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高中英语牛津版高三上学期CHAPTER FIVE

时间:2009-11-17 01:57来源:互联网 提供网友:zhou851117   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)
[00:-2.00]SICK BUILDINGS
[00:-3.00]A wealthy American businessman
[00:-4.00]has just bought a small insurance company in South east Asia.
[00:-5.00]He has not visited it yet.
[00:-6.00]After he bought it,he heard that the staff were often sick.
[00:-7.00]He then sent Kate Ford1,his personal assistant,
[00:-8.00]to inspect the office and give him a brief report on the possible health hazards
[00:-9.00]To:Mr P Thompson, Chairman,Mwgabux industries From:Kate Ford
[00:10.00]Health Hazards at Solid Insurance Ltd.
[00:11.00]I have investigated the possible health hazards
[00:12.00]in the office of Solid insurance Ltd,
[00:13.00]and I have also discussed the subject with the present manager of the company
[00:14.00]Mr C K Li,and most members of staff.
[00:15.00]General situation
[00:16.00]The office is situated2 on the fifth floor of a building which was completed in 1975
[00:17.00]Access is via elevator only.
[00:18.00]The office is rented from Profitable Properties Limited(PPL).
[00:19.00]Ventilation
[00:20.00]they complained of headaches,tiredness and respiratory problems.
[00:21.00]The poor ventilation is probably responsible.
[00:22.00]All windows in the office are sealed.
[00:23.00]We should consider replacing some of these with windows which can be opened
[00:24.00]All ventilation is provided by the building's central air conditioning system
[00:25.00]At present this provides a mixture of 20% fresh air and 80% recycled air.
[00:26.00]A higher percentage of fresh air is desirable.
[00:27.00]In addition,the main air intake3 is at ground level,facing a busy main road.
[00:28.00]This should be re-sited to the roof.
[00:29.00]There is no regular cleaning programme for the system,
[00:30.00]although this ought to be done at least once a year
[00:31.00]to ensure that dirt and dangerous bacteria do not pollute the system.
[00:32.00]We will need to raise these points with PPL,
[00:33.00]who may object because of the expense of making changes.
[00:34.00]Smoking
[00:35.00]Seven of the forty staff,including Mr C K Li,are regular smokers4.
[00:36.00]The previous management did not have a non-smoking policy.
[00:37.00]We should consider introducing one immediately.
[00:38.00]This is the easiest problem to solve.
[00:39.00]Equipment
[00:40.00]The photocopying5 machines,which are frequently in use,
[00:41.00]are situated in a small room with poor ventilation.
[00:42.00]I believe these machines can produce ozone,a toxic6 chemical.
[00:43.00]We need to take expert advice on this problem.
[00:44.00]Most of the staff sit in front of desk-top computers all day,
[00:45.00]and have a break only at lunch-time.
[00:46.00]They have old chairs which are uncomfortable and too low.
[00:47.00]Many complain of eye strain and back problems.
[00:48.00]We need to purchase modern,adjustable chairs
[00:49.00]and introduce a system of regular breaks.
[00:50.00]Water system
[00:51.00]The men's and women's wash rooms are maintained in a hygienic state.
[00:52.00]However,several staff have been absent recently with stomach illnesses.
[00:53.00]A possible reason for this may be the drinking water from the pantry,
[00:54.00]which does not seem to be pure.
[00:55.00]The main water tanks on the roof have never been cleaned,according to Mr C K Li
[00:56.00]We should get an expert to test the water quality.
[00:57.00]We should get an expert to test the water quality.
[00:58.00]Noise
[00:59.00]The office has a high noise level.
[-1:00.00]This results in an increase in stress.
[-1:-1.00]However,the situation here could be improved
[-1:-2.00]by fitting sound proof tiles to the ceiling,
[-1:-3.00]since much of the noise comes from a plastics factory on the floor above
[-1:-4.00]Lighting7
[-1:-5.00]There are old lights on the ceiling.
[-1:-6.00]Wherever you sit, they reflect on the computer screens.
[-1:-7.00]If we are changing the ceiling tiles,
[-1:-8.00]it would be a good chance to install a better lighting system.
[-1:-9.00]Conclusion
[-1:10.00]The workers'illnesses are genuine and staff morale8 is low. [-1:11.00]Mr C  K Li's failure to deal with any of these problems is very regrettable
[-1:12.00]Listening Skills
[-1:13.00]pages 86 and 87
[-1:14.00]Filling in forms
[-1:15.00]In these exercise,you will hear a conversation between Kate Ford
[-1:16.00]and one of the staff at Solid Insurance Ltd.
[-1:17.00]Listen and complete the form,as if you were Kate Ford.
[-1:18.00]A:Do come in,please sit down.Now,as you probably know
[-1:19.00]I'm doing a survey of all the staff here
[-1:20.00]because we want to improve the working conditions.
[-1:21.00]So I hope you tell me honestly about any problems,so that we can deal with them
[-1:22.00]B:Yes,of course.I think it's a very good idea.
[-1:23.00]A:Good!Now,you are Mr Parkinson,aren't you?What is your first name[-1:24.00]B:It's Ian.
[-1:25.00]A:How do you spell that?
[-1:26.00]B:I-A-N.
[-1:27.00]A:I-A-N,right,and your surname?
[-1:28.00]B:P-A-R-K-I-N-S-O-N Parkinson.
[-1:29.00]A:Thank you.And what is your job title,Mr Parkinson?
[-1:30.00]B:I'm an accountant.
[-1:31.00]A:Accountant.And how long have you been with the company?
[-1:32.00]B:Two and a half years altogether.
[-1:33.00]A:Two and a  half years.
[-1:34.00]Now,Mr Parkinson,looking back over the last year
[-1:35.00]how many days were you absent from work due to ill health?
[-1:36.00]B:Let's see,about ten days,I think.
[-1:37.00]A:And what was the treatment did you require?
[-1:38.00]B:I've been to the doctors several times about my back.
[-1:39.00]and just resting at home is usually enough.
[-1:40.00]I haven't had to stay in hospital.
[-1:41.00]A:I see.What sort of health problems have you had?
[-1:42.00]Any respiratory problems,you mentioned the cough.
[-1:43.00]B:Yes,I've had a cough for a long time,
[-1:44.00]and I often get a headache after a day at work.
[-1:45.00]A:Any trouble with your eyes or back pain?
[-1:46.00]B:My eyes are fine, but I have had a lot of back trouble.
[-1:47.00]A:Anything else?
[-1:48.00]B:Yes,I had a broken wrist last summer.
[-1:49.00]A:A broken wrist?
[-1:50.00]B:Yes,but that was nothing to do with the office
[-1:51.00]I just fell over while I was playing tennis,that's all.
[-1:52.00]A:Aha,oh I see,anyway I'll make a brief note of it.
[-1:53.00]Oh,by the way,I forgot to enter your age.
[-1:54.00]B:I'm thirty-two.
[-1:55.00]A:Thirty-two,thank you.Now,I believe you're a smoker,Mr Parkinson.
[-1:56.00]B:Yes,I'm afraid so.
[-1:57.00]A:So,how would you feel if we introduced a non-smoking policy?
[-1:58.00]I suppose you would object of that.
[-1:59.00]B:No,I think it would be desirable to have one.
[-2:00.00]My wife keeps telling me to stop smoking,
[-2:-1.00]if we had a non-smoking policy in the office,
[-2:-2.00]it would help me to give up smoking,
[-2:-3.00]and it would be better for the nonsmokers,too.
[-2:-4.00]So I would be in favour of that.
[-2:-5.00]A:Right,that's very  good.
[-2:-6.00]Now,do you have any problems with your equipment or furniture in the office
[-2:-7.00]B:Yes,my chair is terrible,it's too low,and the lighting is very poor.
[-2:-8.00]It's difficult to see the computer's screen clearly.
[-2:-9.00]A:So that's the chair,too low, and poor lighting.
[-2:10.00]Right,so which of these five things worry you the most?
[-2:11.00]I'd like you to choose three things and rank them in order from 1 to 3.
[-2:12.00]B:Let me see...well,No.1 is the furniture,
[-2:13.00]the lighting was probably be No.2 and I guess,air quality is No.3
[-2:14.00]A:You do use a desktop10 computer in your work, don't you?
[-2:15.00]B:Yes.A:How often do you take a break?
[-2:16.00]You ought to take a break about every hour.
[-2:17.00]B:No,we can't do that.
[-2:18.00]The manager complains if we not touch desks all the time.
[-2:19.00]We can only take a break at lunch time
[-2:20.00]A:So how many hours a day are you using the computer?
[-2:21.00]B:Not all the time I would say I use it about four hours a day.
[-2:22.00]B:Well,I don't think they are very good at all.
[-2:23.00]I would say that I'm quite dissatisfied.
[-2:24.00]They need to be improved.
[-2:25.00]A:And do you have any other commends [-2:26.00]or things you like to mention about the office conditions?
[-2:27.00]B:Well,yes.I'm rather worried about what would happen if there was a fire.
[-2:28.00]The door to the stairs is usually locked
[-2:29.00]and stairs are often blocked with rubbish
[-2:30.00]A:I'll make notes of that.Door to stairs locked,
[-2:31.00]stairs blocked with rubbish I'll look into that.
[-2:32.00]Right,thank you for your help,Mr Parkinson
[-2:33.00]B:Thank you.
[-2:34.00]SPEAKING Page 93
[-2:35.00]A Final e on short words
[-2:36.00]The pronunciation of short words
[-2:37.00]with a short vowel11 sound changes when a final e is added.
[-2:38.00]Then the vowel is pronounced in the same way as the name of those letters
[-2:39.00](a,e,i,o,u) in the alphabet.
[-2:40.00]a mad                made
[-2:41.00]e pet                Pete
[-2:42.00]i hid                hide
[-2:43.00]o not                note
[-2:44.00]u us                 use
[-2:45.00]Exercise A1
[-2:46.00]1.This is a cube.
[-2:47.00]2.Turn off the tap[-2:48.00]3.Is this the site?
[-2:49.00]4.Can you hop9 on one leg?
[-2:50.00]5.Take the dog to the vet13.
[-2:51.00]6.This is a steep slope!
[-2:52.00]7.Cane14 furniture is popular.
[-2:53.00]8.Look at that tiger cub12!
[-2:54.00]9.What a lovely scene!
[-2:55.00]10.I hit my shin on a rock.
[-2:56.00]11.The hose was very long.
[-2:57.00]12.Clothes fade in the sun.
[-2:58.00]Exercise A2
[-2:59.00]1.You can make an excellent kite from a kit15.
[-3:00.00]2.Hello,pal.You look pale.Do you feel all right?
[-3:-1.00]3.After a long, hot walk,
[-3:-2.00]we were glad to find a cool glade16 of trees for our picnic.
[-3:-3.00]4.I like the way your hair is cut.It makes you look very cute!
[-3:-4.00]5.The fins17 of the shark are used to make a fine soup.
[-3:-5.00]6.The plane went into a spin and crashed.
[-3:-6.00]The poor pilot injured his spine18.
[-3:-7.00]7.If you win the competition,you will receive a bottle of wine.
[-3:-8.00]8.I'm sorry,but I hate that hat.It looks silly.
[-3:-9.00]9.I keep pins in this pine box.
[-3:10.00]MORE LANGUAGE INPUT(5)
[-3:11.00]pages 98 and 99
[-3:12.00]A Reading
[-3:13.00]Indoor Air Quality Problems
[-3:14.00]Generally speaking,
[-3:15.00]a school has far more occupants per square metre than an office building.
[-3:16.00]The fact is that with an increasing urbanization,
[-3:17.00]the student population in many schools is still growing.
[-3:18.00]Therefore,an awareness19 of possible indoor air quality problems
[-3:19.00]is important for teachers and students alike.
[-3:20.00]Most indoor air pollution in schools comes from sources inside the school building
[-3:21.00]For example,photocopiers,manufactured wood products like desks and chairs
[-3:22.00]and carpeting cleaning products and pesticides20
[-3:23.00]may all emit harmful elements into the air.
[-3:24.00]Other pollutants21 may also accumulate
[-3:25.00]in specific areas such as laboratories and toilets.
[-3:26.00]Meanwhile,outdoor air that enters a school building through windows
[-3:27.00]and other openings can also bring vehicle exhausts into the classrooms.
[-3:28.00]Outdated ventilation systems in some older schools
[-3:29.00]increase the risks of indoor air quality problems.
[-3:30.00]Poor indoor air quality can cause serious respiratory problems.
[-3:31.00]Younger students in particular are affected23.
[-3:32.00]Children's respiratory systems are still developing
[-3:33.00]They are more sensitive to the air pollutants.
[-3:34.00]Children also have higher respiration24 rates than adults.
[-3:35.00]As a result,they are likely to inhale25 more of the pollutants than adults do
[-3:36.00]There is a lot that we can do and should do.
[-3:37.00]For instance,increasing ventilation rates,banning smoking, [-3:38.00]storing paints and pesticides in closed containers,
[-3:39.00]and using those pollutant22 sources in periods of low or no occupancy
[-3:40.00]are all easy and effective means to prevent the problems
[-3:41.00]Of course,of all the measures to take,education is on top of the list.
[-3:42.00]When everyone in the school fully26 understands the matter,
[-3:43.00]a safer and healthier learning environment with cleaner air can be created
[-3:44.00]B Listening
[-3:45.00]In 1950,30% of the world's population lived in urban areas
[-3:46.00]By 2000,the proportion of urban dwellers27 had risen to 47%
[-3:47.00]and it expected to reach 60% by 2030.
[-3:48.00]At the current rate of change,
[-3:49.00]the number of urban dwellers will equal the number of rural dwellers
[-3:50.00]in the world in 2007.
[-3:51.00]There are 2.9,000,000,000 inhabitants in urban areas today
[-3:52.00]and 4.9,000,000,000 are expected by 2030 ,
[-3:53.00]whereas the world has 6.1,000,000,000 inhabitants
[-3:54.00]and is expected to have 8.1,000,000,000 by 2030.
[-3:55.00]More than 150,000 people
[-3:56.00]are being added to the urban population in developing countries every day
[-3:57.00]Greater Tokyo,Japan,already has 26,000,000 people,
[-3:58.00]Sao Paulo,Brazil 18,000,000 and Bombay,India,18,000,000
[-3:59.00]It is predicted that by 2015,
[-4:00.00]the world  will have 23'megacities'with populations over 10,000,000
[-4:-1.00]and more than 500 cities with populations of 1,000,000 or more.
[-4:-2.00]The prediction is that by 2025,2/3 of the world's people will live in cities

点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 Ford KiIxx     
n.浅滩,水浅可涉处;v.涉水,涉过
参考例句:
  • They were guarding the bridge,so we forded the river.他们驻守在那座桥上,所以我们只能涉水过河。
  • If you decide to ford a stream,be extremely careful.如果已决定要涉过小溪,必须极度小心。
2 situated JiYzBH     
adj.坐落在...的,处于某种境地的
参考例句:
  • The village is situated at the margin of a forest.村子位于森林的边缘。
  • She is awkwardly situated.她的处境困难。
3 intake 44cyQ     
n.吸入,纳入;进气口,入口
参考例句:
  • Reduce your salt intake.减少盐的摄入量。
  • There was a horrified intake of breath from every child.所有的孩子都害怕地倒抽了一口凉气。
4 smokers d3e72c6ca3bac844ba5aa381bd66edba     
吸烟者( smoker的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Many smokers who are chemically addicted to nicotine cannot cut down easily. 许多有尼古丁瘾的抽烟人不容易把烟戒掉。
  • Chain smokers don't care about the dangers of smoking. 烟鬼似乎不在乎吸烟带来的种种危害。
5 photocopying b83769281b2a4f269213b3d485dfdc3e     
v.影印,照相复制(photocopy的现在分词形式)
参考例句:
  • All photocopying machines need careful usage, and regular cleaning and maintenance. 所有照像复制机都需要小心使用、定期擦洗和维修。 来自辞典例句
  • A trademark used for a photocopying process or machine employing xerography. 商标名,用于采用静电复印术的影印过程或机器。 来自互联网
6 toxic inSwc     
adj.有毒的,因中毒引起的
参考例句:
  • The factory had accidentally released a quantity of toxic waste into the sea.这家工厂意外泄漏大量有毒废物到海中。
  • There is a risk that toxic chemicals might be blasted into the atmosphere.爆炸后有毒化学物质可能会进入大气层。
7 lighting CpszPL     
n.照明,光线的明暗,舞台灯光
参考例句:
  • The gas lamp gradually lost ground to electric lighting.煤气灯逐渐为电灯所代替。
  • The lighting in that restaurant is soft and romantic.那个餐馆照明柔和而且浪漫。
8 morale z6Ez8     
n.道德准则,士气,斗志
参考例句:
  • The morale of the enemy troops is sinking lower every day.敌军的士气日益低落。
  • He tried to bolster up their morale.他尽力鼓舞他们的士气。
9 hop vdJzL     
n.单脚跳,跳跃;vi.单脚跳,跳跃;着手做某事;vt.跳跃,跃过
参考例句:
  • The children had a competition to see who could hop the fastest.孩子们举行比赛,看谁单足跳跃最快。
  • How long can you hop on your right foot?你用右脚能跳多远?
10 desktop sucznX     
n.桌面管理系统程序;台式
参考例句:
  • My computer is a desktop computer of excellent quality.我的计算机是品质卓越的台式计算机。
  • Do you know which one is better,a laptop or a desktop?你知道哪一种更好,笔记本还是台式机?
11 vowel eHTyS     
n.元音;元音字母
参考例句:
  • A long vowel is a long sound as in the word"shoe ".长元音即如“shoe” 一词中的长音。
  • The vowel in words like 'my' and 'thigh' is not very difficult.单词my和thigh中的元音并不难发。
12 cub ny5xt     
n.幼兽,年轻无经验的人
参考例句:
  • The lion cub's mother was hunting for what she needs. 这只幼师的母亲正在捕猎。
  • The cub licked the milk from its mother's breast. 这头幼兽吸吮着它妈妈的奶水。
13 vet 2HfyG     
n.兽医,退役军人;vt.检查
参考例句:
  • I took my dog to the vet.我把狗带到兽医诊所看病。
  • Someone should vet this report before it goes out.这篇报道发表之前应该有人对它进行详查。
14 cane RsNzT     
n.手杖,细长的茎,藤条;v.以杖击,以藤编制的
参考例句:
  • This sugar cane is quite a sweet and juicy.这甘蔗既甜又多汁。
  • English schoolmasters used to cane the boys as a punishment.英国小学老师过去常用教鞭打男学生作为惩罚。
15 kit D2Rxp     
n.用具包,成套工具;随身携带物
参考例句:
  • The kit consisted of about twenty cosmetic items.整套工具包括大约20种化妆用品。
  • The captain wants to inspect your kit.船长想检查你的行装。
16 glade kgTxM     
n.林间空地,一片表面有草的沼泽低地
参考例句:
  • In the midst of a glade were several huts.林中的空地中间有几间小木屋。
  • The family had their lunch in the glade.全家在林中的空地上吃了午饭。
17 fins 6a19adaf8b48d5db4b49aef2b7e46ade     
[医]散热片;鱼鳍;飞边;鸭掌
参考例句:
  • The level of TNF-α positively correlated with BMI,FPG,HbA1C,TG,FINS and IRI,but not with SBP and DBP. TNF-α水平与BMI、FPG、HbA1C、TG、FINS和IRI呈显著正相关,与SBP、DBP无相关。 来自互联网
  • Fins are a feature specific to fish. 鱼鳍是鱼类特有的特征。 来自辞典例句
18 spine lFQzT     
n.脊柱,脊椎;(动植物的)刺;书脊
参考例句:
  • He broke his spine in a fall from a horse.他从马上跌下摔断了脊梁骨。
  • His spine developed a slight curve.他的脊柱有点弯曲。
19 awareness 4yWzdW     
n.意识,觉悟,懂事,明智
参考例句:
  • There is a general awareness that smoking is harmful.人们普遍认识到吸烟有害健康。
  • Environmental awareness has increased over the years.这些年来人们的环境意识增强了。
20 pesticides abb0488ed6905584ea91347395a890e8     
n.杀虫剂( pesticide的名词复数 );除害药物
参考例句:
  • vegetables grown without the use of pesticides 未用杀虫剂种植的蔬菜
  • There is a lot of concern over the amount of herbicides and pesticides used in farming. 人们对农业上灭草剂和杀虫剂的用量非常担忧。 来自《简明英汉词典》
21 pollutants 694861490fe64672170a0da250a277c7     
污染物质(尤指工业废物)( pollutant的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Pollutants are constantly being released into the atmosphere. 污染物质正在不断地被排放到大气中去。
  • The 1987 Amendments limit 301(g) discharges to a few well-studied nonconventional pollutants. 1987年的修正案把第301条(g)的普通排放限制施加在一些认真研究过的几种非常规污染物上。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
22 pollutant N1Zzy     
n.污染物质,散布污染物质者
参考例句:
  • Coal itself is a heavy pollutant.煤本身就是一种严重的污染物。
  • Carbon dioxide may not be a typical air pollutant.二氧化碳可能不是一种典型的污染物。
23 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假装的
参考例句:
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
24 respiration us7yt     
n.呼吸作用;一次呼吸;植物光合作用
参考例句:
  • They tried artificial respiration but it was of no avail.他们试做人工呼吸,可是无效。
  • They made frequent checks on his respiration,pulse and blood.他们经常检查他的呼吸、脉搏和血液。
25 inhale ZbJzA     
v.吸入(气体等),吸(烟)
参考例句:
  • Don't inhale dust into your lung.别把灰尘吸进肺里。
  • They are pleased to not inhale second hand smoke.他们很高兴他们再也不会吸到二手烟了。
26 fully Gfuzd     
adv.完全地,全部地,彻底地;充分地
参考例句:
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
27 dwellers e3f4717dcbd471afe8dae6a3121a3602     
n.居民,居住者( dweller的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • City dwellers think country folk have provincial attitudes. 城里人以为乡下人思想迂腐。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • They have transformed themselves into permanent city dwellers. 他们已成为永久的城市居民。 来自《简明英汉词典》
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TAG标签:   高中英语  牛津版高三
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