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SSS 2008-05-21

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This is scientific American's 60-Second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata. Got a minute?

The yeast1 Candida albicans ekes2 out a quiet living in our gut3. But it’s a tough life. It faces acids and enzymes4, and the immune system always bullies5 invaders6. So Candida has customized its reproductive cycle for life inside a warm-blooded host. Researchers described it in the journal Public Library of Science Biology. Human cells have two copies of each chromosome7. In sexually reproducing organisms like us, a process called meiosis halves this number. Mom’s egg and Pop’s sperm8 only have one copy of each chromosome—together they make a whole. That’s you. But Candida doesn’t bother with meiosis when it mates. So its progeny9 have double the normal amount of chromosomes10, which they randomly11 toss off til they’re near the right number again. This cycle is useful for a gut-dweller for two reasons. First, Candida often trashes fewer copies of some chromosomes and more of others. The chromosomal12 grab bag that results is genetically13 diverse, and some strains are resistant14 to antifungal drugs. Second, normal fungal sexual reproduction usually produces spores15, which the immune system can easily identify and dispose of. Without spores, Candida can better avoid getting busted16.


Thanks for the minute, for Scientific American’s 60-Second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata


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1 yeast 7VIzu     
n.酵母;酵母片;泡沫;v.发酵;起泡沫
参考例句:
  • Yeast can be used in making beer and bread.酵母可用于酿啤酒和发面包。
  • The yeast began to work.酵母开始发酵。
2 ekes bf17c316d720632adb03db3114ddb655     
v.(靠节省用量)使…的供应持久( eke的第三人称单数 );节约使用;竭力维持生计;勉强度日
参考例句:
  • This year book ekes out souvenir of my life in the university. 这本年鉴帮助我追忆大学生活。 来自辞典例句
  • I will no longer chew the cud of misfortune that Fate ekes out to us. 我将不再反复地思考命运给我们的不幸。 来自辞典例句
3 gut MezzP     
n.[pl.]胆量;内脏;adj.本能的;vt.取出内脏
参考例句:
  • It is not always necessary to gut the fish prior to freezing.冷冻鱼之前并不总是需要先把内脏掏空。
  • My immediate gut feeling was to refuse.我本能的直接反应是拒绝。
4 enzymes 7881ad8ce9c83424f7874e70266ed2d8     
n. 酶,酵素
参考例句:
  • It was said that washing powders containing enzymes remove stains more efficiently. 据说加酶洗衣粉除污更有效。
  • Among the enzymes which are particularly effective are pepsin, papain. 在酶当中特别有效的是胃朊酶、木瓜酶。
5 bullies bullies     
n.欺凌弱小者, 开球 vt.恐吓, 威胁, 欺负
参考例句:
  • Standing up to bullies takes plenty of backbone. 勇敢地对付暴徒需有大无畏精神。
  • Bullies can make your life hell. 恃强欺弱者能让你的日子像活地狱。
6 invaders 5f4b502b53eb551c767b8cce3965af9f     
入侵者,侵略者,侵入物( invader的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • They prepared to repel the invaders. 他们准备赶走侵略军。
  • The family has traced its ancestry to the Norman invaders. 这个家族将自己的世系追溯到诺曼征服者。
7 chromosome 7rUzX     
n.染色体
参考例句:
  • Chromosome material with exhibits of such behaviour is called heterochromatin.表现这种现象的染色体物质叫做异染色质。
  • A segment of the chromosome may become lost,resulting in a deletion.染色体的一个片段可能会丢失,结果产生染色体的缺失。
8 sperm jFOzO     
n.精子,精液
参考例句:
  • Only one sperm fertilises an egg.只有一个精子使卵子受精。
  • In human reproduction,one female egg is usually fertilized by one sperm.在人体生殖过程中,一个精子使一个卵子受精。
9 progeny ZB5yF     
n.后代,子孙;结果
参考例句:
  • His numerous progeny are scattered all over the country.他为数众多的后代散布在全国各地。
  • He was surrounded by his numerous progeny.众多的子孙簇拥着他。
10 chromosomes 11783d79c0016b60332bbf1856b3f77d     
n.染色体( chromosome的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Chromosomes also determine the sex of animals. 染色体也决定动物的性别。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Each of four chromosomes divide longitudinally. 四种染色体的每一种都沿着纵向分裂。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
11 randomly cktzBM     
adv.随便地,未加计划地
参考例句:
  • Within the hot gas chamber, molecules are moving randomly in all directions. 在灼热的气体燃烧室内,分子在各个方向上作无规运动。 来自辞典例句
  • Transformed cells are loosely attached, rounded and randomly oriented. 转化细胞则不大贴壁、圆缩并呈杂乱分布。 来自辞典例句
12 chromosomal 13a3145acf874e52d34a5554025f79c6     
adj.染色体的
参考例句:
  • Like mRNA, both tRNA and rRNA are transcripts of chromosomal DNA. tRNA及rRNA同mRNA一样,都是染色体DNA的转录产物。 来自辞典例句
  • In mammalian species, a variety of chromosomal rearrangements are known to exist. 在哺乳类的物种中,已知有许多类型的染色体内部重新排列。 来自辞典例句
13 genetically Lgixo     
adv.遗传上
参考例句:
  • All the bees in the colony are genetically related. 同一群体的蜜蜂都有亲缘关系。
  • Genetically modified foods have already arrived on American dinner tables. 经基因改造加工过的食物已端上了美国人的餐桌。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 基因与食物
14 resistant 7Wvxh     
adj.(to)抵抗的,有抵抗力的
参考例句:
  • Many pests are resistant to the insecticide.许多害虫对这种杀虫剂有抵抗力。
  • They imposed their government by force on the resistant population.他们以武力把自己的统治强加在持反抗态度的人民头上。
15 spores c0cc8819fa73268b5ec019dbe33b798c     
n.(细菌、苔藓、蕨类植物)孢子( spore的名词复数 )v.(细菌、苔藓、蕨类植物)孢子( spore的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • Ferns, mosses and fungi spread by means of spores. 蕨类植物、苔藓和真菌通过孢子传播蔓生。
  • Spores form a lipid membrane during the process of reproducing. 孢于在生殖过程中形成类脂膜。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 预防生物武器
16 busted busted     
adj. 破产了的,失败了的,被降级的,被逮捕的,被抓到的 动词bust的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • You are so busted! 你被当场逮住了!
  • It was money troubles that busted up their marriage. 是金钱纠纷使他们的婚姻破裂了。
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