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SSS 2008-03-11

时间:2010-05-13 03:19来源:互联网 提供网友:0922013129   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

This is Scientific American’s 60-Second Science. I’m Karen Hopkin, this will just take a minute.

 Anyone who’s ever cut up an onion knows that some smells can actually be painful. Now, researchers from Baltimore and Denver are closer to understanding why. Scientists used to think that odors that are irritating like onions and ammonia directly activate1 the trigeminal nerve. That nerve responds to touch, temperature and painful stimulation2 all over the head. And its fibers3 extend to the membranes4 that line the inside of the nose. But the current studies suggest that the trigeminal nerve doesn’t act alone. Specialized5 chemosensory cells that line the nasal cavity are actually the first to detect irritating smells. They pass the news to the trigeminal nerve, which then lets your brain know that it’s time to feel the burn and to tear, or cough or gag,or just generally back off. The findings are described in the March issue of the Journal of Neurophysiology.  Having these special sensory6 cells as a go-between, the scientists say, might make our nose sensitive to a broader variety of odors, that may not seem like such a bonus. But the system probably evolved to protect us, by giving us a heads-up when we run into something nauseous. It may also keep us from adding too many onions to the spaghetti sauce.


 

Thanks for the minute. For Scientific American’s 60-Second Science. I’m Karen Hopkin
 


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 activate UJ2y0     
vt.使活动起来,使开始起作用
参考例句:
  • We must activate the youth to study.我们要激励青年去学习。
  • These push buttons can activate the elevator.这些按钮能启动电梯。
2 stimulation BuIwL     
n.刺激,激励,鼓舞
参考例句:
  • The playgroup provides plenty of stimulation for the children.幼儿游戏组给孩子很多启发。
  • You don't get any intellectual stimulation in this job.你不能从这份工作中获得任何智力启发。
3 fibers 421d63991f1d1fc8826d6e71d5e15f53     
光纤( fiber的名词复数 ); (织物的)质地; 纤维,纤维物质
参考例句:
  • Thesolution of collagen-PVA was wet spined with the sodium sulfate as coagulant and collagen-PVA composite fibers were prepared. 在此基础上,以硫酸钠为凝固剂,对胶原-PVA共混溶液进行湿法纺丝,制备了胶原-PVA复合纤维。
  • Sympathetic fibers are distributed to all regions of the heart. 交感神经纤维分布于心脏的所有部分。
4 membranes 93ec26b8b1eb155ef0aeaa845da95972     
n.(动物或植物体内的)薄膜( membrane的名词复数 );隔膜;(可起防水、防风等作用的)膜状物
参考例句:
  • The waste material is placed in cells with permeable membranes. 废液置于有渗透膜的槽中。 来自辞典例句
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a system of intracellular membranes. 肌浆网属于细胞内膜系统。 来自辞典例句
5 specialized Chuzwe     
adj.专门的,专业化的
参考例句:
  • There are many specialized agencies in the United Nations.联合国有许多专门机构。
  • These tools are very specialized.这些是专用工具。
6 sensory Azlwe     
adj.知觉的,感觉的,知觉器官的
参考例句:
  • Human powers of sensory discrimination are limited.人类感官分辨能力有限。
  • The sensory system may undergo long-term adaptation in alien environments.感觉系统对陌生的环境可能经过长时期才能适应。
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