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新概念英语第四册Lesson 12 Banks and their customers

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Lesson 12
Banks and their customers
银行和顾客
First listen and then answer the following question.
听录音,然后回答以下问题。

Why is there no risk to the customer when a bank prints the customer's name on his cheques?
When anyone opens a current account at a bank, he is lending the bank money, repayment1 of which he may demand at any time, either in cash or by drawing a cheque in favour of another person. Primarily, the banker-customer relationship is that of debtor2 and creditor3 -- who is which depending on whether the customer's account is in credit or is overdrawn4. But, in addition to that basically simple concept, the bank and its customer owe a large number of obligations to one another. Many of these obligations can give in to problems and complications but a bank customer, unlike, say, a buyer of goods, cannot complain that the law is loaded against him.
The bank must obey its customer's instructions, and not those of anyone else. When, for example, a customer first opens an account, he instructs the bank to debit5 his account only in respect of cheques draw by himself. He gives the bank specimens7 of his signature, and there is a very firm rule that the bank has no right or authority to pay out a customer's money on a cheques on which its customer's signature has been forged. It makes no difference that the forgery8 may have been a very skilful9 one: the bank must recognize its customer's signature. For this reason there is no risk to the customer in the practice, adopted by banks, of printing the customer's name on his cheques. If this facilitates forgery, it is the bank which will lose, not the customer.
GORDON BARRIE and AUBREY L. DLAMOND The Consumer Society and the Law

New words and expressions 生词和短语
current
adj. 通用的,流行的
account
n. 账户
cash
n. 现金
debtor
n. 支票
debtor
n. 借方
creditor
n. 贷方
obligation
n. 义务
complication
n. 纠纷
debit
v. 把...记入借方
specimen6
n. 样本
forge
v. 伪造
forgery
n. 伪造(文件,签名等)
adopt
v. 采用
facilitate
v. 使便利

参考译文
任何人在银行开一个活期账户,就等于把钱借给了银行。这笔钱他可以随时提取,提取的方式可以是取现金,也可以是开一张以他人为收款人的支票。银行与储户的关系主要是债务人和债权人的关系。究竟谁是债务人谁是债权人,要看储户是有结余还是透支。除了这一基本的简单的概念外,银行和储户彼此还需承担大量义务。其中许多义务往往引起问题和纠纷。但是储户不能像货物的买主那样来抱怨法律对自己不利。
银行必须遵照储户的嘱托办事,不能听从其他人的指令。比如,储户首次在银行开户时,嘱咐银行他的存款只能凭本世人签字的支票来提取。他把自己签名的样本交给银行,对此有一条非常严格的规定:银行没有任何权利或理由把储户的钱让伪造储户的支票取走。即使伪造得很巧妙,也不能付款,因为银行有责任辨认出其储户的签名。因此,某些银行已采用把储户印在支票上的作法。这种做法对储户毫无风险。如果因这种作法出现了伪造的话,受损失的将不是储户,而是银行。
 

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1 repayment repayment     
n.偿还,偿还款;报酬
参考例句:
  • I am entitled to a repayment for the damaged goods.我有权利索取货物损坏赔偿金。
  • The tax authorities have been harrying her for repayment.税务局一直在催她补交税款。
2 debtor bxfxy     
n.借方,债务人
参考例句:
  • He crowded the debtor for payment.他催逼负债人还债。
  • The court granted me a lien on my debtor's property.法庭授予我对我债务人财产的留置权。
3 creditor tOkzI     
n.债仅人,债主,贷方
参考例句:
  • The boss assigned his car to his creditor.那工头把自己的小汽车让与了债权人。
  • I had to run away from my creditor whom I made a usurious loan.我借了高利贷不得不四处躲债。
4 overdrawn 4eb10eff40c3bcd30842eb8b379808ff     
透支( overdraw的过去分词 ); (overdraw的过去分词)
参考例句:
  • The characters in this novel are rather overdrawn. 这本小说中的人物描写得有些夸张。
  • His account of the bank robbery is somewhat overdrawn. 他对银行抢案的叙述有些夸张。
5 debit AOdzV     
n.借方,借项,记人借方的款项
参考例句:
  • To whom shall I debit this sum?此款应记入谁的账户的借方?
  • We undercharge Mr.Smith and have to send him a debit note for the extra amount.我们少收了史密斯先生的钱,只得给他寄去一张借条所要欠款。
6 specimen Xvtwm     
n.样本,标本
参考例句:
  • You'll need tweezers to hold up the specimen.你要用镊子来夹这标本。
  • This specimen is richly variegated in colour.这件标本上有很多颜色。
7 specimens 91fc365099a256001af897127174fcce     
n.样品( specimen的名词复数 );范例;(化验的)抽样;某种类型的人
参考例句:
  • Astronauts have brought back specimens of rock from the moon. 宇航员从月球带回了岩石标本。
  • The traveler brought back some specimens of the rocks from the mountains. 那位旅行者从山上带回了一些岩石标本。 来自《简明英汉词典》
8 forgery TgtzU     
n.伪造的文件等,赝品,伪造(行为)
参考例句:
  • The painting was a forgery.这张画是赝品。
  • He was sent to prison for forgery.他因伪造罪而被关进监狱。
9 skilful 8i2zDY     
(=skillful)adj.灵巧的,熟练的
参考例句:
  • The more you practise,the more skilful you'll become.练习的次数越多,熟练的程度越高。
  • He's not very skilful with his chopsticks.他用筷子不大熟练。
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