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SSS 2010-04-13

时间:2010-06-11 01:45来源:互联网 提供网友:swalloer   字体: [ ]
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People start stereotyping1 early. Even toddlers react positively2 to members of their own race, but often distrust those from different groups. The seeds of racism3 are planted in most everyone. Everyone, that is, except people with a rare genetic4 condition called Williams syndrome5.

Williams syndrome is marked by heart defects, mental retardation6, and a lack of social anxiety that produces exceedingly friendly human beings. And a new study published in the journal Current Biology finds that children with Williams syndrome don’t make racial stereotypes7.

Researchers re-did previous social-bias experiments on 20 children with Williams syndrome and 20 control kids. The children viewed pictures of people of assorted8 races and genders10 and assigned negative or positive storylines to each picture. True to form, the control group preferred their own race and gender9. The children with Williams syndrome, however, had no racial preference—although they still discriminated11 by gender.

The results imply a nuanced neural12 mechanism13 to stereotyping, the further study of which “may suggest ways of reducing biased14 behavior towards vulnerable or marginalized groups.”

Thanks for the minute for Scientific American's 60-Second Science. I'm Adam Hinterthuer.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 stereotyping 39d617452c0dc987f973fc489929116c     
v.把…模式化,使成陈规( stereotype的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • I realize that I'm stereotyping. 我认识到我搞的是老一套。 来自辞典例句
  • There is none of the gender stereotyping usually evident in school uniforms. 有没有人的性别刻板印象通常是显而易见的。 来自互联网
2 positively vPTxw     
adv.明确地,断然,坚决地;实在,确实
参考例句:
  • She was positively glowing with happiness.她满脸幸福。
  • The weather was positively poisonous.这天气着实讨厌。
3 racism pSIxZ     
n.民族主义;种族歧视(意识)
参考例句:
  • He said that racism is endemic in this country.他说种族主义在该国很普遍。
  • Racism causes political instability and violence.种族主义道致政治动荡和暴力事件。
4 genetic PgIxp     
adj.遗传的,遗传学的
参考例句:
  • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
  • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
5 syndrome uqBwu     
n.综合病症;并存特性
参考例句:
  • The Institute says that an unidentified virus is to blame for the syndrome. 该研究所表示,引起这种综合症的是一种尚未确认的病毒。
  • Results indicated that 11 fetuses had Down syndrome. 结果表明有11个胎儿患有唐氏综合征。
6 retardation zjZzyh     
n.智力迟钝,精神发育迟缓
参考例句:
  • Asbestos reinforcement confers excellent flame retardation properties on a composite. 石棉增强材料使复合材料具有优异的防火性能。
  • The theory confirms the increase in the retardation effect with decrease in particle size. 理论证实,随着颗粒尺寸的减小,这一减速效应将增大。
7 stereotypes 1ff39410e7d7a101c62ac42c17e0df24     
n.老套,模式化的见解,有老一套固定想法的人( stereotype的名词复数 )v.把…模式化,使成陈规( stereotype的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • Such jokes tend to reinforce racial stereotypes. 这样的笑话容易渲染种族偏见。
  • It makes me sick to read over such stereotypes devoid of content. 这种空洞无物的八股调,我看了就讨厌。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
8 assorted TyGzop     
adj.各种各样的,各色俱备的
参考例句:
  • There's a bag of assorted sweets on the table.桌子上有一袋什锦糖果。
  • He has always assorted with men of his age.他总是与和他年令相仿的人交往。
9 gender slSyD     
n.(生理上的)性,(名词、代词等的)性
参考例句:
  • French differs from English in having gender for all nouns.法语不同于英语,所有的名词都有性。
  • Women are sometimes denied opportunities solely because of their gender.妇女有时仅仅因为性别而无法获得种种机会。
10 genders 83bb1a3a9f58b3256de7992ae4edb965     
n.性某些语言的(阳性、阴性和中性,不同的性有不同的词尾等)( gender的名词复数 );性别;某些语言的(名词、代词和形容词)性的区分
参考例句:
  • There are three genders in German: masculine, feminine and neuter. 德语中有叁性:阳性、阴性和中性。 来自辞典例句
  • Japan was fourth among the genders of foreign students. 日本在二十个留美学生输送地中列第四位。 来自互联网
11 discriminated 94ae098f37db4e0c2240e83d29b5005a     
分别,辨别,区分( discriminate的过去式和过去分词 ); 歧视,有差别地对待
参考例句:
  • His great size discriminated him from his followers. 他的宽广身材使他不同于他的部下。
  • Should be a person that has second liver virus discriminated against? 一个患有乙肝病毒的人是不是就应该被人歧视?
12 neural DnXzFt     
adj.神经的,神经系统的
参考例句:
  • The neural network can preferably solve the non- linear problem.利用神经网络建模可以较好地解决非线性问题。
  • The information transmission in neural system depends on neurotransmitters.信息传递的神经途径有赖于神经递质。
13 mechanism zCWxr     
n.机械装置;机构,结构
参考例句:
  • The bones and muscles are parts of the mechanism of the body.骨骼和肌肉是人体的组成部件。
  • The mechanism of the machine is very complicated.这台机器的结构是非常复杂的。
14 biased vyGzSn     
a.有偏见的
参考例句:
  • a school biased towards music and art 一所偏重音乐和艺术的学校
  • The Methods: They employed were heavily biased in the gentry's favour. 他们采用的方法严重偏袒中上阶级。
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TAG标签:   SSS  racism
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