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彭蒙惠英语:Magnetism and the Brain

时间:2006-11-15 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:linquans   字体: [ ]
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Magnetism1 and the Brain

 

2

Not a new idea

Using EP-MRSI to treat mental illness is a completely different approach only because of the way the magnetism is applied2 to the brain. The notion that the brain might respond to magnets and electricity actually goes way back. Franz Anton Mesmer, an 18th-century Swiss physician, developed a theory that the human nervous system was magnetized, just like the Earth. He developed a variety of treatments using magnets, and even claimed to have restored sight to a blind musician.

 

The EP-MRSI study is an example of burgeoning3 new research on an old idea—that the brain is an electromagnetic organ and that brain disorders4 might result from disarray5 in magnetic function. The idea has huge appeal to psychiatrists6 and patients alike, since for many people the side effects of psychiatric drugs are almost as difficult to manage as the disease itself. Also, 30 percent of the nearly 18.8 million Americans who suffer from depression do not respond to any of the antidepressants available now.

 

A new hope for mental illness

What is it about the brain that makes it especially receptive to electromagnetic stimulation7? A partial answer can be found in the neuron, the electrically and chemically excitable nerve cell that receives, processes and transmits information in the brain. When neurons are activated8 by magnets or electricity, the nature of their signals changes—affecting everything from mood to cognition and memory.

 

“This is a completely different approach in trying to help the brain than anything that was done before”

 

Most fascinating, perhaps, and most complicating9, is the fact that the brain is dynamic, always in physiological10 flux11. What these recent experiments most vividly12 illustrate13 is the complexity14 of the brain’s pathways, the intricacy of its connections, and the concrete hope that may be offered by the power of a magnet to those suffering from the anguish15 of mental illness.

 

Vocabulary Focus

disarray (n) [7disE5rei] the state of being confused and lacking organization

side effect (n phr) an unpleasant effect of a drug or therapy that happens in addition to the main effect

flux (n) [flQks] continuous change

intricacy (n) [5intrikEsi] the condition of having a lot of small parts or details that are arranged in a complicated way and are therefore sometimes difficult to understand, solve or produce

 

Specialized16 Terms

antidepressant (n) 抗抑郁剂 a drug used to reduce feelings of sadness and anxiety

cognition (n) 认知 the act of thinking or using a conscious mental process

 

电磁与大脑

 

2

并非创举

使用核磁共振成像治疗精神疾病并非创新,但在此过程中电磁运用于脑部却是崭新的疗法。脑部可能对磁场或电流产生反应的概念其实早已存在。18世纪的瑞士医师法兰兹安东麦斯默提出一项理论,认为人体神经系统与地球一样,是有磁性的。麦斯默医师因此研发出各种使用磁力的治疗方式,并宣称曾使一位失明的音乐家重见光明。

人脑是一电磁性器官,而磁性一旦失序,便可能导致脑部疾病——而核磁共振成像研究只是针对此一古老概念的新兴研究之一罢了。对多数人而言,由于精神疾病药物的不良反应,与疾病本身同样难以控制,所以此观念对精神病医师与病患而言,深具吸引力。而且,在约1880万的抑郁症患者中,有30%对目前的抗抑郁药品并无任何反应。

 

精神疾病的新希望

人脑为何对于电磁刺激有如此之反应?人体的神经元可能提供部分答案。神经元是可经由电流或化学作用刺激的神经细胞,负责接收、处理及传送讯息至脑部。当神经元经由磁性或电流激活时,其所传递的讯号因此改变,进而影响情绪、认知及记忆。

最引人入胜,或许也是最复杂之处,便是人脑其实是动态的,且不断处于生理变迁状态。这些近期实验明确显示脑部错综复杂的线路与连接,以及电磁的力量如何可为饱受精神疾病之苦的病患,带来具体希望。

 

 

 

 


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1 magnetism zkxyW     
n.磁性,吸引力,磁学
参考例句:
  • We know about magnetism by the way magnets act.我们通过磁铁的作用知道磁性是怎么一回事。
  • His success showed his magnetism of courage and devotion.他的成功表现了他的胆量和热诚的魅力。
2 applied Tz2zXA     
adj.应用的;v.应用,适用
参考例句:
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算学习应用语言学课程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.这种乳霜最好晚上擦脸用。
3 burgeoning f8b25401f10e765adc759ee165d5c1c5     
adj.迅速成长的,迅速发展的v.发芽,抽枝( burgeon的现在分词 );迅速发展;发(芽),抽(枝)
参考例句:
  • Our company's business is burgeoning now. 我们公司的业务现在发展很迅速。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • These efforts were insufficient to contain the burgeoning crisis. 这些努力不足以抑制迅速扩散的危机。 来自辞典例句
4 disorders 6e49dcafe3638183c823d3aa5b12b010     
n.混乱( disorder的名词复数 );凌乱;骚乱;(身心、机能)失调
参考例句:
  • Reports of anorexia and other eating disorders are on the increase. 据报告,厌食症和其他饮食方面的功能紊乱发生率正在不断增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The announcement led to violent civil disorders. 这项宣布引起剧烈的骚乱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
5 disarray 1ufx1     
n.混乱,紊乱,凌乱
参考例句:
  • His personal life fell into disarray when his wife left him.妻子离去后,他的个人生活一片混乱。
  • Our plans were thrown into disarray by the rail strike.铁路罢工打乱了我们的计划。
6 psychiatrists 45b6a81e510da4f31f5b0fecd7b77261     
n.精神病专家,精神病医生( psychiatrist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • They are psychiatrists in good standing. 他们是合格的精神病医生。 来自辞典例句
  • Some psychiatrists have patients who grow almost alarmed at how congenial they suddenly feel. 有些精神分析学家发现,他们的某些病人在突然感到惬意的时候几乎会兴奋起来。 来自名作英译部分
7 stimulation BuIwL     
n.刺激,激励,鼓舞
参考例句:
  • The playgroup provides plenty of stimulation for the children.幼儿游戏组给孩子很多启发。
  • You don't get any intellectual stimulation in this job.你不能从这份工作中获得任何智力启发。
8 activated c3905c37f4127686d512a7665206852e     
adj. 激活的 动词activate的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • The canister is filled with activated charcoal.蒸气回收罐中充满了活性炭。
9 complicating 53d55ae4c858e224b98a8187fa34fb04     
使复杂化( complicate的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • High spiking fever with chills is suggestive of a complicating pylephlebitis. 伴有寒战的高热,暗示合并门静脉炎。
  • In America these actions become executive puberty rites, complicating relationships that are already complicated enough. 在美国,这些行动成了行政青春期的惯例,使本来已经够复杂的关系变得更复杂了。
10 physiological aAvyK     
adj.生理学的,生理学上的
参考例句:
  • He bought a physiological book.他买了一本生理学方面的书。
  • Every individual has a physiological requirement for each nutrient.每个人对每种营养成分都有一种生理上的需要。
11 flux sg4zJ     
n.流动;不断的改变
参考例句:
  • The market is in a constant state of flux.市场行情在不断变化。
  • In most reactors,there is a significant flux of fast neutrons.在大部分反应堆中都有一定强度的快中子流。
12 vividly tebzrE     
adv.清楚地,鲜明地,生动地
参考例句:
  • The speaker pictured the suffering of the poor vividly.演讲者很生动地描述了穷人的生活。
  • The characters in the book are vividly presented.这本书里的人物写得栩栩如生。
13 illustrate IaRxw     
v.举例说明,阐明;图解,加插图
参考例句:
  • The company's bank statements illustrate its success.这家公司的银行报表说明了它的成功。
  • This diagram will illustrate what I mean.这个图表可说明我的意思。
14 complexity KO9z3     
n.复杂(性),复杂的事物
参考例句:
  • Only now did he understand the full complexity of the problem.直到现在他才明白这一问题的全部复杂性。
  • The complexity of the road map puzzled me.错综复杂的公路图把我搞糊涂了。
15 anguish awZz0     
n.(尤指心灵上的)极度痛苦,烦恼
参考例句:
  • She cried out for anguish at parting.分手时,她由于痛苦而失声大哭。
  • The unspeakable anguish wrung his heart.难言的痛苦折磨着他的心。
16 specialized Chuzwe     
adj.专门的,专业化的
参考例句:
  • There are many specialized agencies in the United Nations.联合国有许多专门机构。
  • These tools are very specialized.这些是专用工具。
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TAG标签:   彭蒙惠英语  magnetism  brain
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