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托福听力短文 I-01-2

时间:2009-01-10 00:24来源:互联网 提供网友:Zoe-w   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

(woman) I hope you've all finished reading the assigned chapter on insurance-so that you're prepared for our discussion today. But, before we start, I'd like to mention a few things your text doesn't go into.

It's interesting to note that insurance has existed in some form for a very long time. The earliest insurance policies were called bottomry contracts. They provided shipping1 protection for merchants as far back as 3000 B.C.

In general, the contracts were often no more than verbal agreements. They granted loans to merchants with the understanding than if a particular shipment of goods was lost at sea, the loan didn't have to be repaid. Interest on the loans varied2 according to how risky3 it was to transport the goods. During periods of heavy piracy4 at sea, for example, the amount of interest and the cost of the policy went up considerably5.

So, you can see how insurance helped encourage international trade. Even the most cautious merchants became willing to risk shipping their goods over long distances-not to mention in hazardous6 weather conditions-when they had this kind of protection available.

Generally speaking, the basic form of an insurance policy has been pretty much the same since the Middle Ages. There are four points that were salient then and remain paramount7 in all policies today. There were outlined in chapter six and will serve as the basis for the rest of the of today's discussion. Can anyone tell me what one of those points might be?


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1 shipping WESyg     
n.船运(发货,运输,乘船)
参考例句:
  • We struck a bargain with an American shipping firm.我们和一家美国船运公司谈成了一笔生意。
  • There's a shipping charge of £5 added to the price.价格之外另加五英镑运输费。
2 varied giIw9     
adj.多样的,多变化的
参考例句:
  • The forms of art are many and varied.艺术的形式是多种多样的。
  • The hotel has a varied programme of nightly entertainment.宾馆有各种晚间娱乐活动。
3 risky IXVxe     
adj.有风险的,冒险的
参考例句:
  • It may be risky but we will chance it anyhow.这可能有危险,但我们无论如何要冒一冒险。
  • He is well aware how risky this investment is.他心里对这项投资的风险十分清楚。
4 piracy 9N3xO     
n.海盗行为,剽窃,著作权侵害
参考例句:
  • The government has already adopted effective measures against piracy.政府已采取有效措施惩治盗版行为。
  • They made the place a notorious centre of piracy.他们把这地方变成了臭名昭著的海盗中心。
5 considerably 0YWyQ     
adv.极大地;相当大地;在很大程度上
参考例句:
  • The economic situation has changed considerably.经济形势已发生了相当大的变化。
  • The gap has narrowed considerably.分歧大大缩小了。
6 hazardous Iddxz     
adj.(有)危险的,冒险的;碰运气的
参考例句:
  • These conditions are very hazardous for shipping.这些情况对航海非常不利。
  • Everybody said that it was a hazardous investment.大家都说那是一次危险的投资。
7 paramount fL9xz     
a.最重要的,最高权力的
参考例句:
  • My paramount object is to save the Union and destroy slavery.我的最高目标是拯救美国,摧毁奴隶制度。
  • Nitrogen is of paramount importance to life on earth.氮对地球上的生命至关重要。
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