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SSS 2010-05-12

时间:2010-06-11 03:19来源:互联网 提供网友:swalloer   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

This is Scientific American's 60-Second Science. I'm Christie Nicholson. Got a minute?

We know someone is in pain just by looking at their face. Winced1 eyes, grimacing2 smile. I mean we recognize it immediately. But can we see pain in non-human faces?

Well, recent research published in the journal Nature Methods found that mice show facial expressions of pain just like humans do.

Scientists injected mice with inflammatory drugs, which led to pain similar to a headache or a swollen3 finger. Then they videotaped the mice and had the video images analyzed4 by expert facial-expression decoders. The researchers scored five distinct mouse pain expressions. Eyes closed and squinted5, their nose bulges7, cheeks bulge6 and mice also pull back their little round ears and move their whiskers. All of these measurements led to the creation of a "mouse grimace8 scale."

It's a bit surprising that this is the first study of facial expressions of pain in non-humans. Prior to this, scientists detected pain in mice from reflex reactions, like heat to the tail makes the tail flick9.

Next up is to see whether this scale can translate to other mammals. Pain research depends on mouse studies, so having a method to measure a mouse's pain will help researchers understand chronic10 and spontaneous pain in humans.

This research also opens up the possibility of studying mouse social behavior, like to see if mice respond to the pain facial cues of other mice. Now won't that be interesting—to see how a mouse consoles another mouse in pain?

Thanks for the minute for Scientific American's 60-Second Science. I'm Christie Nicholson.
 


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 winced 7be9a27cb0995f7f6019956af354c6e4     
赶紧避开,畏缩( wince的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • He winced as the dog nipped his ankle. 狗咬了他的脚腕子,疼得他龇牙咧嘴。
  • He winced as a sharp pain shot through his left leg. 他左腿一阵剧痛疼得他直龇牙咧嘴。
2 grimacing bf9222142df61c434d658b6986419fc3     
v.扮鬼相,做鬼脸( grimace的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • But then Boozer drove past Gasol for a rattling, grimacing slam dunk. 可布泽尔单吃家嫂,以一记强有力的扣篮将比分超出。 来自互联网
  • The martyrdom of Archbishop Cranmer, said the don at last, grimacing with embarrassment. 最后那位老师尴尬地做个鬼脸,说,这是大主教克莱默的殉道士。 来自互联网
3 swollen DrcwL     
adj.肿大的,水涨的;v.使变大,肿胀
参考例句:
  • Her legs had got swollen from standing up all day.因为整天站着,她的双腿已经肿了。
  • A mosquito had bitten her and her arm had swollen up.蚊子叮了她,她的手臂肿起来了。
4 analyzed 483f1acae53789fbee273a644fdcda80     
v.分析( analyze的过去式和过去分词 );分解;解释;对…进行心理分析
参考例句:
  • The doctors analyzed the blood sample for anemia. 医生们分析了贫血的血样。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The young man did not analyze the process of his captivation and enrapturement, for love to him was a mystery and could not be analyzed. 这年轻人没有分析自己蛊惑著迷的过程,因为对他来说,爱是个不可分析的迷。 来自《简明英汉词典》
5 squinted aaf7c56a51bf19a5f429b7a9ddca2e9b     
斜视( squint的过去式和过去分词 ); 眯着眼睛; 瞟; 从小孔或缝隙里看
参考例句:
  • Pulling his rifle to his shoulder he squinted along the barrel. 他把枪顶肩,眯起眼睛瞄准。
  • I squinted through the keyhole. 我从锁眼窥看。
6 bulge Ns3ze     
n.突出,膨胀,激增;vt.突出,膨胀
参考例句:
  • The apple made a bulge in his pocket.苹果把他口袋塞得鼓了起来。
  • What's that awkward bulge in your pocket?你口袋里那块鼓鼓囊囊的东西是什么?
7 bulges 248c4c08516697064a5c8a7608001606     
膨胀( bulge的名词复数 ); 鼓起; (身体的)肥胖部位; 暂时的激增
参考例句:
  • His pocket bulges with apples. 他的衣袋装着苹果鼓了起来。
  • He bulges out of his black T-shirt. 他的肚子在黑色T恤衫下鼓鼓地挺着。
8 grimace XQVza     
v.做鬼脸,面部歪扭
参考例句:
  • The boy stole a look at his father with grimace.那男孩扮着鬼脸偷看了他父亲一眼。
  • Thomas made a grimace after he had tasted the wine.托马斯尝了那葡萄酒后做了个鬼脸。
9 flick mgZz1     
n.快速的轻打,轻打声,弹开;v.轻弹,轻轻拂去,忽然摇动
参考例句:
  • He gave a flick of the whip.他轻抽一下鞭子。
  • By a flick of his whip,he drove the fly from the horse's head.他用鞭子轻抽了一下,将马头上的苍蝇驱走。
10 chronic BO9zl     
adj.(疾病)长期未愈的,慢性的;极坏的
参考例句:
  • Famine differs from chronic malnutrition.饥荒不同于慢性营养不良。
  • Chronic poisoning may lead to death from inanition.慢性中毒也可能由虚弱导致死亡。
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