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英语范文背诵精华3.4 Why Women Live Longer Than Men

时间:2007-01-03 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:shimianmaifu   字体: [ ]
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  Why Women Live Longer Than Men -- Edward Donick
If you could take an immense group snapshot of everyone in the United States today, it would contain six million more females than males. In this country, women outlast1 men by about seven years. Throughout the modern world, cultures are different, diets are different, ways of life and causes of death are different, but one thing is the same -- women outlive men.
It starts before birth. At conception, male fetuses2 outnumber female by about 110 to 100; at birth the ratio has already fallen to about 105 boys to every 100 girls. By age 30, there are only enough men left to match the number of women. Then women start building a lead. Beyond age 80, there are nearly twice as many women as men.
"If you lookat the top ten or 12 causes of death," says Deborah Wingard, an epidemiologist at the University of California at San Diego, "every single one kills more men." She rattles3 off one melancholy4 fate after another - heart disease, lung cancer, homicide, cirrhosis of the liver and pneumonia5. Each kills men at roughly twice the rate it does women.
A century ago American men outnumbered and outlived the women. But in the 20th century,women began living longer, primarily because pregnancy6 and children had become less dangerous. The gap grew steadily7. In 1946, for the first time ever in the United States, females outnumbered males.
Part of the reason are self-inflicted. Men smoke more than women, drink more and take more life-threatening chances. Men are murdered (usually by other men) three times as often as women are.They commit suicide at a higher rate and have more than twice as many fatal car accidents as women do. Men are likely to be involved in alcohol-related fatalities8. Men drivers!
But behavior doesn't explain away the longevity9 gap. Nor is stress the answer. In the 1950s, as heart disease claimed more and more male victims, pressure in the corporate10 boardroom was blamed. Let women venture out of the home and into the line of fire, doctors said, and they would begin duingat the same rate as men. But a funny thing happened on the way to the funeral. Between 1950 and 1985, the percentage of employed women in the United Stated nearly doubled. Those working women, several studies have found, are as healthy as women a home.
Today, some scientists studying the gender11 gap believe that the data point to one conclusion: Mother Nature may be partial to women.
Every living thing is assembled according to instructions on its chromosomes13, and humans have 23 pair of them. But in males, one of these is a vulnerable non- matching pair, denoted by "xy".The corresponding pair in females is "xx", and its genetic16 "backup" power is sometimes cited as a clue to woman's superior resilience. If the male's single "x" chromosome12 is defective17, it is possible for a serious genetic disorder18 to appear. Hemophilia and certain types of muscular dystrophy, for instance, are diseases caused by a defect in a single gene15 on the "x" chromosome,They are far more common in males than females.
The single "x"theory has problems, though. There just aren't enough cases of the most feared genetic diseases to account for more than a tiny bit of the longevity gap between men and women. And some researchers pin the blame directly on the male "y" chromosome.
The answer may rather be hormones20. Before age 40, when virtually all women are still producing estrogen, heart disease kills three men for every woman. But from that point onward21, the odds22 in favor of women drop steadily. For both sexes, heart disease is the leading cause of death. But women have an extra decade before their mortality rate for heart disease approaches that of men.
If estrogen is the heroine of story, testosterone, the male sex hormone19, may be the villain23. Until puberty, boys and girls have the same cholesterol24 levels. But when boys and girls have the same cholesterol levels. But when boys hit adolescence25 and testosterone kicks in, their level of HDL cholesterol, "good cholesterol,"plunges. In girls, HDL levels hold steady. In both sexes, LDL, "bad cholesterol" levels rise in late adolescence. But the increase is somewhat steeper in men.
Not every difference between the sexes favors women. On average, men are taller than women and have heavier bones and bigger muscles. Men will die sooner, but we'll have hit more home runs by the time we go.
While women turn out to be less vulnerable than men to life-threatening diseases, they are more vulnerable to everyday sicknesses and pain. In 1676 one diarist noted14, "I have heard physicians say they have two women patients to one man." Women still make more visit to the doctor than men do, take more prescription26 and non-prescription drugs and spend more days in bed. They are plagued by arthritis27, bunions, bladder, infections, corns, hemorrhoids, menstrual woes28, migraines and varicose veins29.
In the meantime, men get heart attacks and strokes. Women are sick, but men are dead.
Mental health? Depression is more common in women than in men. But schizophrenia, perhaps the most devastating30 mental illness, often affects men more severely31.
After a spouse32 dies, men seem to fare worse than women. They are more depressed33, more likely to fall ill and more likely to die. As a result, nearly 80 per cent of the population over 65 years old and living along are women. Men fare poorly, it seems, because in many cases their wives were their sole confidantes. Without a spouse, new widowers34 fall and sink. Women who lose a husband, in contrast, often have a circle of close friends to confide35 in and count on.
But behavior changes, so the health gap between men and women isn't a fixed36 feature of the landscape. In recent decades, the gap between men and woman's life-spans has narrowed from 7.6 years in 1970 to an estimated 6.8 years in 1990. The explanation is not that women's health is deterioration37. Women's health is improving, but men's is improving faster.
Men are smoking less, drinking less and eating better. "The gap isn't shrinking because women are acting38 like men," says epidemiologist Wingard. "It's shrinking because men are behaving more like women."


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1 outlast dmfz8P     
v.较…耐久
参考例句:
  • The great use of life is to spend it doing something that will outlast it.人生的充分利用就是为争取比人生更长久的东西而度过一生。
  • These naturally dried flowers will outlast a bouquet of fresh blooms.这些自然风干的花会比一束鲜花更加持久。
2 fetuses eae25b106f4ed68558631a5bf44c9293     
n.胎,胎儿( fetus的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • DNA was extracted from fetuses at mid-gestation, about 10 days past conception. DNA从受孕大约10天后的中期妊娠胚胎中提取。 来自互联网
  • Brucellosis is a disease that causes fetuses to abort in cattle. 普鲁士菌病是一种可以导致牲畜胎儿夭折的疾病。 来自互联网
3 rattles 0cd5b6f81d3b50c9ffb3ddb2eaaa027b     
(使)发出格格的响声, (使)作嘎嘎声( rattle的第三人称单数 ); 喋喋不休地说话; 迅速而嘎嘎作响地移动,堕下或走动; 使紧张,使恐惧
参考例句:
  • It rattles the windowpane and sends the dog scratching to get under the bed. 它把窗玻璃震得格格作响,把狗吓得往床底下钻。
  • How thin it is, and how dainty and frail; and how it rattles. 你看它够多么薄,多么精致,多么不结实;还老那么哗楞哗楞地响。
4 melancholy t7rz8     
n.忧郁,愁思;adj.令人感伤(沮丧)的,忧郁的
参考例句:
  • All at once he fell into a state of profound melancholy.他立即陷入无尽的忧思之中。
  • He felt melancholy after he failed the exam.这次考试没通过,他感到很郁闷。
5 pneumonia s2HzQ     
n.肺炎
参考例句:
  • Cage was struck with pneumonia in her youth.凯奇年轻时得过肺炎。
  • Pneumonia carried him off last week.肺炎上星期夺去了他的生命。
6 pregnancy lPwxP     
n.怀孕,怀孕期
参考例句:
  • Early pregnancy is often accompanied by nausea.怀孕早期常有恶心的现象。
  • Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage.怀孕期吸烟会增加流产的危险。
7 steadily Qukw6     
adv.稳定地;不变地;持续地
参考例句:
  • The scope of man's use of natural resources will steadily grow.人类利用自然资源的广度将日益扩大。
  • Our educational reform was steadily led onto the correct path.我们的教学改革慢慢上轨道了。
8 fatalities d08638a004766194f5b8910963af71d4     
n.恶性事故( fatality的名词复数 );死亡;致命性;命运
参考例句:
  • Several people were injured, but there were no fatalities. 有几个人受伤,但没有人死亡。
  • The accident resulted in fatalities. 那宗意外道致多人死亡。 来自《简明英汉词典》
9 longevity C06xQ     
n.长命;长寿
参考例句:
  • Good habits promote longevity.良好的习惯能增长寿命。
  • Human longevity runs in families.人类的长寿具有家族遗传性。
10 corporate 7olzl     
adj.共同的,全体的;公司的,企业的
参考例句:
  • This is our corporate responsibility.这是我们共同的责任。
  • His corporate's life will be as short as a rabbit's tail.他的公司的寿命是兔子尾巴长不了。
11 gender slSyD     
n.(生理上的)性,(名词、代词等的)性
参考例句:
  • French differs from English in having gender for all nouns.法语不同于英语,所有的名词都有性。
  • Women are sometimes denied opportunities solely because of their gender.妇女有时仅仅因为性别而无法获得种种机会。
12 chromosome 7rUzX     
n.染色体
参考例句:
  • Chromosome material with exhibits of such behaviour is called heterochromatin.表现这种现象的染色体物质叫做异染色质。
  • A segment of the chromosome may become lost,resulting in a deletion.染色体的一个片段可能会丢失,结果产生染色体的缺失。
13 chromosomes 11783d79c0016b60332bbf1856b3f77d     
n.染色体( chromosome的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Chromosomes also determine the sex of animals. 染色体也决定动物的性别。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Each of four chromosomes divide longitudinally. 四种染色体的每一种都沿着纵向分裂。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
14 noted 5n4zXc     
adj.著名的,知名的
参考例句:
  • The local hotel is noted for its good table.当地的那家酒店以餐食精美而著称。
  • Jim is noted for arriving late for work.吉姆上班迟到出了名。
15 gene WgKxx     
n.遗传因子,基因
参考例句:
  • A single gene may have many effects.单一基因可能具有很多种效应。
  • The targeting of gene therapy has been paid close attention.其中基因治疗的靶向性是值得密切关注的问题之一。
16 genetic PgIxp     
adj.遗传的,遗传学的
参考例句:
  • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
  • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
17 defective qnLzZ     
adj.有毛病的,有问题的,有瑕疵的
参考例句:
  • The firm had received bad publicity over a defective product. 该公司因为一件次品而受到媒体攻击。
  • If the goods prove defective, the customer has the right to compensation. 如果货品证明有缺陷, 顾客有权索赔。
18 disorder Et1x4     
n.紊乱,混乱;骚动,骚乱;疾病,失调
参考例句:
  • When returning back,he discovered the room to be in disorder.回家后,他发现屋子里乱七八糟。
  • It contained a vast number of letters in great disorder.里面七零八落地装着许多信件。
19 hormone uyky3     
n.荷尔蒙,激素,内分泌
参考例句:
  • Hormone implants are used as growth boosters.激素植入物被用作生长辅助剂。
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body.这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
20 hormones hormones     
n. 荷尔蒙,激素 名词hormone的复数形式
参考例句:
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body. 这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
  • The adrenals produce a large per cent of a man's sex hormones. 肾上腺分泌人体的大部分性激素。
21 onward 2ImxI     
adj.向前的,前进的;adv.向前,前进,在先
参考例句:
  • The Yellow River surges onward like ten thousand horses galloping.黄河以万马奔腾之势滚滚向前。
  • He followed in the steps of forerunners and marched onward.他跟随着先辈的足迹前进。
22 odds n5czT     
n.让步,机率,可能性,比率;胜败优劣之别
参考例句:
  • The odds are 5 to 1 that she will win.她获胜的机会是五比一。
  • Do you know the odds of winning the lottery once?你知道赢得一次彩票的几率多大吗?
23 villain ZL1zA     
n.反派演员,反面人物;恶棍;问题的起因
参考例句:
  • He was cast as the villain in the play.他在戏里扮演反面角色。
  • The man who played the villain acted very well.扮演恶棍的那个男演员演得很好。
24 cholesterol qrzzV     
n.(U)胆固醇
参考例句:
  • There is cholesterol in the cell of body.人体细胞里有胆固醇。
  • They are determining the serum-protein and cholesterol levels.他们正在测定血清蛋白和胆固醇的浓度。
25 adolescence CyXzY     
n.青春期,青少年
参考例句:
  • Adolescence is the process of going from childhood to maturity.青春期是从少年到成年的过渡期。
  • The film is about the trials and tribulations of adolescence.这部电影讲述了青春期的麻烦和苦恼。
26 prescription u1vzA     
n.处方,开药;指示,规定
参考例句:
  • The physician made a prescription against sea- sickness for him.医生给他开了个治晕船的药方。
  • The drug is available on prescription only.这种药只能凭处方购买。
27 arthritis XeyyE     
n.关节炎
参考例句:
  • Rheumatoid arthritis has also been linked with the virus.风湿性关节炎也与这种病毒有关。
  • He spent three months in the hospital with acute rheumatic arthritis.他患急性风湿性关节炎,在医院住了三个月。
28 woes 887656d87afcd3df018215107a0daaab     
困境( woe的名词复数 ); 悲伤; 我好苦哇; 某人就要倒霉
参考例句:
  • Thanks for listening to my woes. 谢谢您听我诉说不幸的遭遇。
  • She has cried the blues about its financial woes. 对于经济的困难她叫苦不迭。
29 veins 65827206226d9e2d78ea2bfe697c6329     
n.纹理;矿脉( vein的名词复数 );静脉;叶脉;纹理
参考例句:
  • The blood flows from the capillaries back into the veins. 血从毛细血管流回静脉。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • I felt a pleasant glow in all my veins from the wine. 喝过酒后我浑身的血都热烘烘的,感到很舒服。 来自《简明英汉词典》
30 devastating muOzlG     
adj.毁灭性的,令人震惊的,强有力的
参考例句:
  • It is the most devastating storm in 20 years.这是20年来破坏性最大的风暴。
  • Affairs do have a devastating effect on marriages.婚外情确实会对婚姻造成毁灭性的影响。
31 severely SiCzmk     
adv.严格地;严厉地;非常恶劣地
参考例句:
  • He was severely criticized and removed from his post.他受到了严厉的批评并且被撤了职。
  • He is severely put down for his careless work.他因工作上的粗心大意而受到了严厉的批评。
32 spouse Ah6yK     
n.配偶(指夫或妻)
参考例句:
  • Her spouse will come to see her on Sunday.她的丈夫星期天要来看她。
  • What is the best way to keep your spouse happy in the marriage?在婚姻中保持配偶幸福的最好方法是什么?
33 depressed xu8zp9     
adj.沮丧的,抑郁的,不景气的,萧条的
参考例句:
  • When he was depressed,he felt utterly divorced from reality.他心情沮丧时就感到完全脱离了现实。
  • His mother was depressed by the sad news.这个坏消息使他的母亲意志消沉。
34 widowers 77b5b29779d90accc12a0763c168ed00     
n.鳏夫( widower的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Even elderly widows and widowers choose to live on their own. 连年迈的寡妇和鳏夫都选择独自生活。 来自互联网
  • His works contain Widowers' House, Mrs. Warren's Profession, a play about the economic oppression of women. 他的早期代表作品包括《鳏夫的房产》,《沃伦夫人的职业》的主题是对妇女们经济上的压迫。 来自互联网
35 confide WYbyd     
v.向某人吐露秘密
参考例句:
  • I would never readily confide in anybody.我从不轻易向人吐露秘密。
  • He is going to confide the secrets of his heart to us.他将向我们吐露他心里的秘密。
36 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不变的,准备好的;(计算机)固定的
参考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
37 deterioration yvvxj     
n.退化;恶化;变坏
参考例句:
  • Mental and physical deterioration both occur naturally with age. 随着年龄的增长,心智和体力自然衰退。
  • The car's bodywork was already showing signs of deterioration. 这辆车的车身已经显示出了劣化迹象。
38 acting czRzoc     
n.演戏,行为,假装;adj.代理的,临时的,演出用的
参考例句:
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.别理她,她只是假装的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
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