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托福听力短文 I-05-3

时间:2009-01-10 00:45来源:互联网 提供网友:Zoe-w   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

(man) I'm glad you brought up the question of our investigations1 into the makeup2 of the Earth's interior. In fact --- since this is the topic of your reading assignment for next time --- let me spend these last few minutes of class talking about it. There were several important discoveries in the early part of this century that helped geologists4 develop a more accurate picture of the Earth's interior.

The first key discovery had to do with seismic5 waves --- remember they are the vibrations6 caused by earthquakes. Well, scientists found that they traveled thousands of miles through the Earth's interior. This finding enabled geologists to study the inner parts of the Earth. You see, these studies revealed that these vibrations were of two types: compression --- or P --- waves and shear7 --- or S --- waves. And researchers found that P waves travel through both liquids and solids, while S waves travel only through solid matter.

In 1906 a British geologist3 discovered that P waves slowed down at a certain depth but kept traveling deeper. On the other hand, S waves either disappeared or were reflected back, so he concluded that depth marked the boundary between a solid mantle8 and a liquid core. Three years later another boundary was discovered --- that between the mantle and the Earth's crust.

There's still a lot to be learned about the Earth. For instance, geologists know that the core is hot. Evidence of this is the molten lava9 that flows out of volcanoes. But we're still not sure what the source of the heat is.


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1 investigations 02de25420938593f7db7bd4052010b32     
(正式的)调查( investigation的名词复数 ); 侦查; 科学研究; 学术研究
参考例句:
  • His investigations were intensive and thorough but revealed nothing. 他进行了深入彻底的调查,但没有发现什么。
  • He often sent them out to make investigations. 他常常派他们出去作调查。
2 makeup 4AXxO     
n.组织;性格;化装品
参考例句:
  • Those who failed the exam take a makeup exam.这次考试不及格的人必须参加补考。
  • Do you think her beauty could makeup for her stupidity?你认为她的美丽能弥补她的愚蠢吗?
3 geologist ygIx7     
n.地质学家
参考例句:
  • The geologist found many uncovered fossils in the valley.在那山谷里,地质学家发现了许多裸露的化石。
  • He was a geologist,rated by his cronies as the best in the business.他是一位地质学家,被他的老朋友们看做是这门行当中最好的一位。
4 geologists 1261592151f6aa40819f7687883760a2     
地质学家,地质学者( geologist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Geologists uncovered the hidden riches. 地质学家发现了地下的宝藏。
  • Geologists study the structure of the rocks. 地质学家研究岩石结构。
5 seismic SskyM     
a.地震的,地震强度的
参考例句:
  • Earthquakes produce two types of seismic waves.地震产生两种地震波。
  • The latest seismic activity was also felt in northern Kenya.肯尼亚北部也感觉到了最近的地震活动。
6 vibrations d94a4ca3e6fa6302ae79121ffdf03b40     
n.摆动( vibration的名词复数 );震动;感受;(偏离平衡位置的)一次性往复振动
参考例句:
  • We could feel the vibrations from the trucks passing outside. 我们可以感到外面卡车经过时的颤动。
  • I am drawn to that girl; I get good vibrations from her. 我被那女孩吸引住了,她使我产生良好的感觉。 来自《简明英汉词典》
7 shear BzhwZ     
n.修剪,剪下的东西,羊的一岁;vt.剪掉,割,剥夺;vi.修剪,切割,剥夺,穿越
参考例句:
  • Every spring they shear off the sheep's wool and sell it.每年春天他们都要剪下羊毛去卖。
  • In the Hebrides they shear their sheep later than anywhere else.在赫伯里兹,剪羊毛的时间比其他任何地方都要晚。
8 mantle Y7tzs     
n.斗篷,覆罩之物,罩子;v.罩住,覆盖,脸红
参考例句:
  • The earth had donned her mantle of brightest green.大地披上了苍翠欲滴的绿色斗篷。
  • The mountain was covered with a mantle of snow.山上覆盖着一层雪。
9 lava v9Zz5     
n.熔岩,火山岩
参考例句:
  • The lava flowed down the sides of the volcano.熔岩沿火山坡面涌流而下。
  • His anger spilled out like lava.他的愤怒像火山爆发似的迸发出来。
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