
[06:42.05]between the computer technologis and the poet.
[06:45.28]我们认为在计算机技术专家和诗人之间实现某种联系可能会很益.
[06:48.50]A genuine purpose may be served by turning loose
[06:54.75]the wonders of the creative imagination
[07:00.31]on the kinds of problems being put to electronic technology.
[07:06.76]The company of poets may enable the men
[07:10.00]通过充分发挥由电子技术处理的问题的创造性想象的神奇力量,
[07:13.24]who tend the machines to see a wider range of possibilities
[07:16.92]计算机可能起到真正的作用.
[07:20.61]than technology alone may inspire.
[07:22.95]与诗人为伍可能使使用计算机的人能看到比技术自身激发出的更大范围的可能性.
[07:25.28]A poet,said Aristotle,has the advantage of expressing the universal;
[07:29.25]亚里士多德说,诗人有表达共性的优势,
[07:33.22]the specialist expresses only the particular.
[07:35.90]而专家只能表达某一特性.
[07:38.58]The poet,moreover,can remind us
[07:41.40]而且,诗人还可以提醒我们,
[07:44.22]that man's greatest energy comes not from his dynamos but from his dreams.
[07:48.55]一个人最大的能量不是来自他的精力而是来自他的梦想.
[07:52.87]But the quality of a man's dreams can only be a reflectionof his subconscious.
[07:57.09]但一个人梦想的特性只是他的潜意识的反映.
[08:01.31]What he puts into his subconscious,
[08:06.27]therefore,is quite literally the most important nourishment in the world
[08:09.95]因此,他的潜意识中的东西确实是世界上最重要的营养.
[08:13.64]Nothing.really happens to a manexcept as it is registered in the subconscious.
[08:18.42]  除了在潜意识中存在的东西,不会有有其他事情真的发生在一个人身上.
[08:23.20]This is where event and feeling become memory
[08:29.44]and where the proof of life is stored.
[08:31.87]事件和感受在此变成记忆,生活的验证依存于此.
[08:34.30]The poet--and we use the term to include all those who have respect for
[08:38.23]诗人--我们使用的这个词语包括所有那些尊重人类灵魂且与之对话的人
[08:42.16]and speak to the human spirit can help to supply the subconscious with material
[08:51.02]to enhance its sensitivity,thus safeguarding it.
[08:54.35]--有助于为潜意识提供材料,提高其敏感性并保护它.
[08:57.68]The poet,too,can help to keep man from making himself over
[09:05.72]in the image of his electronic wonders.
[09:08.45]诗人还可以使人不至于按照电子奇迹的形象改造自己.
[09:11.18]For the danger is not so much that man will be controlled
[09:14.42]因为危险不在于人被计算机控制,
[09:17.66]by the computer as that be may imitate it.
[09:20.54]在于要模仿计算机的思维.
[09:23.41]The poet reminds men of their uniqueness.
[09:26.74]  诗人使人们想起自己的独特.
[09:30.07]It is not necessary to possess the ultimate definition of this uniqueness
[09:33.81]人们没必要拥有这种独特的基本解释,
[09:37.54]Even to speculate on it is a gain.
[09:40.57]即使思索一下也是一种收获.
[09:43.60]Text B
[09:46.66]Changes to Come in U.S.Education
[09:48.79]美国教育将要发生的变化
[09:50.92]The biggest"infrastructure"challenge for the United States in the next decade
[09:53.74]  美国下一个十年最大的基础设施的挑战不是
[09:56.56]is not the billions needed for railroadshighways and energy.
[09:59.43]铁路,公路和能源所需的数十亿美元巨款,
[10:02.31]It is the American school system from kindergarten through the Ph.D.program[10:09.15]and the postgraduate education of adults.
[10:11.37]而是美国的教育体制,从幼儿园到哲学博士和成人研究生教育.
[10:13.59]And it requires something far scarcer than money thinking and risk- taking.
[10:16.97]它要求的是比金钱更珍贵的东西---思考和冒险.
[10:20.36]The challenge is not one of expansion.
[10:22.48]  这种挑战并非一种推广.
[10:24.61]On the contrary,the rapid growth in enrollment over the last 40 years
[10:30.88]has come to an end.
[10:32.35]相反,过去40多年来招生人数的迅速增长已告结束.
[10:33.81]By 1978, more than 93 percent of young people
[10:39.66]entering the labor force had at least an eighth-grade education.
[10:42.30]到1978年,超过93的成为劳动力的青年人至少受到过8年级的教育.
[10:44.94]So even if the birthrate should rise some what,
[10:47.21]所以即使出生率有所增长,
[10:49.48]little expansion is possible for elementary and secondary school enrollments
[10:52.76]小学和中学的招生人数可能不会有多少扩大.
[10:56.04]The last 30 years of social upheaval are also over.
[10:58.52]  过去30年的社会剧变也结束了.
[11:01.00]Busing will continue to be a highly emotional issue in a good many large cities.
[11:04.19]用校车接送学生在许多大城市里仍将是一个带有高度感情色彩的问题.
[11:07.38]And there will still be efforts to use schools to bring women into fields
[11:10.20]想利用学校把妇女带进像工程学这些传统上被认为属于男性领域的努力依然存在.
[11:13.02]such as engineering that have traditionally been considered male
[11:18.58]But this shift has already been accomplished in many fields:
[11:20.87]但这种转换在许多领域已经完成.
[11:23.15]half or more of the accounting students in graduate schools of business
[11:25.83]例如,商业研究生院半数或更多的会计学专业学生是女性.
[11:28.51]for example,are now women.
[11:30.39]例如,商业研究生院半数或更多的会计学专业学生是女性.
[11:32.27]As for most other social issues,
[11:34.15]关于大多其他社会问题,
[11:36.03]the country will no longer try to use schools to bring about social reform
[11:39.01]国家将不再利用学校引起社会改革.
[11:41.99]It's becoming increasingly clear to policy makers
[11:46.66]that schools cannot solve all the problems of the larger community.
[11:49.49]政策制定者截止来截止清楚地意识到学校不能解决大社会的所有问题.
[11:52.31]Instead,the battle cry for the 90s
[11:56.85]will be the demand for performance and accountability.
[11:59.37]  相反,90年代的强烈呼声将是要求工作表现和能承担责任.
[12:01.89]For 30 years,employers have been hiring graduates for their degrees
[12:08.35]rather than their abilities;employment,
[12:10.62]30年来,雇主一直因为毕业生的学位而不是能力来雇佣他们;
[12:12.89]pay and often even promotion have depended on one's diploma.
[12:15.83]职业,报酬,常常甚至连晋升都依赖于一个人的毕业文凭.
[12:18.77]Now many major employers are beginning to demand more than the completion of school.
[12:22.19]现在许多大雇主开始要求纟完成学业更多的东西了.
[12:25.61]Some of the major banks, for example,
[12:27.65]例如,
[12:29.69]are studying the possibility of entrance examinatnons
[12:34.83]that would test the knowledge and abilities of graduates applying for jobs
[12:37.62]例如,一些大银行正在研究测试求职毕业生的知识和能力的入门考试的可能性.
[12:40.40]Students and parents,too,
[12:43.87]will demand greater accountability from schools on all levels.
[12:46.60]  学生和父母也希望积极级学校有更好的成绩责任制.
[12:49.33]It will be increasingly common to go to lawagainst school districts
[12:52.36]因为学校授予学位却没有传授给学生样应该得到的技能而状告校区
[12:55.39]and colleges for awarding degrees without imparting the skills
[13:01.14]that are supposed to go along with them
[13:02.90]和学院的事会越来截止常见.
[13:04.67]And many young people are already switching to practical"hard"subjects
[13:07.64]许多青年人已经转向更实际的"难学的"课程.
[13:10.62]Caring little about the so-called "youth culture" and the media,
[13:13.21]由于不怎么关心所谓的"青年文化"和媒体,
[13:15.79]they have been shifting from psychology into medicine,
[13:18.22]他们一直在从心理学转入医学,
[13:20.65]from sociology into accounting and from black studies into computer programming.
[13:24.22]从社会学转入会计学,从黑人研究转入计算机编程.
[13:27.78]Demand for education is actually going up, not down.
[13:30.61]  对教育的要求事实上正在提高,并非降低.
[13:33.43]What is going down, and fairly fast,
[13:37.68]is demand for traditional education in traditional schools:
[13:40.47]正在降低,并且降得相当快的是对传统学校中传统教育的要求.
[13:43.25]Indeed,the fastest growing industry in America today
[13:45.82]实际上,当今美国增长最快的产业
[13:48.40]may be the continuing professional education of highly schooled adults
[13:51.41]能是已上了不少学的成年人的继续职业教育.
[13:54.43]Much of it takes place outside the education establishment through companies[13:57.69]这种教育大部分发生在教育机构之外
[14:00.96]hospitals and government departments that run courses for managerial
[14:04.09]--通过公司,医院和政府部门,
[14:07.23]and professional employees or through management associations
[14:13.08]and trade associations.
[14:14.77]这些单位为其雇佣的管理人员和专业人员开设课程,
[14:16.45]In the meantime,any number of private enterprises are organizing courses
[14:19.62]或者通过管理协会或待业协会进行.
[14:22.80]producing training films and tapes
[14:24.68]同时,许多么人企业已在组织课程,制作培训电影和磁带,
[14:26.56]and other wise taking advantage of growth opportunities
[14:28.92]并以其他方式利用着各种增长的机会,
[14:31.29]that universities shy away from.
[14:33.27]而这些机会是大学避而不用的.
[14:35.26]The demand for continuing education does not take the form that most observers,
[14:38.54]  对继续教育的要求不是采取大多数观察者,
[14:41.82]including this writer,originally expectednamely,
[14:44.04]包括本文作者原来预期的形式
[14:46.26]"Great Books" classes for adults wanting to learn about the humanities
[14:52.81]the arts,the "life of the mind.
[14:54.94]--即给想了解人文科学,艺术和尽智的活动的成年人用"大部头书"上课.
[14:57.07]We face instead a growing demand for advanced professional education
[14:59.94]代之,我们面临着日益增长对高级专业教育的要求:
[15:02.82]in engineering and medicine,in accounting and journalism,
[15:05.60]在工程学和医学,会计学和新闻学,
[15:08.38]in law and in administration and management.
[15:10.56]法律和管理方面.
[15:12.74]Yet the adults who come back for such studies also demand
[15:18.10]what teachers of professional subjects are so rarely able to supply:
[15:21.06]  然而回来进行这类学习的成年人所要求的东西却是专业课程的教师很少能提供的:
[15:24.03]a humanistic perspective that can integrate advanced professional
[15:29.88]and technical knowledge into a broader universe of experience and learning
[15:33.12]一种能把先进的专业技术知识洪到经验和常识更广阔的普遍体系中的人文主义的观点.
[15:36.36]Since these new students also need unconventional hours--evenings,
[15:39.48]因为这些"新"学生需要非常规的时间
[15:42.60]weekends or high-intensity courses that stuff a term's work into two weeks
[15:46.02]晚上,周末把一学期的工作塞到两周内学完的高强度的学习过程
[15:49.45]their demands for learning
[15:52.69]bring a vague but real threat to the school establishment.
[15:55.17]--他们学习的要求对学校体制构成了一种不明确的但却是真正的威胁.
[15:57.65]The greatest challenge to education
[16:01.41]is likely to come from our new opportunities for diversity.
[16:04.00]  对教育最大的挑战可能来自我们所示多样性的新时机.
[16:06.58]We now have the chance to apply the basic findings of psychological
[16:12.33]developmental and educational research over the last 100 years:
[16:15.57]现在我们有机会运用过去100多年来心理的,发展的,教育的基本研究成果,
[16:18.81]namely that no one educational method fits all children.
[16:21.84]那就是,没有一种教育方法适合所有孩子.
[16:24.87]Almost all children are capable of attaining the same standards
[16:30.43]within a reasonable period of time.
[16:32.35]几乎所有孩子都有能力在一段合理时间内达到相同的标准.
[16:34.27]All but a few babies, for instance,
[16:36.31]例如:除少数婴儿外,
[16:38.35]learn to walk by the age of two and to talk by the age of three,
[16:41.33]所有婴儿都能在两岁学会走路,三岁学会说话,
[16:44.30]but no two get there quite the same way.
[16:46.33]但是没有两个婴儿以完全相同的方式达到这种程度.
[16:48.35]So too at higher levels.
[16:50.12]较高水平也是一样的.
[16:51.88]Some children learn best by rote,
[16:53.71]一些孩子通过死记硬背学得很好.
[16:55.54]in structured environments with high certainty and strict discipline.
[16:58.42]在高度确定和严格纪律构筑的环境下,
[17:01.31]Others gain success in the less structured "permissive" atmosphere
[17:06.95]of a "progressive" school.
[17:08.83]另一些人在"进步的"学校里的结构不那么严格的"随意"气氛下获得进步.
[17:10.71]Some adults learn out of books, some learn by doing,
[17:13.35]一些成年人学习书本以外的东西,一些人通过做而学习,
[17:15.99]some learn best by listening.
[17:17.73]一些人通常听学得很好.
[17:19.46]Some students need prescribed daily doses of information;
[17:22.25]一些学生需要每天规定动作一些信息;
[17:25.03]others need challenge and a high degree of responsibility
[17:30.59]for the design of their own work.
[17:32.42]其他人需要挑战,规划他们自己学习的高要求.
[17:34.25]But for too long,
[17:35.78]但长期以来,
[17:37.31]teachers have insisted that there is one best way to teach and learn,
[17:40.09]教师们坚持认为有一种教与学的最好方法,
[17:42.87]even though they have disagreed about what that way is.
[17:45.21]尽管他们对那种方式是什么意见不一[17:47.55]A century ago,the greatest majority of Americans
[17:50.12]  一个世纪以前,绝大多数美国人居住在很小的社区,
[17:52.69]lived in communities so small that only one one-room schoolhouse
[17:59.33]was within walking distance of small children.
[18:01.65]在小孩可以步行的范围内只有一个单间较舍.
[18:03.98]Then there had to be "one right method" for everybody to learn.
[18:06.80]那么,那只能是每个人学习的"好方法"了.
[18:09.62]Today the great majority of pupils in the United States
[18:11.98]今天多数美国
[18:14.35](and all developed countries)
[18:16.18](以及所有发达国家)
[18:18.01]live in big cities with such density
[18:20.04]的学生居住在高密度的大城市里,
[18:22.08]that there can easily be three or four elementary schools--
[18:27.36]as well as secondary schools within each child's walking or bicycling distance.
[18:30.78]在每一个孩子步行或骑车范围内很容易找到三四所小学,中学.
[18:34.20]This enables students and their parents
[18:38.04]to choose between alternative routes to learning offered by competing schools.
[18:41.23]这使得学生和他们的父母能在互相竞争的学校提供的不同学习方法中进行选择.
[18:44.41]Indeed,competition and choice
[18:48.57]are already beginning to infiltrate the school system,
[18:50.89]确实,竞争和选择已在开始渗入到学校体制中.
[18:53.22]Private schools and colleges have shown an unusual ability to survive
[18:56.30]私立学校和学院在别处费用上涨
[18:59.38]and develop during a period of rising costsand dropping enrollments elsewhere.
[19:02.56]和招生下降期间显示出非凡的生存,发展能力.
[19:05.73]All this presents,of course,a true threat to the public school establishment
[19:08.76]当然,所有这些都对公立学校体制构成真正的威胁.
[19:11.79]But economics,student needs and our new understanding of how people learn
[19:15.33]但是经济因素,学生的需要和我们对于人们如何学习的新理解
[19:18.87]are bound to break the traditional education monopoly
[19:21.30]正在打破传统教育的垄断,
[19:23.73]just as trucks and airplanesbroke the monopoly of the railroads,
[19:26.39]就像卡车和飞机打破了铁路的垄断,
[19:29.06]and computers and "chips" are breaking the telephone monopoly,
[19:31.77]计算机和芯片正在打破电话的垄断一样.
[19:34.49]In the next 10 or 15 years we will almost certainly see strong pressures
[19:37.81]在未来10或15年中,我们几乎肯定将看到迫使学校
[19:41.13]to make schools responsible for thinking through what kind of learning methods
[19:46.87]are appropriate for each child.
[19:48.70]有责任彻底地全面考虑哪些学习方法适合每一个孩子的强大压力,
[19:50.53]We will almost certainly see great pressure,
[19:52.57]我们几乎肯定将看到同样恶臭父母和学生的强大压力,
[19:54.61]from parents and students alike
[19:56.37]注重教育成果,
[19:58.13]for result-focused education and for accountability
[20:03.70]in meeting object ivesset for individual students.
[20:06.06]对每一个学生实现自己的目标负责.
[20:08.42]The continuing professional education of highly educated adults
[20:11.25]对受过高层教育的成年人继续进行的专业教育
[20:14.07]will become a third tier in addition to undergraduate and professional
[20:20.02]or graduate work.
[20:21.49]将成为除大学和职业或研究生工作以外的第三种教育层次.
[20:22.95]Above all,attention will shift back to schools and education
[20:25.82]特别是,注意力将团圆学校和教育上,
[20:28.70]as the central capital investment and infrastructure of a "knowledge society.".
[20:32.12]把他们看做"知识社会"的重要的基本投资和基础结构.
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TAG标签:   大学英语  自学教程
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