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时间:2006-11-12 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:linquans   字体: [ ]


The Renaissance1 artists in 16th century Florence, the shift in creative power moved to Venice and into the hands of a supreme2 master of color, light and sensuality who pioneered new techniques in oil painting, his name, Titian.

Tiziano Vecellio, known as Titian in the English-speaking world was born in Pieve di Cadore, a small mountain town in northern Italy into a family of lawyers and administrators3.

So to the young Titian arriving here around 1500, it was a wealthy beautiful and sophisticated city offering highly 1)lucrative4 possibilities. Titian, clearly something of a 2)prodigy5 worked in a few minor6 painting workshops in the city before finding a place with the elderly 3)Giovanni Bellini, then the leading artist of Venice.

By the beginning of the 16th century, Venetian painting was beginning to display its own characteristics, different from the central Italian artistic7 concern with design and draftsmanship. Venetian art displayed a mastery of color and an obsession8 with the effects of light. The light reflected from the canals and 4)lagoons prompted painters to try and capture its qualities. The color 5)emulated the rich and dazzling fabrics11 and jewels imported from far off lands.

Venice's damp climate made 6)fresco12 painting, a method of painting water-based 7)pigments on freshly 8)plastered walls, rather difficult. They led artists to favor oil painting as a medium. As a result Venetians experimented further with oil paints than other Italian painters and popularized the use of oil on canvas rather than on wooden 9)panel, an innovation that Titian developed more than any other artist of his time.

Still in his teens Titian went to work with 10)Giorgione, the rising star of the Venetian art world, from whom Titian learnt a good deal. This is evident in early works like the Gypsy Madonna, painted around 1510, which shows a considerable mastery of working in oil, harmony of complementary colors and a great emphasis in landscape in composition. Titian had painted a number of commissions in churches but in 1516 he got a big commission, which established his reputation throughout Venice and beyond. It was here in the Ferrara church and it was this work which is the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin14 Mary.

In 1530 Titian went to Bologna to attend the 11)coronation of Charles V and he was introduced to the new Holy Roman Emperor who at that time was the most powerful man in the world. As Holy Roman Emperor he effectively ruled throughout central Europe and as king of Spain he ruled territories in the Spanish Netherlands as well as numerous places in the new world. He commissioned Titian to paint a portrait immediately and that's now lost but three years later Titian began a succession of royal portraits of which this is the most impressive and important. Unusually it's a full-length image of the Emperor who stands before us with a suggestion of calm, strong authority. When you get close up the brush strokes are feathery, move away though and the image crystallizes. Likewise Charles emerges out of the darkness behind into the light. The painting was a great success for Titian, he was immediately invited to become a court painter and join the order of the 12)golden spur which gave him 13)rites as a 14)courtier.

The elderly Titian's final years saw him continue to paint 15)prolifically16 with works defined by a dramatic 16)intensity17 in an increasingly loose and liberated18 style. An acute awareness19 of impending20 death seems 17)blatant21 in the last painting Piata in which Titian was working in 1576, when Venice was 18)ravaged by yet another 19)gruesome plague. Titian died on the 22nd of August of that year although not actually of the plague but it got his some soon afterwards along with nearly 70,000 Venetians. And so Titian was buried in the splendid Ferrara church surrounded by two of his most accomplished23 masterpieces. Titian was the brightest star in the dazzling firmament24 of 16th century Venice, whose use of color and light transformed European art and whose physical expressiveness25 began a revolution in painting. His work was sought and owned by many of the most powerful people in his world making him perhaps the first truly international artist.

1) lucrative [5lju:krEtiv] a. 有利可图的
2) prodigy [5prCdidVi] n. 神童
3) Giovanni Bellini 乔凡尼·贝利尼(约1429-1516)是威尼斯15世纪最杰出的画家。威尼斯画派可以说就是由他开始的。
4) lagoon9 [lE5^u:n] n. 泻湖
5) emulate10 [5emju7leit] v. 模仿
6) fresco [5freskEu] n. 湿壁画技法
7) pigment13 [5pi^mEnt] n. 颜料
8) plaster [5plB:stE] n. 灰泥,石膏粉
9) panel [5pAnEl] n. 油画板
10) Giorgione 乔尔乔内(1478-1510)是文艺复兴盛期威尼斯第一位大画家,也曾在乔凡尼·贝利尼门下学习过
11) coronation [kR:rE5neiFEn] n. 加冕
12) golden spur 金马刺,这里指代皇室
13) rite15 [rait] n. 仪式,典礼
14) courtier [5kC:tjE] n. 廷臣
15) prolifically [prEu5lifikli] ad. 多产的
16) intensity [in5tensiti] n. 专心致志
17) blatant [5bleitEnt] a. 极明显的
18) ravage22 [5rAvidV] v. 蹂躏
19) gruesome [5^ru:sEm] a. 可怕的


    在提香还是个少年的时候,他曾和威尼斯艺术界的新星乔尔乔内一起工作过,并从他那儿学到了很多。这一点在他早期的作品中可以很明显地看出来,例如这幅《Gypsy Madonna》,大约在1510年完成,显示了画家对油画和补充着色的协调感的技巧已是炉火纯青,并着重突出了风景的描绘。提香受委托为教堂画了许多画,到1516年,他接到了一项重要的任务,并使他名扬四海,就是现在费拉拉教堂里的这幅《圣母升天》。


1 renaissance PBdzl     
  • The Renaissance was an epoch of unparalleled cultural achievement.文艺复兴是一个文化上取得空前成就的时代。
  • The theme of the conference is renaissance Europe.大会的主题是文艺复兴时期的欧洲。
2 supreme PHqzc     
  • It was the supreme moment in his life.那是他一生中最重要的时刻。
  • He handed up the indictment to the supreme court.他把起诉书送交最高法院。
3 administrators d04952b3df94d47c04fc2dc28396a62d     
n.管理者( administrator的名词复数 );有管理(或行政)才能的人;(由遗嘱检验法庭指定的)遗产管理人;奉派暂管主教教区的牧师
  • He had administrators under him but took the crucial decisions himself. 他手下有管理人员,但重要的决策仍由他自己来做。 来自辞典例句
  • Administrators have their own methods of social intercourse. 办行政的人有他们的社交方式。 来自汉英文学 - 围城
4 lucrative dADxp     
  • He decided to turn his hobby into a lucrative sideline.他决定把自己的爱好变成赚钱的副业。
  • It was not a lucrative profession.那是一个没有多少油水的职业。
5 prodigy n14zP     
  • She was a child prodigy on the violin.她是神童小提琴手。
  • He was always a Negro prodigy who played barbarously and wonderfully.他始终是一个黑人的奇才,这种奇才弹奏起来粗野而惊人。
6 minor e7fzR     
  • The young actor was given a minor part in the new play.年轻的男演员在这出新戏里被分派担任一个小角色。
  • I gave him a minor share of my wealth.我把小部分财产给了他。
7 artistic IeWyG     
  • The picture on this screen is a good artistic work.这屏风上的画是件很好的艺术品。
  • These artistic handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends.外国朋友很喜欢这些美术工艺品。
8 obsession eIdxt     
  • I was suffering from obsession that my career would be ended.那时的我陷入了我的事业有可能就此终止的困扰当中。
  • She would try to forget her obsession with Christopher.她会努力忘记对克里斯托弗的迷恋。
9 lagoon b3Uyb     
  • The lagoon was pullulated with tropical fish.那个咸水湖聚满了热带鱼。
  • This area isolates a restricted lagoon environment.将这一地区隔离起来使形成一个封闭的泻湖环境。
10 emulate tpqx9     
  • You must work hard to emulate your sister.你必须努力工作,赶上你姐姐。
  • You must look at the film and try to emulate his behavior.你们必须观看这部电影,并尽力模仿他的动作。
11 fabrics 678996eb9c1fa810d3b0cecef6c792b4     
织物( fabric的名词复数 ); 布; 构造; (建筑物的)结构(如墙、地面、屋顶):质地
  • cotton fabrics and synthetics 棉织物与合成织物
  • The fabrics are merchandised through a network of dealers. 通过经销网点销售纺织品。
12 fresco KQRzs     
  • This huge fresco is extremely clear and just like nature itself.It is very harmonious.这一巨幅壁画,清晰有致且又浑然天成,十分和谐。
  • So it is quite necessary to study the influence of visual thinking over fresco.因此,研究视觉思维对壁画的影响和作用是十分必要的。
13 pigment gi0yg     
  • The Romans used natural pigments on their fabrics and walls.古罗马人在织物和墙壁上使用天然颜料。
  • Who thought he might know what the skin pigment phenomenon meant.他自认为可能知道皮肤色素出现这种现象到底是怎么回事。
14 virgin phPwj     
  • Have you ever been to a virgin forest?你去过原始森林吗?
  • There are vast expanses of virgin land in the remote regions.在边远地区有大片大片未开垦的土地。
15 rite yCmzq     
  • This festival descends from a religious rite.这个节日起源于宗教仪式。
  • Most traditional societies have transition rites at puberty.大多数传统社会都为青春期的孩子举行成人礼。
16 prolifically f54a8b510b7afd9c95c1da32f5873fea     
  • He wrote prolifically both in Ireland and England, nearly constantly shuttling from one to the other. 他几乎不断穿梭于爱尔兰和英国之间,并在两地写出大量作品。 来自互联网
  • He had directed his first film in 1923 and had worked prolifically throughout the silent era. 1923年,沟口健二执导了他的处女作,在之后的整个默片时代里,他创作了大量作品。 来自互联网
17 intensity 45Ixd     
  • I didn't realize the intensity of people's feelings on this issue.我没有意识到这一问题能引起群情激奋。
  • The strike is growing in intensity.罢工日益加剧。
18 liberated YpRzMi     
  • The city was liberated by the advancing army. 军队向前挺进,解放了那座城市。
  • The heat brings about a chemical reaction, and oxygen is liberated. 热量引起化学反应,释放出氧气。
19 awareness 4yWzdW     
  • There is a general awareness that smoking is harmful.人们普遍认识到吸烟有害健康。
  • Environmental awareness has increased over the years.这些年来人们的环境意识增强了。
20 impending 3qHzdb     
a.imminent, about to come or happen
  • Against a background of impending famine, heavy fighting took place. 即将发生饥荒之时,严重的战乱爆发了。
  • The king convoke parliament to cope with the impending danger. 国王召开国会以应付迫近眉睫的危险。
21 blatant ENCzP     
  • I cannot believe that so blatant a comedy can hoodwink anybody.我无法相信这么显眼的一出喜剧能够欺骗谁。
  • His treatment of his secretary was a blatant example of managerial arrogance.他管理的傲慢作风在他对待秘书的态度上表露无遗。
22 ravage iAYz9     
  • Just in time to watch a plague ravage his village.恰好目睹了瘟疫毁灭了他的村庄。
  • For two decades the country has been ravaged by civil war and foreign intervention.20年来,这个国家一直被内战外侵所蹂躏。
23 accomplished UzwztZ     
  • Thanks to your help,we accomplished the task ahead of schedule.亏得你们帮忙,我们才提前完成了任务。
  • Removal of excess heat is accomplished by means of a radiator.通过散热器完成多余热量的排出。
24 firmament h71yN     
  • There are no stars in the firmament.天空没有一颗星星。
  • He was rich,and a rising star in the political firmament.他十分富有,并且是政治高层一颗冉冉升起的新星。
25 expressiveness 5t7z1e     
  • His painting rose to a fresh expressiveness and revealed a shrewder insight. 他的画富有一种新的表达力,显示出更敏锐的洞察力。
  • The audiences are impressed by the expressiveness of the actors. 演员们的丰富表情给观众留下了深刻的印象。
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