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The Coliseum

时间:2006-11-09 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:nerlly   字体: [ ]
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The Coliseum

Rome, that great 1)witness to a past rich in history, that great collection of 2)artistic1 masterpieces, which together, form the most complete 3)unmatchable expression of human achievement. Universal and eternal qualities which emanate2 from the treasures of Rome, make it unique among the cities of the world. The 4)imposing3 majesty4 of its architectural splendours from the past is 5)integrated into the pattern of life which today is many-faceted, modern and 6)metropolitan5, producing a natural 7)symbiosis6 of forms and colours, a past and present, 8)sacred and safe. 

       The majestic7 Flavian 9)Amphitheatre, better known as the Coliseum, the symbol of Rome's eternity8, is the greatest of all the monuments of the Roman period. It was begun by 10)Vespasian in AD 72 and completed by his son, Titus, eight years later. According to tradition, 40,000 slaves were used to build it. The huge amphitheatre could contain around 50,000 11)spectators, suitably protected from the sun by the 12)Valerian a canvas roof which was open at the center. It was intended for gladiator shows and wild beast hunts. Often, actual stage settings were provided to make the cruel scenes more lifelike and exciting for the 13)multitudes of spectators who watched them with such enthusiasm, thirsty for blood and pleasure. Before the fights came the 14)ritual salute9 to the Emperor. "Ave Caesare. Morituri te saluta." -- "15)Hail Caesar. Those who are about to die salute you!" And the thumbs down sign to the defeated. But apart from the hunts and the mortal combats of the gladiators, the amphitheatre also witnessed the tearing apart of the bodies of countless10 Christian11 16)martyrs. 

       The Coliseum was used for shows until 608 AD. In the Middle Ages it served as a 17)fortress13, and 18)successively as a stone quarry14 for many buildings. The many holes visible are also marks of 19)vandalism. They were made in order to 20)extract the 21)metallic15 22)bonds, which joined the blocks of 23)travertine together. It was only at the beginning of the nineteenth century that the 24)pillage16 was ended and some work of 25)restoration was initiated17 by the 26)Popes. The external circle, entirely18 in travertine, is almost 50 meters high and includes four floors, each carrying arches springing from 27)pilasters. The eighty arcades19 of the entrance are numbered with Roman numerals. The number corresponded to the serial20 number of the season tickets held by spectators. 

 

罗马圆形大剧场

    罗马是繁荣历史的一个伟大见证,是艺术杰作的聚集地,它展现出了最完整的、无可匹敌的人类成就。罗马的瑰宝散发着永恒的大家气质,使它在全世界的众多城市中显得无与伦比。它壮丽雄伟的古代建筑与今天丰富的现代都市生活方式融合在一起,是形态与色彩、过去与现在、神圣与安全的和谐共存。

宏伟的弗拉维圆形大剧场,也称竞技场,是罗马永恒的象征,也是罗马帝国时期最伟大的纪念碑。由韦斯巴西安皇帝在公元72年开始建立,但是由他的儿子提图斯在八年后完成的。根据传统,用了四万名奴隶来修建圆形大剧场。庞大的剧场能容纳下大约五万名观众,瓦莱里安皇帝在中央支起的帆布天花篷恰到好处地起了遮阳的作用。剧场是用来做角斗表演和猎捕野兽的。通常剧场会按真实场景布置,以使残忍的表演更逼真,以唤起众多观众在观看时的激情,唤醒他们嗜血寻乐的性情。在进行角斗前要先行仪式向皇帝致敬。(意大利语)恺撒万岁。臣子以死亡向您致敬! 战败的人得到拇指朝下的手势。大剧场除了用做捕猎和角斗士之间格杀之外,也见证了无数基督殉难徒遭分尸的惨剧。

竞技场的演出用途到了公元608年才告结束。它在中世纪成为要塞,既而成为许多建筑的采石场。剧场肉眼可辨的孔眼是蓄意被破坏所为。凿孔为的是要拔出连接石块的金属镣铐。直到19世纪初期,破坏才被停止下来,教皇下令进行修整回复的工作。剧场的外圈完全是由石灰华建成的,高度将近有50米,分成四层,每层的壁柱间以拱门相连。八十道入口的拱门以罗马数字标出。该数字与观众手中所持的当季门票上的序列号是一致的。

 

注释:

1) witness [5witnis] n. 目击者,证人

2) artistic [B:5tistik] a. 艺术的

3) unmatchable [5Qn5mAtFEbl] a. 不能匹敌的

4) imposing [im5pEuziN] a. 壮丽的

5) integrate into 使并入

6) metropolitan [metrE5pRlit(E)n] a. 主要都市的

7) symbiosis [simbai5Eusis] n. 共生现象

8) sacred [5seikrid] a. 神圣的,庄严的

9) amphitheatre [5AmfiWiEtE(r)] n. 圆形露天剧场

10) Vespasian韦斯巴西安,古罗马皇帝(69-79),弗拉维王朝创立者。

11) spectator [spek5teitE] n. 观众

12) Valerian即瓦莱里安(?-260),罗马皇帝。

13) multitude [5mQltitju:d] n. 多数

14) ritual [5ritjuEl] a. 宗教仪式的

15) hail [heil] int. 万岁

16) martyr12 [5mB:tE] n. 殉难者

17) fortress [5fC:tris] n. 堡垒,要塞

18) successively [sEk5sesivli] adv. 接连着,继续地

19) vandalism [5vAndEliz(E)m] n. 蓄意破坏艺术的行为

20) extract [iks5trAkt] v. 拔出,榨取

21) metallic [mi5tAlik] a. 金属的

22) bond [bCnd] n. 镣铐

23) travertine [5trAvEtin] n. (矿)石灰华

24) pillage [5pilidV] n. 掠夺

25) restoration [5restE5reiFEn] n. 重建

26) Pope [pEup] n. 罗马教皇

27) pilaster [pi5lAstE] n. 壁柱


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 artistic IeWyG     
adj.艺术(家)的,美术(家)的;善于艺术创作的
参考例句:
  • The picture on this screen is a good artistic work.这屏风上的画是件很好的艺术品。
  • These artistic handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends.外国朋友很喜欢这些美术工艺品。
2 emanate DPXz3     
v.发自,来自,出自
参考例句:
  • Waves emanate from the same atom source.波是由同一原子辐射的。
  • These chemicals can emanate certain poisonous gases.这些化学药品会散发出某些有毒的气味。
3 imposing 8q9zcB     
adj.使人难忘的,壮丽的,堂皇的,雄伟的
参考例句:
  • The fortress is an imposing building.这座城堡是一座宏伟的建筑。
  • He has lost his imposing appearance.他已失去堂堂仪表。
4 majesty MAExL     
n.雄伟,壮丽,庄严,威严;最高权威,王权
参考例句:
  • The king had unspeakable majesty.国王有无法形容的威严。
  • Your Majesty must make up your mind quickly!尊贵的陛下,您必须赶快做出决定!
5 metropolitan mCyxZ     
adj.大城市的,大都会的
参考例句:
  • Metropolitan buildings become taller than ever.大城市的建筑变得比以前更高。
  • Metropolitan residents are used to fast rhythm.大都市的居民习惯于快节奏。
6 symbiosis eqVye     
n.共生(关系),共栖
参考例句:
  • They live in a symbiosis with governments that they are financing.他们与他们服务的政府互利共存。
  • The symbiosis between social values and political structure has produced extraordinary achievement.社会价值观念和政治结构的共生现象带来了非凡的成就。
7 majestic GAZxK     
adj.雄伟的,壮丽的,庄严的,威严的,崇高的
参考例句:
  • In the distance rose the majestic Alps.远处耸立着雄伟的阿尔卑斯山。
  • He looks majestic in uniform.他穿上军装显得很威风。
8 eternity Aiwz7     
n.不朽,来世;永恒,无穷
参考例句:
  • The dull play seemed to last an eternity.这场乏味的剧似乎演个没完没了。
  • Finally,Ying Tai and Shan Bo could be together for all of eternity.英台和山伯终能双宿双飞,永世相随。
9 salute rYzx4     
vi.行礼,致意,问候,放礼炮;vt.向…致意,迎接,赞扬;n.招呼,敬礼,礼炮
参考例句:
  • Merchant ships salute each other by dipping the flag.商船互相点旗致敬。
  • The Japanese women salute the people with formal bows in welcome.这些日本妇女以正式的鞠躬向人们施礼以示欢迎。
10 countless 7vqz9L     
adj.无数的,多得不计其数的
参考例句:
  • In the war countless innocent people lost their lives.在这场战争中无数无辜的人丧失了性命。
  • I've told you countless times.我已经告诉你无数遍了。
11 Christian KVByl     
adj.基督教徒的;n.基督教徒
参考例句:
  • They always addressed each other by their Christian name.他们总是以教名互相称呼。
  • His mother is a sincere Christian.他母亲是个虔诚的基督教徒。
12 martyr o7jzm     
n.烈士,殉难者;vt.杀害,折磨,牺牲
参考例句:
  • The martyr laid down his life for the cause of national independence.这位烈士是为了民族独立的事业而献身的。
  • The newspaper carried the martyr's photo framed in black.报上登载了框有黑边的烈士遗像。
13 fortress Mf2zz     
n.堡垒,防御工事
参考例句:
  • They made an attempt on a fortress.他们试图夺取这一要塞。
  • The soldier scaled the wall of the fortress by turret.士兵通过塔车攀登上了要塞的城墙。
14 quarry ASbzF     
n.采石场;v.采石;费力地找
参考例句:
  • Michelangelo obtained his marble from a quarry.米开朗基罗从采石场获得他的大理石。
  • This mountain was the site for a quarry.这座山曾经有一个采石场。
15 metallic LCuxO     
adj.金属的;金属制的;含金属的;产金属的;像金属的
参考例句:
  • A sharp metallic note coming from the outside frightened me.外面传来尖锐铿锵的声音吓了我一跳。
  • He picked up a metallic ring last night.昨夜他捡了一个金属戒指。
16 pillage j2jze     
v.抢劫;掠夺;n.抢劫,掠夺;掠夺物
参考例句:
  • The invading troops were guilty of rape and pillage.侵略军犯了抢劫和强奸的罪。
  • It was almost pillage.这简直是一场洗劫。
17 initiated 9cd5622f36ab9090359c3cf3ca4ddda3     
n. 创始人 adj. 新加入的 vt. 开始,创始,启蒙,介绍加入
参考例句:
  • He has not yet been thoroughly initiated into the mysteries of computers. 他对计算机的奥秘尚未入门。
  • The artist initiated the girl into the art world in France. 这个艺术家介绍这个女孩加入巴黎艺术界。
18 entirely entirely     
ad.全部地,完整地;完全地,彻底地
参考例句:
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
19 arcades a42d1a6806a941a9e03d983da7a9af91     
n.商场( arcade的名词复数 );拱形走道(两旁有商店或娱乐设施);连拱廊;拱形建筑物
参考例句:
  • Clothes are on sale in several shopping arcades these days. 近日一些服装店的服装正在大减价。 来自轻松英语会话---联想4000词(下)
  • The Plaza Mayor, with its galleries and arcades, is particularly impressive. 市长大厦以其别具风格的走廊和拱廊给人留下十分深刻的印象。 来自互联网
20 serial 0zuw2     
n.连本影片,连本电视节目;adj.连续的
参考例句:
  • A new serial is starting on television tonight.今晚电视开播一部新的电视连续剧。
  • Can you account for the serial failures in our experiment?你能解释我们实验屡屡失败的原因吗?
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TAG标签:   疯狂英语  coliseum
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