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SSS 2010-03-22

时间:2010-05-20 06:03来源:互联网 提供网友:mark@li   字体: [ ]
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We’re nice to our families. From an evolutionary1 perspective, that makes sense. But what makes us deal fairly with strangers? One theory holds that the development of large societies necessitated2 the creation of fairness, through institutions such as markets and religion that extend fairness to a so-called ‘anonymous other.’

 

In a study published in the journal Science, anthropologists and economists3 around the world spent 15 years studying communities of 2,000 to 10,000 individuals with highly variable social systems.

 

The researchers used multiple techniques to test willingness to share and to punish someone who doesn’t play fairly. Players from subsistence communities with a local religion didn’t seem too concerned with fairness or with punishing unfair strangers. But players from larger communities with established markets and world religions were more willing to behave fairly and punish unfair behavior.

 

The authors contend that these findings support the idea that codified4 markets and religions helped establish fairness norms as societies grew. The researchers say that “the honing of these norms and institutions continues in modern societies.” Perhaps such honing will include the creation of the proposed US Consumer Protection Agency.

 


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1 evolutionary Ctqz7m     
adj.进化的;演化的,演变的;[生]进化论的
参考例句:
  • Life has its own evolutionary process.生命有其自身的进化过程。
  • These are fascinating questions to be resolved by the evolutionary studies of plants.这些十分吸引人的问题将在研究植物进化过程中得以解决。
2 necessitated 584daebbe9eef7edd8f9bba973dc3386     
使…成为必要,需要( necessitate的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • Recent financial scandals have necessitated changes in parliamentary procedures. 最近的金融丑闻使得议会程序必须改革。
  • No man is necessitated to do wrong. 没有人是被迫去作错事的。
3 economists 2ba0a36f92d9c37ef31cc751bca1a748     
n.经济学家,经济专家( economist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The sudden rise in share prices has confounded economists. 股价的突然上涨使经济学家大惑不解。
  • Foreign bankers and economists cautiously welcomed the minister's initiative. 外国银行家和经济学家对部长的倡议反应谨慎。 来自《简明英汉词典》
4 codified dd3cd252bc567c020a4b80e850158714     
v.把(法律)编成法典( codify的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • In the meantime, however, Kennecott had been codified elsewhere in the Act. 然而,“肯尼考特”一案已被编人法案。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
  • Congress has since codified this holding. 从那时以来,国会编纂整理了最高法院的这一裁定。 来自英汉非文学 - 行政法
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TAG标签:   SSS  subsistence
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