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SSS 2009-10-05

时间:2010-05-19 01:33来源:互联网 提供网友:mark@li   字体: [ ]
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The 2009 Nobel Prize in physiology1 or medicine goes to Harvard’s Jack2 Szostak, Johns Hopkins’s Carol Greider and Elizabeth Blackburn at U.C. San Francisco for their work on how chromosomes3 are protected by telomeres and the enzyme4 telomerase.

The Nobel laureates’ research helped explain how an organism’s DNA5 is successfully copied when cells divide. Telomeres are genetic6 sequences that act like little protective caps at the end of chromosomes—think of the sealed tips of your shoelaces. Telomerase is the enzyme that builds telomeres.

Blackburn and Szostak determined7 that it was a specific DNA sequence in the telomeres that kept chromosomes from fraying8 whenever they were copied when a cell splits in two. Blackburn and Greider discovered telomerase. The findings have implications for the understanding of aging and cancer. Because if the enzyme keeps the telomeres robust9, the chromosomes stay protected and the cell’s aging is slowed. And in cancer cells, which unfortunately do not seem to age, telomere length is maintained virtually indefinitely. Szostak, Greider and Blackburn thus revealed one of life’s basic mechanisms10, and paved the way for new medical strategies.

 


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1 physiology uAfyL     
n.生理学,生理机能
参考例句:
  • He bought a book about physiology.他买了一本生理学方面的书。
  • He was awarded the Nobel Prize for achievements in physiology.他因生理学方面的建树而被授予诺贝尔奖。
2 jack 53Hxp     
n.插座,千斤顶,男人;v.抬起,提醒,扛举;n.(Jake)杰克
参考例句:
  • I am looking for the headphone jack.我正在找寻头戴式耳机插孔。
  • He lifted the car with a jack to change the flat tyre.他用千斤顶把车顶起来换下瘪轮胎。
3 chromosomes 11783d79c0016b60332bbf1856b3f77d     
n.染色体( chromosome的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Chromosomes also determine the sex of animals. 染色体也决定动物的性别。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Each of four chromosomes divide longitudinally. 四种染色体的每一种都沿着纵向分裂。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
4 enzyme cPozF     
n.酵素,酶
参考例句:
  • Above a certain temperature,the enzyme molecule will become unfolded.超过一定温度,酶分子将会展开。
  • An enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots.能溶解血凝块中的纤维的酶。
5 DNA 4u3z1l     
(缩)deoxyribonucleic acid 脱氧核糖核酸
参考例句:
  • DNA is stored in the nucleus of a cell.脱氧核糖核酸储存于细胞的细胞核里。
  • Gene mutations are alterations in the DNA code.基因突变是指DNA密码的改变。
6 genetic PgIxp     
adj.遗传的,遗传学的
参考例句:
  • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
  • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
7 determined duszmP     
adj.坚定的;有决心的
参考例句:
  • I have determined on going to Tibet after graduation.我已决定毕业后去西藏。
  • He determined to view the rooms behind the office.他决定查看一下办公室后面的房间。
8 fraying 8f4a5676662cf49d0a0ccb11a13f77dd     
v.(使布、绳等)磨损,磨破( fray的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • The cuffs of his shirt were fraying. 他衬衣的袖口磨破了。
  • Support for the leader was fraying at the edges. 对这位领导人的支持已经开始瓦解。 来自《简明英汉词典》
9 robust FXvx7     
adj.强壮的,强健的,粗野的,需要体力的,浓的
参考例句:
  • She is too tall and robust.她个子太高,身体太壮。
  • China wants to keep growth robust to reduce poverty and avoid job losses,AP commented.美联社评论道,中国希望保持经济强势增长,以减少贫困和失业状况。
10 mechanisms d0db71d70348ef1c49f05f59097917b8     
n.机械( mechanism的名词复数 );机械装置;[生物学] 机制;机械作用
参考例句:
  • The research will provide direct insight into molecular mechanisms. 这项研究将使人能够直接地了解分子的机理。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He explained how the two mechanisms worked. 他解释这两台机械装置是如何工作的。 来自《简明英汉词典》
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