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unit 1

时间:2006-01-19 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:aerbeisi   字体: [ ]

abandon [K'babide [K'baid] (常用于否定句和疑问句) 容忍; (by)遵守;信守 【同】comply with; follow; observe 【例】She can't abide that man. 她不能忍受那个人。Law is not our master, but our servant; if we abide by it, we’ll be able to make it serve up. 法律不是主人,而是仆人。 只要遵守它,就能使用它。Everyone must abide by the law. 所有的人都应遵守法律。
abnormal [aboard [K'bO:d] prep. 在(船、飞机、车)上,上(船、飞机、车)ad. 在船(或飞机、车)上,上船(或飞机、车) 【例】It's time to go aboard. 该上船/飞机/车了。
abolish [K'bOliS] vt. 彻底废除,废止 【同】terminate; remove; destroy; do away with 【例】It is my profound hope that my work might prove to be a factor in helping to abolish future wars. 我深切地希望,我的作品能够成为有助于消除未来战争的因素。There are many bad customs and laws that ought to be abolished. 有许多不良的习俗和法规应予以废除。Abraham Lincoln abolished slavery in the United States. 亚伯拉罕·林肯在美国废除了奴隶制。
absence ['absorb [Kb'sO:b] n. 1.吸收2.吸引...的注意,使全神贯注3.把...并入,同化 【例】Dry sand absorbs water. 干沙吸收水份。His business absorbs him. 他的业务使他全神贯注。The clever boy absorbed all the knowledge his teacher could give him. 那个聪明的男孩把他老师所能教他的所有的 知识都吸收了。
absorption [Kb'sO:pSn] n.吸收;专注 【同】incorporation; fusion; concentration 【例】The absorption of several small firms made this group even stronger. 合并了几家小公司后,这个集团更加强大。
abstract ['absurd [Kb'sK:d] a. 荒谬的,荒唐的 【同】foolish; stupid; ridiculous; funny 【例】The fact that an opinion has been widely held is no evidence whatever that it is not utterly absurd. 一种见解已被许多人所持有,这个事实完全不足以证明这种见解并非全然荒谬。What an absurd suggestion! 多荒谬的建议啊! It was absurd of you to suggest such a thing. 你居然建议这样的事,太可笑了。The whole thing becomes utterly absurd when you think that no matter what problems man overcomes, it is unlikely that he will ever be able to travel even to the nearest star. 但是不管人了征服了多少困难,他也不可能去最近的星球上旅行,想象这个,你就会觉得整个事件是荒谬绝伦了。
abundance [K'bVndKns] n. 大量,丰富,充足 【同】plenty; sufficiency 【例】If you travel in the sea, you will see an abundance of marine creatures. 如果你在海上旅行的话,会看到很多海洋生物。There was an abundance of corn last year. 去年玉米丰收。
abundant [K'bVndKnt] a. 1.大量的,充足的2.(in)丰富的,富裕的 【例】There is abundant firewood in the forest. 森林里有充裕的薪柴可用。Most of them have received formal education in university, where they acquired abundant knowledge and experience, which are quite essential to their future career. 他们大多数都受过大学的正规教育,在大学里他们获得了知识和经验,这些知识和经验对他们未来的生涯是十分必要的。Meanwhile milk had been accepted by the masses, because of its abundant nutrition. 同时,牛奶又被大众接受,因为它含有丰富的营养。
abuse [K'bju:s] n. 1.滥用,妄用2.虐待,伤害3.辱骂,毁谤 vt. [K'bju:z]1.滥用,妄用2.虐待,伤害3.辱骂,毁谤 【同】insult; mistreat; victimize 【例】It's easy to abuse one's power. 人容易滥用权力。They talked about how the uses and abuses of figures to prove things in politics. 他们谈到人们如何在政治问题上使用及滥用数字来混淆视听。
academic [,accelerate [Kk'selKreit] v. (使) 加快,(使)增速【例】It is evident that it can relieve the traffic congestion in the streets, thus accelerating the flow of buses and cars. 很明显,这样会缓解道路交通的拥挤,从而加快车的流速。
acceleration [Kk,selK'reiSn] n.加速;加速度 【同】speeding; hastening; quickening 【例】Our country has always in acceleration of economic growth since the 1980s. 自从20世纪80年代以来,我国经济发展一直在增加。
acceptable [Kk'septKbl] a.可接受的,合意的 【例】The solution to this problem is acceptable. 这个问题的解决方案是可接受的。Do you think the proposal is acceptable? 你认为这个建议可接受吗?
access ['accessory [Kk'sesKri] n. 1.附件,零件,配件2.[常pl.](妇女手提包之类的)装饰品3.同谋,帮凶,包庇犯 【同】assistant; associate; aid 【例】He was just an accessory of a robbery, but he was sentenced to death. 他只是一起抢劫案件中的从犯,却被判处死刑。He asked me to buy him some accessories for a car. 他让我给他买些汽车附件。
accidental [,accommodate [K'kOmKdeit] vt. 1.容纳2.向...提供住处(或膳宿)3.使适应,顺应 【例】The bank is accommodating its customers more than it used to. 这家银行现在给客户贷款比以前多了。The cottage could accommodate up to five people. 这间小屋最多能容纳5个人。The computer has the ability to accommodate to individual differences in learning speed, and so I am the one who can control the pace of my lessons. 计算机能够适应学习速度的个体差异,因此我就能成为控制自己课程进度的人。
accommodation [K,kOmK'deiSn] n. [常pl.] 住处,膳宿 【同】settlement; convenience; lodging 【例】I have no method to make accommodation to my quests. 我无法给客人们安排住宿。Hotel accommodation was scarce during the Olympic Games. 奥运会期间,旅馆房间很难找。It's a great accommodation to me. 这对我极为方便。This hospital has accommodation for 200 patients. 这家医院有二百个床位。
accordance [K'kO:dKns] n. 一致,和谐,符合 【同】assent; correspondence; agreement 【例】Man is a rational animal who always loses his temper when he is called upon to act in accordance with the dictates of reason. 人是理性的动物,在被要求依据理性行动时总是大发雷霆。I sold the house in accordance with your orders. 我按照你的指示售出了这所房子。
accordingly [K'kO:diNli] ad. 1.照着,相应地2.因此,所以,于是 【例】I have told you the circumstances, so you must act accordingly. 我已将情况告诉你,所以你必须酌情处理。
accumulate [K'kju:mjuleit] vt. 堆积,积累,积聚 vi. 累积,聚积 【同】enlarge; multiply; mass; pile up; mount up 【例】Universities are full of knowledge; the freshmen bring a little in and the seniors take none away, and knowledge accumulates. 大学里充满了知识。新生带进来一点儿,高年级学生则一点儿也不带走,于是知识便积累了下来。By investing wisely she accumulated a fortune. 她由于投资精明而积蓄了一笔财产。Dust and dirt soon accumulate if a house is not cleaned regularly. 房屋不经常打扫,尘土很快就越积越多。
accuracy ['accurate ['accuse [K'kju:z] vt. 指控,控告,指责 【同】charge; blame; incriminate 【例】He was accused of incompetence. 他被指责为不称职。The company stands accused of failing to safeguard the public. 这家公司被控未能保护公众的利益。Several of the accused were found guilty. 被告中有数人被判定有罪。
accustomed [K'kVstKmd] a. 1.(to)习惯于...的,适应了的2.通常的,惯常的 【同】get used to; in the habit of 【例】There are no conditions to which a man cannot become accustomed, especially if he sees that all those around him live in the same way. 没有什么环境是人所不能适应的,尤其是在看到周围的人都以相同方式过活时。
acknowledge [Kk'nOlidZ] vt. 1.承认,承认...的权威(或主张)2.告知收到,确认3.对...表示谢忱,报偿 【同】admit; agree; thank 【例】Any person, who copies Professor Wang Lin’s vocabulary book illegally, will be forced to acknowledge his or her piracy and will be subject to punishment . To whatever side your turn, you are forced to acknowledge your own ignorance and the boundless power of the Creator. 无论转向哪一面,你都不得不承认自己的无知和造物主的无边法力。She is acknowledged as the best tennis-player in the world. 她被公认为是世界最佳网球选手。I passed her in the street but she didn't even acknowledge me when I smiled. 我在街上遇到她,可是当我向她微笑时,她却连招呼都没有向我打一个。..
acquaintance [K'kweintKns] n. 1.相识的人,熟人2.认识,相识,了解 【同】friend; familiarity 【例】I look upon every day to be lost, in which I do not make a new acquaintance.  哪一天不新结识一个人,我都把那一天视为虚度。I have a slight acquaintance with Japanese. 我略通日文。He is my acquaintance. 他是我的熟人。
acquire [K'kwaiK] vt. 1.取得,获得2.学到 【例】The collector has acquired a fine collection of impressionist paintings. 这位收藏家收集到大量印象派绘画。To be fair, the serious way of lecture allows us to acquire much information in class. 说句公道话,严肃性的课堂教学可是我们学到很多知识。
acquisition [,activate ['activity [acute [K'kju:t] a. 1.严重的,激烈的2.敏锐的3.(疾病)急性的4.尖的,锐的 【同】sharp; intelligent; discerning; intense 【例】Being an acute observer, he usually sees the essence of things at the first sight. 作为一个敏锐的观察家,他通常一眼就可以看出事物的本质。We agreed with his acute analysis of the political situation. 我们都同意他对政治形势的深刻分析。This area has an acute shortage of water. 这个地方缺水严重。
adapt [K'dadaptation [,additional [K'diSKnl] a. 添加的,额外的,另外的 【同】supplementary; extra; further 【例】Never be the last to leave a company going downhill, your personal market value declines each additional day you stay. 在公司走下坡路时切最后离开:每多呆一天,你个人的市场价值都降低几许。He had to pay some additional charges. 他不得不付些附加费。
adhere [Kd'hiK] vt. (to)1.粘附,附着2.遵守,坚持3.追随,支持 【同】devoted; conform; stick 【例】Paste is used to make one surface adhere to another. 糨糊是用于使一个接触面粘住另一个接触面的。We should adhere to our opinions. 我们应当坚持我们的意见。
adjacent [K'dZeisnt] a. (to)邻近的,毗连的 【同】beside; bordering; neighboring 【例】We work in the same company, but his office is not adjacent to mine. 我们虽然在同一个公司工作,办公室却不在一处。His house is adjacent to mine. 他的寓所与我的相毗连。
adjoin [K'dZOin] vt. 贴近,与...毗连 【同】join; unite; neighbor 【例】The playing field adjoins the school. 运动场紧邻学校。Our house adjoins theirs. 我们的房屋与他们的毗连。
adjust [K'dZVst] vt. 1.校正,校准,调整2.调节,改变...以适应 vi. (to)适应 【同】adapt; shape; tailor 【例】This kind of desk can be adjusted to the height you need. 这种书桌的高低可以按照你的需要调节。He adjusted himself very quickly to the heat of the country. 他很快使自己适应了这个国家炎热的天气。
administer [Kd'ministK] vt. 1.掌管,料理...的事务2.施行,实施3.给予,派给,投(药) 【例】The courts administer the law. 法院执行法律。The priest administered the last rites. 神父为人举行临终圣礼。
administrate [Kd,mini'streit] v. 管理;支配
administration [Kd,mini'streiSn] n. 1.管理,经营,支配2.管理部门,行政机关,政府3.实行,执行 【同】management; execution 【例】Bad administration, to be sure, can destroy good policy; but good administration can never save bad policy. 糟糕的政府必定会毁掉良好的政策,而良好的政府绝对挽救不了糟糕的政策。The company developed rapidly under his administration. 在他的管理下,公司发展得很快。
admission [Kd'miSn] n. 1.准许进入,准许加入2.入场费,入场券3.承认,供认 【同】admittance; access; reception 【例】Concession is no humiliation, nor admission of error any disgrace. 让步非耻,认错亦非辱。He gained admission into this university. 他获准进入这所大学。
adolescent [,adopt [K'dOpt] vt. 1.收养2.采取,采纳,采用3.正式通过,批准 【同】take in; take up 【例】As they had no children of their own, they adopted an orphan. 他们没有亲生儿女,就收养了一个孤儿。
adoption [K'dOpSn] n.收养;采纳,采取 【例】He was pleased by the adoption of a little girl. 他对收养了一个女孩感到高兴。
advisable [Kd'vaizKbl] a. 可取的,适当的,明智的 【同】suitable; recommendable; judicious 【例】I am not in favor of long engagements. They give people the opportunity of finding out each other’s character before marriage, which I think is never advisable. 我不赞成订婚的时期太长。它使双方有机会在婚前摸清各自的人品,我认为这绝对不可取。
advocate ['aerial ['EKriKl] a. 1.飞机的,航空的,由飞机进行的2.空中的,架空的 n. 天线 【例】He showed me some aerial photographs. 他给我看了一些空中拍摄的照片。
aerospace ['EKrKuspeis] n.航空和宇宙航行空间 【例】The aerospace industry in our country has developed greatly after liberation. 解放后,我国的宇航事业取得了巨大的发展。
aesthetic [i:s'Tetik] a. 1.美学的,审美的2.悦目的,雅致的 【同】of or concerning beauty
affect [K'fekt] v. 影响, 假装 【例】The climate affected his health. 气候影响了他的健康。He was much affected by the sad news. 这个悲惨的消息使他非常难过。He affected not to hear me. 他假装没有听见我。In other aspects, computer affects people’s daily life and do harm to people. 在其他方面,计算机影响着人们的日常生活并导致了一些不利因素的产生。
affection [K'fekSn] n. 喜爱,感情,爱慕之情 【同】attachment; passion; zeal; love 【例】We should never judge those whom we love. The affection that is not blind is no affection at all. 不可评价所爱的人。不盲目的爱根本不是爱。Every mother has affection for her children. 每个母亲都爱她的孩子。He is held in affection. 他极为大家所爱戴。
affiliate [K'filieit] vt. 使隶属(或附属)于 n. 附属机构,分公司 【同】associate; unite; combine 【例】The hospital is affiliated to Beijing University. 这所医院附属于北京大学。
affirm [K'fK:m] vt. 1.断言,坚持声称2.证实,确认 【例】I affirm that what he said is true. 我断言他所说的是实情。They affirmed that the girl did quite a bit of reading. 他们断言这个女孩子读了不少书。
affirmative [K'fK:mKtiv] adj. 赞成的,肯定的 【同】positive; asserting; agreeing 【例】He gave an affirmative reply to my question. 他肯定地回答了这个问题。
agenda [K'dZendK] n.议事日程
aggravate ['aggressive [K'gresiv] a. 1.侵犯的,侵略的,挑衅的2.敢作敢为的,有进取心的 【同】active; combative; enterprising 【例】He is an aggressive man. 他是一个好斗的人。America has a lot of aggressive weapons now. 美国现在有很多进攻性武器。A successful businessman must be aggressive. 一个成功的商人必须有进取心。
agitate ['agony ['agreeable [K'gri:Kbl] a. 1.令人愉快的,惬意的2.(欣然)同意的,乐意的 【同】pleasing; mild; fair 【例】Animals are such agreeable friends —— they ask no questions, they pass no criticism. 动物是如此令人愉快的朋友── 它们不提问题,也不说三道四。She has an agreeable voice. 她的声音悦耳。Are you agreeable to the proposal? 你能同意这项建议吗?
airline ['EKlain] n. [常pl.] 航空公司 【例】He is an airline pilot. 他是民航驾驶员。Mr. Wang is a staff of France airline. 王先生是法国航空公司的一名职员。
airmail ['EKmeil] n. 航空邮件
alert [K'lK:t] a. 警觉的,留神的,注意的 vt. 1.向...报警,使警惕2.使认识到,使意识到 n. 1.警戒(状态),戒备(状态)2.警报 【同】wide awake; observant; warning 【例】With the exception of the instinct of self-preservation, the propensity for emulation is probably the strongest and most alert and persistent of the economic motives proper. 除了自我保护本能以外,努力追上并超越他人的习性很可能是真正的功利性动机中最强烈、最活跃顽固的Although he's over eighty his mind is still remarkably alert. 他虽已年过八十,但头脑仍然十分机敏。
alien ['eiliKn] a. 1.外国的,外国人的2.陌生的3.性质不同的,不相容的 n. 1.外国人,外侨2.外星人 【同】unknown; unusual; exotic; foreign 【例】Their ideas are quite alien to our ways of thinking. 他们的观点同我们看问题的方法格格不入。After being away for so long, he feels like an alien in his own country now. 背井离乡这么久,现在在他自己的国家,他觉得自己像个外人。
allege [K'ledZ] vt. 断言,宣称,硬说 【同】state; testify; affirm; declare 【例】The police alleged that the man was murdered but they have given no proof. 警方声称这男子是被谋杀的,但未提出任何 证据。So they alleged, but have they any proof? 他们是这样宣称的,但他们有证据吗?
alleviate [K'li:vieit] vt. 减轻,缓解,缓和 【同】make less or easier to bear 【例】The doctor gave her an injection to alleviate her pain. 医生给她注射以减轻痛苦。
alliance [K'laiKns] n. 结盟,联盟 【同】association; combination 【例】They made an alliance against the common enemy. 他们联合起来抵御共同的敌人。
allied [K'laid] a.联合的;联姻的
allocate ['allowance [K'lauKns] n. 津贴,补贴,零用钱 【例】The scholarship includes an allowance of 80 dollars for books. 奖学金包括八十美元的书籍费津贴。She failed one of the exam papers, but we ought to make allowance for the fact that she was ill. 她有一门不及格,但我们必须考虑到她当时有病。
alloy ['alongside [K,lON'said] ad. 在旁边,沿着边,并排地 prep. 1. 在...旁边,沿着...的边2. 和...在一起 【例】He is the master of the boat moored alongside. 他是那条靠着码头停泊的船的主人。The car drew up alongside the road. 小汽车在路边停下来。
alter ['O:ltK] vt.改变,变更;改做 【例】He altered one of the rooms into a bedroom. 他把一间屋子改建成了卧室。
alteration [,O:ltK'reiSn] n.变更,改变;蚀变 【例】My coat needs alteration. 我的上衣需要改改。There have been a few alterations to the timetable. 时间表上有一些变动。
alternate ['O:ltKneit] a. 1.交替的,轮流的2.间隔的 v. (使)轮流,(使)交替 【例】Meetings are held on alternate Thursdays. 每隔一个星期的星期四举行一次会议。Sunny weather alternated with rain. 天气晴雨相间。We alternate in doing the housework. 我们轮流做家务。
alternative [O:l'tK:nKtiv] a. 1.两者择一的,供选择的,供替代的2.另类的,他择性的 n. 1.取舍,抉择,供选择的东西2.选择的自由,选择的余地 【同】choice; option; substitute 【例】The more alternative, the more difficult the choice. 可选择的越多,挑选越难。We have no alternative, but to do it. 我们别无选择,只能做了。Please find alternative means of transport. 请另外找一个运输方法。
altitude ['aluminum [,amateur ['amaze [K'meiz] vt. 使大为惊奇,惊愕 【同】astonish; perplex; surprise; confuse 【例】He amazed me by his audacity. 他的无理让我惊骇。I was amazed to find her there. 发现她在那,我感到很吃惊。What an amazing painting! 多么了不起的一幅画啊!  It was amazing that he knew nothing about the event. 他对这个事件毫不知情,真让人感到诧异。
ambassador [ambiguous [ambition [ambulance ['amend [K'mend] vt. 修改,修订,改进 n. [pl.] 赔罪,赔偿 【同】revise; improve; mend; correct 【例】The Parliament has decided to amend some legislation. 议会决定修改一些法规。The judge advised him to amend his way of living. 法官劝告他改变生活方式。They decided to amend the bill. 他们决定修正这条议案。
ampere ['ample ['amplify ['amuse [K'mju:z] vt. 1.逗乐,逗笑2.给...提供娱乐(或消遣) 【例】The boys amuse themselves by drawing caricatures of their teacher. 男孩子们以画老师的漫画取乐。
analogue ['analogy [K'nanalytical [,ancestor ['anchor ['angle ['anniversary [,announcer [K'naunsK] n.宣告者;播音员 【例】She is an announcer in TV broadcast. 她是电视台的一名播音员。
annoy [K'nOi] vt.使恼怒;打搅 【例】A fly kept annoying me. 一只苍蝇老在打搅我。I was annoyed at his intrusion. 我对他的闯入感到生气。
annual ['anonymous [K'nOnimKs] a. 1.无名的,不具名的2.匿名的3.无特色的,无个性特征的 【同】nameless; unknown; undesignated 【例】I received an anonymous letter the other day. 几天前我收到了一封匿名信。
Antarctic [antenna [anticipate [anxiety [anyhow ['enihau] ad. 1.不管怎么说,无论如何,至少2.不论用何种方法,无论从什么角度3.随随便便地,杂乱无章地 【例】I couldn't think of the name of that man anyhow. 我怎么也想不出那人的名字来了。
anyway ['eniwei] ad. 1.不管怎么说,无论如何,至少2.不论以何种方式,无论从什么角度 【例】The house was locked and I cannot get in anyway. 屋子锁着,我无论如何也进不去。
apartment [K'pA:tmKnt] n. 一套公寓房间,房间 【例】He lives in this apartment building. 他住在这座公寓大楼内。
apparatus [,apparent [K'pappeal [K'pi:l] n. 1.呼吁,恳求2.感染力,吸引力3.申诉,上诉 v. 1.呼吁,恳求2.有吸引力,有感染力3.上诉,申诉4.(t0)诉诸,诉请裁决(或证实等)vt. 将...上诉,将...移交上? 【例】He was appealing for funds to build a new school. 他在恳求拨款修建一所新学校。His lawyer decided to take an appeal to a higher court. 他的律师决定向高一级法院上诉。
appendix [K'pendiks] n. 1.阑尾2.附录 【例】This dictionary has several appendices. 这本词典有几项附录。The doctor said the appendix is not important for us. 那个大夫说阑尾对我们来说并不重要。
appetite ['applaud [K'plO:d] vi. 鼓掌,喝彩 vt. 1.向...鼓掌,向...喝彩2.称赞,赞许 【同】cheer; praise; clap 【例】Man often applauds an imitation, and hiss the real thing. 人往往对假货喝彩,而对真品发出嘘声。We all applaud you for your decision. 我们一致赞成你的决定。He was loudly applauded. 他受到热烈的掌声欢迎。
appliance [K'plaiKns] n. 器具,器械,装置 【同】instrument; device; machinery 【例】A modern family cannot do without electrical appliances. 现代家庭生活离不开电器。There are many household appliances in this shop. 这个商店有许多家用用具。
applicable [K'plikKbl] a. 1.可应用的,可实施的2.适当的,合适的
appraisal [K'preizl] n. 估计,估量,评价 【同】assessment; evaluation; estimate 【例】After careful discussion experts gave an appraisal of the ancient vase $60,000. 仔细商讨后,专家对这个古代花瓶做了估价:6万美元。
appreciable [K'pri:SKbl] a.可估价的;可察觉的 【同】considerable; recognizable; evident 【例】There will be an appreciable increase of our salaries. 我们的工资会有较为可观的增加。
appreciate [K'pri:Sieit] vt. 1.重视,赏识,欣赏2.为...表示感激3.(充分)意识到,领会,体会 vi. 增值 【例】I really appreciate his complete absorption in his work. 我很欣赏他对工作的极端专注。We appreciate your helping us. 我们感谢你们的帮助。
apprehension [,appropriate [K'prKupriKt] a. 适当的,恰当的 vt. 1.私占,侵吞,挪用2.拨出(款项等)供专用 【同】suitable; befitting; fitting 【例】Extreme remedies are very appropriate for extreme diseases. 烈性的药物对于重病是非常适宜的。The government has appropriated a large sum of money for building hospitals. 政府为修建医院拨出了大笔款项。The minister was found to have appropriated government money. 部长被查出挪用了公款。
approval [K'pru:vKl] n. 1.赞成,同意2.批准,认可 【同】consent; support; permission 【例】I hope the arrangements meet with your approval. 我希望这些安排会得到你的同意。We can't start building without the council's approval. 未经委员会批准,我们不能动工。
approximately [K'prOksimKtli] ad.近乎,大约 【同】roughly; practically; nearly 【例】The total number of death in this crash approximately mounts to 5,000. 这次撞击事件死亡总数大约5000人。The plane will be taking off in approximately five minutes. 飞机大约五分钟后就起飞。
apt [arbitrary ['A:bitrKri] n. 1.随意的,任意的2.专断的,武断的,专制的 【同】willful; at random; inconsistent 【例】The choice of players for the team seems completely arbitrary. 队员的挑选似乎完全是主观的。Most presidents in this African country are arbitrary rulers. 这个非洲国家的总统大多数是专横的统治者。
architect ['A:kitekt] n. 建筑师,设计师,缔造者 【例】Everyone is the architect of his own fortune. 每个人都是自己命运的创造者。
arctic ['A:ktik] a.北极的 n.北极 【例】We can't stand this arctic weather. 我们受不了这种严寒的天气。
arise [K'raiz] vi. 1.产生,出现,发生2.(from)(由...)引起,(由...)产生3.起身,起床 【例】An opportunity has arisen. 机会来了。Accidents often arise from carelessness. 事故往往起因于粗心。
arithmetic [K'riTmKtik] n. 算术 【例】The little boy was not good at arithmetic. 这个小男孩算术不太好。
arouse [K'rauz] vt. 1.引起,激起,唤起2.唤醒 【例】His sufferings aroused our sympathy. 他的痛苦引起了我们的同情。Diana aroused them just before dawn. 戴安娜在黎明前唤醒了他们。
array [K'rei] n. 1.展示,陈列,一系列2.排列,队形3.衣服,盛装4.数组,阵列 vt. 1.排列,配置(兵力)2.打扮,装饰 【例】Banners are arrayed on the wall. 墙上张挂着锦旗。People are all in holiday array. 人们都穿着节日盛装。
articulate [A:'tikjulKt] a. 1.善于表达的,发音清晰的2.表达得清楚有力的 vt. 1.明确有力地表达2.清晰地吐(字),清晰地发(音) 【同】well-spoken; fluent; lucid 【例】It seems that he is a very articulate person. 似乎他是一个口吃淋漓的人。She's unusually articulate for a ten-year-old. 作为一个十岁的孩子来说,她的表达力是非常强的。I'm a little deaf, please articulate your words carefully. 我有些耳聋,请把话仔细地说清楚。
ascend [K'send] vi. 渐渐上升,升高 vt. 攀登,登上 【同】rise; climb; mount 【例】We watched the mists ascending from the valley below. 我们看着薄雾从下面的山谷中升起。
ascertain [,ash [ashore [K'SO:] ad. 在岸上,上岸 【例】He managed to swim ashore. 他设法向岸边游过去。They have been ashore for two hours. 他们上岸已经两个小时了。
aside [K'said] ad. 在旁边,到(或向)一边 【例】The decision was set aside. 决议被搁置。
assemble [K'sembl] vi. 集合,聚集 vt. 1.集合,聚集,召集2.装配 【例】The students assembled in the school garden. 学生们在校园集合。
assembly [K'sembli] n. 1.立法机构,议会2.集会,集合,集会的人们3.组装,装配 【同】gathering; association; conference 【例】In most communities it is illegal to cry fire in a crowded. 在大多数社会中,在拥挤的集会上喊失火啦是违法的。People have the rights of assembly and expression. 人们有集会和发表言论的权利。
assert [K'sK:t] vt. 1.肯定地说,断言2.维护,坚持 【同】affirm; declare; maintain 【例】We encouraged him to assert his view of the matter. 我们鼓励他坚持自己对此事的看法。She asserted that he was innocent. 她断言,他是无罪的。
assignment [K'sainmKnt] n. 1.(分派的)任务,(指定的)作业2.分配,指派 【例】He finished the assignment completely. 他全面完成了分配的任务。He is the best man who can finish the assignment. 他是能完成这项任务的最佳人选。
assimilate [K'simKleit] vt. 1.吸收,消化2.使同化 vi. 1.被吸收,被消化2.被同化 【同】absorb; digest; understand 【例】The USA has assimilated people from many different countries. 美国已经同化了许多来自不同国家的人。Children in school are expected to assimilate what they have been taught. 希望在学习的儿童能吸收教给他们的知识。Some foods are assimilated more easily than others. 有些食物比另一些食物容易吸收。
associate [K'sKuSieit] vt. 1.(在思想上)把...联系在一起2.使联合,结合,使有联系 vi. (with)结交,交往 n. 伙伴,同事,合伙人 a. 副的 【同】relate; link; combine 【例】Do not tell me of the people you associate with; let me observe it by your manners. 不必告诉我你同什么人交往,让我通过你的举止来察知。She associated happiness with having money. 她把幸福和有钱联想到一起。I don't want to associate myself with them any more. 我不愿再和他们交往了。
assume [K'sju:m] vt. 1.假定,假设,臆断2.承担,担任,就职3.呈现,具有,采取 【例】I assumed you can speak French fluently. 我以为你能讲流利的法语。I made a mistake and I will assume responsibility for it. 我错了,我愿为此承担责任。The problem has assumed a new form. 这个问题又以新的形式出现。
assumption [K'sVmpSn] n. 1.假定,臆断2.担任,承担 【同】supposition; suspicion; accepting 【例】The theory is based on a series of wrong assumptions. 这一理论是以一系列错误的设想为依据的。Their assumptions of an air of confidence fooled nobody. 他们装出信心十足的样子却欺骗不了任何 人。
assurance [K'SuKrKns] n. 1.把握,信心2.保证,表示保证(鼓励、安慰)的话3.(人寿)保险 【同】promise; confidence; reassurance 【例】Progress is the activity of today, and the assurance of tomorrow. 进步是今日的行动,是明日的保证。They were waiting with assurance for me to discover the truth for myself. 他们自信地等待我自己发现事实真相。
astonish [K'stOniS] vt. 使惊讶 【同】shock; amaze; astound 【例】She astonished me with her beautiful handwriting. 她以其秀丽的书法而使我惊异。I was astonished at the news of his escape. 听到他逃之夭夭的消息,我感到惊讶。The car rushed at the bridge at astonishing speed. 汽车以惊人的速度向桥冲过去。
astronomy [K'strOnKmi] n. 天文学 【例】Astronomy is the scientific study of the sun, moon, and stars and other heaven bodies. 天文学是研究太阳、月亮、星星和其他天体的科学。
athlete ['atmospheric [,attach [K'tattain [K'tein] vt. 达到,获得 【同】achieve; accomplish; succeed 【例】The true value of a human being is determined primarily by the measure and the sense in which he has attained liberation from the Self. 人的真正价值,首先取决于他在多大的程度和怎样的意义上获得自我解放。The country attained its independence in 1972. 这个国家在1972年获得了独立。
attendance [K'tendKns] n. 1.出席人数 2.出席,参加,出席次数 3.护理,照料 【例】Attendance at school is demanded by law. 法律规定儿童必须上学。He didn't have perfect attendance this year. 他今年有缺勤。
attendant [K'tendKnt] n. 服务人员,侍者,随从 a. 伴随的,随之而产生的 【例】The president gave the Prince and his attendants a farewell banquet. 总统为王子和他的随员举行了告别宴会。
attentive [K'tentiv] a.注意的;有礼貌的 【同】watchful; alert; intent; observant 【例】You should be attentive to what your parents have said. 你应该注意倾听父母所说的话。He is attentive to his little brother. 他很关心他的小弟弟。
attitude ['attribute ['augment [O:g'ment] vt. 扩大,增加,提高 【同】magnify; intensify; amplify 【例】The output of last month has been considerably augment. 上个月的产量大大地增加了。He augments his income by teaching in the evenings. 他晚上去教书以增加收入。
aural ['O:rKl] a.耳的,听觉的 【例】You can use these tapes as aural material. 你可以把这些磁带当作听力材料。
auto ['O:tKu] n. 汽车 【例】The auto industry has brought many people to Detroit. 汽车工业把许多人吸引到了底特律。
automatic [,O:tK'mauxiliary [O:g'ziliKri] a. 1.辅助的,补助的2.备用的,后备的 【同】helper; assistant; accessory 【例】She is an auxiliary nurse. 她是一名助理护士。We have an auxiliary generator in case of power cuts. 我们有一台万一断电时使用的备用发电机。
avail [K'veil] n. [一般用于否定句或疑问句中] 效用,利益,帮助 v. 有用(于);有益(于);有助(于)【同】help; benefit; aid 【例】We should avail us of every opportunity to achieve the desired results. 我们应该尽可能地利用一切机会达到预期的结果。Such a statement will not avail. 这样的声明没有什么用。This medicine is of no avail. 这药无效。
avert [K'vK:t] vt. 1.防止,避免2.转移(目光、注意力等) 【同】turn away; avoid; look away 【例】Preparedness averts peril. 有备无患。He managed to avert suspicion. 他设法避嫌。She averted her eyes from the terrible sight. 她转移目光不看那可怕的情景。
aviation [,eivi'eiSn] n. 1.航空,航空学2.飞机制造业 【例】He devoted all his life to China's aviation. 他的一生都奉献给了中国的航空事业。
aware [K'wEK] a. 意识到,知道的 【例】We are fully aware of the gravity of the situation. 我们十分清楚形势的严峻性。Are you aware that you are sitting on my hat? 你知道你坐在我的帽子上了吗?
awfully ['O:fli] ad.令人畏惧的;很
awkward ['O:kwKd] a. 1.尴尬的,棘手的2.难操纵的,使用不便的3.笨拙的,不灵巧的 【同】clumsy; embarrassing; inconvenient 【例】No manners are finer than even the most awkward manifestations of good will to others. 向别人表达良好的意愿是最高雅的风度,即使表达得极其笨拙也不例外。At the formal party I felt very awkward and out of place. 在正式的舞会上,我感到局促不安,很不自在。The heavy ax was awkward to use. 这把重斧头不好用。
axis ['

bachelor ['bbackground ['bbackward ['bbacon ['beikKn] n. 咸肉
bacterium [bbadge [bbadminton ['bbakery ['beikKri] n. 面包店
bald [bO:ld] a. 1.秃头的,秃的2.(织物、轮胎等)磨光的3.明显的,不加掩饰的 【同】hairless; smooth; naked 【例】Time is painted with a lock before, and bald behind, signifying thereby that we must take time by the forelock, for when it is once passed there is no recalling it. 时间老人被画成前额有绺头发,而后脑却光秃秃的,这就意味着我们必须从前面抓住时间,因为只要时间一过就无可挽回。He took off the hat and revealed his bald head. 他脱下帽子,露出秃头。We planted some trees on the bald hill. 我们在一座秃山上种了些树。
balloon [bK'lu:n] n. 气球 【例】There are some color balloons. 那儿有些彩色的气球。
ban [bbanana [bK'nA:nK] n. 香蕉 【例】The banana is her favorite fruit. 香蕉是她最喜欢的水果。
bandage ['bbankrupt ['bbanner ['bbarber ['bA:bK] n. 理发师 【例】I had my hair cut at the barber's yesterday. 我昨天在理发店里理了发。
barrel ['bbarrier ['bbaseball ['beisbO:l] n. 棒球 【例】Baseball is the national game of the USA. 棒球是美国全民喜爱的运动。
basement ['beismKnt] n. 地下室
bat [bbattery ['bbeforehand [bi'fO:hbehalf [bi'hA:f] n. 利益,方面 【同】interest; benefit; sake 【例】Eyes are the spokesmen on behalf of love. 眼睛是爱情的代言人。On behalf of my colleagues and myself I thank you. 我代表我的同事和我本人向你表示感谢。
behave [bi'heiv] vi. 1.表现,举止端正2.(机器等)运转,(事物)作出反应 vt. (oneself)检点(自己)的行为 【例】How is your new car behaving? 你的新车性能如何?
belief [bi'li:f] n. 1.相信,信任2.信念,信仰 【例】He has lost his belief in God. 他已不相信上帝了。
beneficial [,beni'fiSl] a. 有益的,有利的 【同】useful; helpful; advantageous 【例】Happiness is beneficial for the body, but it is grief that develops the powers of the mind. 愉快有益于身体,但发展思维能力的是悲伤。Fresh air is beneficial to our health. 新鲜空气有益于健康。It's a beneficial result to us. 对我们来说那是有利的结果。
bet [bet] vt. 1.以...打赌,与...打赌2.敢说,确信 vi. 打赌 n. 1.打赌2.赌金,赌注 【例】Let's make a bet on the next election. 我们就下次的选举打个赌吧。I bet it will rain tomorrow. 我相信明天一定会下雨。
betray [bi'trei] vt. 1.背叛,出卖2.失信于, 辜负3.泄露(秘密等)4.(非故意地)暴露,, 显露 【同】reveal; uncover; disclose 【例】When we fail our pride supports us, when we succeed, it betrays us. 失败时自尊地支撑着我们,成功时它使我们露出本来面目。He betrayed his country. 他背叛了他的国家。The smoke from cooking betrayed the presence of the enemy. 炊烟暴露了敌人的存在。
beware [bi'wEK] v. 谨防,当心 【同】be aware of; notice 【例】Beware of the fury of a patient man. 当心脾气好的人发火。Beware of what you do with this dangerous substance. 你处理这些危险品时,可要当心。
bewilder [bi'wildK] vt. 使迷惑,使难住 【同】confound; puzzle; confuse 【例】I am totally bewildered by the clues to the crossword puzzle. 这个纵横字谜的提示完全把我弄糊涂了。Big city traffic bewilders me. 大城市的交通使我晕头转向。
bias ['baiKs] n. 偏见,偏心,偏袒 vt. 使有偏见 【同】bent; preference; prejudice 【例】Our university has a bias in favor of the sciences. 我们的大学偏重理科。He has a bias against Japanese products. 他讨厌日本的产品。Her scientific bias showed itself in early childhood. 她在科学方面的倾向性在孩童时代就已显现出来。
biography [bai'OgrKfi] n. 传记 【例】He likes to read biographies of great men to promote himself. 他喜欢读伟人传记来提高自己。
biology [bai'OlKdZi] n. 生物学 【例】We have a biology lesson tomorrow. 明天我们有一节生物课。
blank [blblast [blA:st] n. 1.爆炸2.一阵(疾风等),一般(强烈的气流)vt. 炸,炸掉 【同】roar; boom; bang 【例】In one sense freedom is always in crisis, just as beauty as, and honor and truth —— all those things which man has made for himself as a garment against the ever-present blasts of the barbarian spirit. 正像美丽,名誉和真理一样,自由在某种意义上总是处于危机之中,──它们都是人类为了抵御阵阵永存的原始野性之狂风给自己制成的衣衫。A trumpeter sent out a warning blast. 号兵吹出告警的号声。Rock music blasted full from the parlor. 摇滚乐声震屋宇,从客厅传来。
bleak [bli:k] a. 1.没有希望的,凄凉2.荒凉的3.寒冷刺骨的 【同】barren; desolate; dreary 【例】The situation depicted by the author at the beginning of the passage is rather bleak. 作者在文章的开头描述了一付相当凄凉的画面。The weather in early December was bleak and unpleasant. 十二月初的天气又阴冷又难受。The future of this firm will be very bleak indeed if we keep losing money. 要是我们继续亏本的话,这家公司的前途会非常黯淡。
bleed [bli:d] vi. 出血,流血 vt. 勒索...的钱 【例】All the young soldiers are ready to bleed for the country. 所有的年轻战士都愿意为祖国洒热血。
blend [blend] v. (使)混合,(使)混杂 n.1.混合物2.混合,交融 【同】combine; mix; compound 【例】Those cottages blend well with the landscape. 那些农舍与周围的篱笆融为一体。The poem blends the separate ingredients into a unity. 这首诗把几个分开的部分融合为一体。
bloody ['blVdi] a. 1.[用于加强语气] 非常的,该死的,该受诅咒的2.血污的,流血 3.嗜杀的,残忍的 ad. [用于加强语气] 非常,很 vt. 使为血所污,血染 【例】Hundreds of soldiers died in this bloody battle. 成百上千的战士在这场血战中牺牲。
blunder ['blVndK] n. (因无知、粗心等造成的)错误 vi. 1.跌跌撞撞地走,慌乱地走2.犯错误 【同】stupid mistake; error; lapse 【例】Is man one of God’s blunder or is God one of man’s blunders? 是人类是上帝的大错,还是上帝是人类的大错? I've made an awful blunder. 我做了一件大错特错的事。The police blundered badly by arresting the wrong man. 警方抓错了人,犯了荒唐的大错。
blush [blVS] vi. /n. 脸红 【例】She blushed when he scolded her. 他责备她时,她脸红了。The student murmured the answer with a blush. 那个学生红着脸小声说出了答案。
boiler ['bOilK] n.锅炉;热水贮槽 【例】I happened to meet him in the boiler room. 我碰巧在锅炉房碰到他。
bolt [bKult] n. 1.螺栓2.(门或窗的)插销,闩 vt. 闰,栓住 vi. 冲出去,逃跑 【例】We need an eye bolt to fit this valve. 我们需要一个有眼螺栓来固定这个阀门。The frightened boy bolted all the doors and windows. 这个吓坏了的孩子闩上了所有的门窗。
bond [bOnd] n. 1.联结,联系2.粘结剂,粘合剂3.公债,债券4.契约,合同 v. (使)粘合,(使)结合 【同】attachment; tie; union 【例】An honest man’s word is as good as his bond. 诚实的人的话跟他的契约一样可靠。Common tastes form a bond between the two men. 共同的爱好使两人结交为朋友。
bonus ['bKunKs] n. 1.奖金,红利2.额外给予的东西
boom [bu:m] n. 1.(营业等的)激增,(经济等的)繁荣,迅速发展2.隆隆声, 嗡嗡声 v. 1.激增,繁荣,迅速发展2.发出隆隆声 【同】roar; increase; swell 【例】Business is booming. 商业正在迅速发展。The oil market is enjoying a boom. 石油市场欣欣向荣。It's a boom year this year. 今年是繁荣昌盛的一年。
booth [bu:D] n. 1.(隔开的)小房间,公用电话亭,岗亭2.售货棚,货摊 【例】There is a telephone booth near the cinema. 电影院附近有一个电话亭。
bough [bau] n.树枝 【例】The bough was loaded with fruit. 树枝上果实累累。
bounce [bauns] vi. (使)弹起,(使)反弹,(使)颠跳 n. 弹,反弹 【例】The ball hit the wall and bounced off it. 球打在墙上又反弹回来。I bounced the baby on my knee. 我把婴儿放在膝上上下颠着。
boycott ['bOikOt] vt./n. (联合)抵制,拒绝参与 【同】avoid; strike; resist 【例】Athletes from several countries boycotted this Olympic Games. 有几国的运动员抵制奥林匹克运动会。
brace [breis] vt. 1.使防备,使受锻炼2.支住,撑牢3.使绷紧 n. 支架,托架 【同】support; uphold; encourage 【例】The struts are firmly braced. 骨架的支柱很牢固。The struts are firmly braced. 那些支柱上得很牢固。
bracket ['brbrand [brbreed [bri:d] n. 产种,品种 vi. 繁殖,产vt. 1.饲养,繁殖2.养育,培育3.酿成,产生 【同】class; race; produce; propagate 【例】Familiarity breeds contempt. 熟悉滋生轻蔑。I had bred a dozen of chickens. 我饲养了12只小鸡。
breeze [bri:z] n. 微风,轻风 vi. 飘然而行 【例】We are enjoying the cool breeze that comes from the lake. 我们享受着湖面上吹来的凉爽微风。She breezed along, smiling at everyone. 她轻盈地向前走去,对每个人都嫣然含笑。He ran for president and breezed in. 他竞选总统,结果轻而易举地获胜了。He breezed through the task. 他轻松地做完了这项工作。
brilliant ['briliKnt] a. 1.光辉的,灿烂的2.卓越的,杰出的 【同】bright; splendid; shining 【例】My most brilliant achievement was my ability to be able to persuade my wife to marry me. 我最辉煌的成就是说服妻子嫁给我的能力。Stars are brilliant in the clear night sky. 星星在晴朗的夜空闪亮。
brim [brim] n. 1.帽檐2.(容器的)边,边缘 vi. 注满,充溢 【同】border; verge; boundary; margin 【例】If you cannot inspire a woman with love of you, full her above the brim with love of herself; all that runs over will be yours. 如果不能激起一位女子对你的爱,就用她对自己的爱盛满她吧。漫过边沿的那些都将属于你。He filled the cup to the brim. 他倒了满满一杯。He brimmed a cup with wine. 他斟满一杯酒。
brisk [brisk] a. 1.轻快的,生气勃勃的2.兴隆的,繁忙活跃的3.寒冷而清新的 【同】quick; lively; active 【例】His brisk walking aroused our curiosity. 他轻快的步伐引起了我们的好奇。A brisk walk in cool weather is invigorating. 在凉爽的天气里轻松地散步令人心旷神怡。
brittle ['britl] a. 1.易碎的,易损坏的2.脆弱的,靠不住的3.冷淡的,不友好的4.(声音)尖利的 【同】breakable; fragile; crisp 【例】Glasses and lasses are brittle ware. 玻璃和少女都是脆弱的东西。He has a brittle temper. 他脾气急。Constant stress has made our nerves brittle. 我们长期处于紧张状态,神经已经吃不消了。
brochure ['brKuSK] n. 小册子,小册
brutal ['bru:tl] a. 1.野兽般的,残忍的2.无情的,冷酷的,难以忍受的 【同】pitiless; harsh; unmerciful 【例】A brutal murderer killed ten people. 一个残忍的杀手杀死了几个人。Many a rich businessman reached the top by trampling on others in the most brutal way. 许多富商靠极其残酷地践踏别人而爬了上去。
bubble ['bVbl] n. 泡,水泡,气泡 vi. 冒泡,起泡 【同】well; boil; foam; erupt 【例】Truth is tough. It will not break, like a bubble, at a touch; you may kick it about all day like a football, and it will be round the full at evening. 真理是坚韧的。它不会像水泡似的一触即破。你可以拿它当足球整天踢来踢去,到晚上它还会是圆鼓鼓的。One generation blows bubbles, and the next breaks them. 前一代人制造出来的空洞理论,下一代人把它们打破。The gas bubbled to the surface of the water. 气体变成气泡升上水面。He bubbled questions. 他接二连三地提问题。
budget ['bVdZit] n. 预算,预算拨款 vi. (for)编预算,作安排 vt. 规划,安排 a. 低廉的,收费公道的 【同】expenditure; expenses; accounts 【例】The only good budget is a balanced budget. 只有平衡的预算才是好的预算。The Chancellor of the Exchequer is expected to announce tax cuts in this year's budget. 人们期望财政大臣公布在本年度预算中削减税收。A family on a budget can't afford meat every day. 经济拮据的家庭不能每天享用肉食。With the limited budget, the government is unable to invest much money in education. 政府因预算有限,不能对教育进行大比投资。
buffet ['bVfit] n. 1.(火车站的)饮食柜台,(火车内的)餐车2.自助餐 vt. 反复敲打,连续猛击 【例】We had a buffet supper last evening. 昨天晚上,我们吃了一次自助晚餐。The ship buffeted through the big waves. 这艘船在波涛中奋勇前进。
bug [bVg] n. 1.虫子2.小病,(机器等)故障,缺陷3.窃听器 vt. 1.烦扰,纠缠2.在...装窃听器 【例】The police tested the room for bugs. 警察检查房间里是否放有窃听器。Our test flight was to discover the bugs in the new plane. 试验飞行是为了发现新飞机有何毛病。
bulb [bVlb] n.电灯泡;球状物 【例】Onions and lilies grow from bulbs. 洋葱和百合是从球茎中长出的。
bulk [bVlk] n. 1.(巨大)物体, (大)块, (大)团2.主体, 绝大部分3.(巨大的)体积, (大)量 vi. 变得越来越大(或重要)vt. 使更大(或更厚) 【同】mass; quantity; extent 【例】I do not have a high opinion of the bulk of mankind. I feel that the irrational forces in man’s nature are so strong that the rational forces have little chance of success against them. 我对人类的大部分没有多高的评价。我觉得人怀中非理发的力量是如此强大,理性力量几乎没有战胜它们的可能。Do they charge carriage by bulk? 他们是否按体积计算运费? The cake bulked up. 蛋糕发起来了。
bull [bul] n. 1.公牛,雄兽2.买进证券(或商品等)投机图利者,(牟股市行情)看涨的人 【例】He likes to throw the bull. 他喜欢吹牛。
bulletin ['bulKtin] n. 1.(报纸、电台等)简明新闻,最新消息2.公告,布告,公报3.学报,期刊(尤指某机构的机关刊物) 【同】notice; release; announcement 【例】The medical association publishes a bulletin each mouth. 该医学协会每月刊印一期会刊。He posted a bulletin on the board. 他在布告板上贴了一张公告。
bump [bVmp] vi. 1.(against, into)碰,撞2.颠簸着前进 n. 1.碰撞,猛撞2.(碰撞造成的)肿块3.隆起物 【同】knock; bang; collide; crash 【例】He who hesitates gets bumped from the rear. 迟疑不决者会从后面挨撞。I've bumped my knee on the wall. 我的膝盖撞上了墙壁。We bumped up and down along the gravel path. 我们沿砾石小路颠簸而行。He fell down with a bump. 他噗通一声倒了下去。She got a bump on her head. 她头上撞起了一个包。
bundle ['bVndl] n. 捆,包,束 vt. 收集,归拢,把...塞入 【例】He sold a bundle of old magazines to the second hand bookstore. 他把一捆就杂志卖给了旧书店。
bureau ['bjuKrKu] n. 局,办事处,分社 【例】He worked in a travel bureau. 他在一家旅行社工作。
bypass ['baipA:s] n. 1.(绕过市镇的)旁道,迂回道2.分流术,旁通管 vt. 1.绕过,绕... 走2.越过,置...于不顾 【同】side route 【例】If we take the bypass, we will avoid the town center. 我们走旁道,就可以避开市镇中心。
by-product ['bai,prOdKt] n.副产品; (意外或无心的)附带生成的结果
cabbage ['kcabinet ['kcable ['keibl] n. 1.缆绳,钢索2.电缆3.(海底)电报 vt. 给...发电报,用电报传送 【例】A number of cables are needed in this project. 这项工程需要大量电缆。She cabled the good news about her arrival in Chicago. 她打电报说她已顺利到达芝加哥。
cafeteria [,kcalculate ['kcalendar ['kcamel ['kcanal [kK'ncandidate ['kcannon ['kcanoe [kK'nu:] n. 独木舟vi. 乘独木舟,划独木舟 【例】We crossed the lake in a canoe. 我们乘独木舟过河。
canteen [kcanvas ['kcapacity [kK'pcapitalism ['kcapsule ['kcaptive ['kcarbon ['kA:bKn] n. 碳 【例】The stick of carbon is often used in an electric arc lamp. 碳精棒常用于电弧灯。I make a carbon copy of my documents. 我用复写纸复写文件。
career [kK'riK] n. 生涯,职业 【例】His early career was not a great success. 他早期的生涯并不很成功。
carrier ['kcartoon [kA:'tu:n] n. 1.漫画,幽默画2.动画片 【同】joke; ridicule; satire 【例】Children usually like cartoons. 孩子们通常都喜欢动画片。
cassette [kK'set] n. 盒式录音(或录像)带 【例】He bought a new cassette recorder. 他买了一台新的盒式录音机。
casual ['kcasualty ['kcatalog ['kcategory ['kcaution ['kO:Sn] n. 1.小心,谨慎2.注意(事项),警告 vt. 警告,劝...小心 【同】heed; attention; warning 【例】Of all forms of caution, caution in love is perhaps most fatal to true happiness. 在所有的谨慎中,爱情上的谨慎也许是对于真正的祝福最重要的一种。He told us to proceed with caution. 他要我们谨慎行事。I must caution you against the danger. 我必须告诫你应谨防危险。
cautious ['kO:SKs] a. 十分小心的,谨慎的 【例】He is cautious in his choice of words. 他措辞很谨慎。She is cautious of telling secrets. 她很谨慎,不会泄露秘密。
cellar ['selK] n. 1.地窖,地下室2.酒窖 【例】The plumber went down to the cellar to fix the leaky pipe. 管道工到地下室去修漏水的管子。
cement [si'ment] n. 1.水泥2.胶结材料 vt. 1.粘结,胶合2.巩固,使团结 【例】The floor has been cemented over. 地板上铺了一层水泥。Our object is to further cement trade relations. 我们的目标是进一步加强贸易关系。
census ['sensKs] n. 人口普查,统计 【同】official counting of all the people 【例】The population of China is nearly 1.3 billion according to the latest census. 根据最近一项人口普查,中国人口接近13亿。The census is taken one time every four years in our country. 我国每四年一次人口普查。
centigrade ['sentigreid] a. 摄氏的
centimetre ['senti,mi:tK] n. 厘米 【例】The boy is 150 centimetres tall. 这个男孩有150厘米高。He is 5 centimetres taller than her. 他比她高5公分。
certainty ['sK:tnti] n. 1.必然的事,确定的事实2.确信,确实 【例】I can't say with any certainty where I shall be next week. 我说不准下星期在什么地方。We have no certainty of success. 我们没有成功的把握。
challenge ['tSchannel ['tSchaos ['keiOs] n. 混乱,紊乱 【同】confusion; disorder; discord 【例】The burglar left the house in chaos. 盗贼走后,屋子里一片混乱。After the failure of the electricity supplies the city was in chaos. 电力供应中断,城市陷于混乱之中。
characteristic [,kcharacterize ['kcharity ['tSchart [tSA:t] n. 1.图,图表2.航图,海图 vt. 用图表表示,在图上表示 【例】Can you read the weather chart? 你能看懂气象图吗? The pilot charted the plane's course. 飞行员制定了飞机的航线。
charter ['tSA:tK] n. 1.宪章,共同纲领2.特许证,许可证3.(飞机、汽车等的)包租, 包机 vt. 包,租(飞机、汽车等)a. 包租的,租用的 【同】hiring of a bus (or ship) 【例】The company chartered 10 cars for the celebration of it foundation. 这个公司为庆祝其成立,包租了10 辆汽车。The holiday-makers chartered a boat to go fishing. 渡假者租了一艘船去钓鱼。The company was granted a charter trade in the occupied territory. 这家公司被授予特权,可以在被占领地区进行贸易活动。
chemical ['kemikl] a. 化学的n. 化学制品 【例】My major is the subject of chemical engineering. 我的专业是化学工程学。We are doing a chemical experiment. 我们正在做化学实验。
chemist ['kemist] n. 1.化学家2.药剂师,药商 【例】I bought aspirin at the chemist's on the corner. 我在大街拐角的药房买了阿司匹林。The famous chemist won the Nobel Prize. 那个著名的化学家赢得了诺贝尔奖。
cherish ['tSeriS] vt. 1.珍爱,珍视2.爱护,抚育3.抱有,怀有(希望、想法、感情等) 【同】value; esteem; love 【例】People who don’t cherish their elderly have forgotten where they came and where they go. 不敬老的人忘了自己从何处来,也忘了自己到何方去。One of our cherished privileges is the right of free speech. 我们所珍视的权利之一是言论自由。Never cherish a serpent in your bosom. 永远不要施恩于忘恩负义之人。
chestnut ['tSesnVt] n.栗子 【例】These chestnuts are of bright reddish-brown. 这些栗子是鲜亮的红褐色。
chew [tSu:] v. & n. 咀嚼,咬 【例】You must chew your food well before you swallow it. 食物吞下去之前先要细细咀嚼。I'll think about it while I have a chew. 我吃饭时会想想看。
childish ['tSaildiS] a.孩子的;幼稚的 【例】The little girl spoke in a high childish voice. 小女孩说话时声音尖尖的,带着童音。
chill [tSil] vt. 使变冷,使冷冻,使感到冷 1.寒冷,寒气2.风寒,寒战 【例】The night air chilled his bones. 夜间的寒气使他感到冰冷彻骨。The sight sent a chill to her heart. 这情景使她心寒。There was a chill in the air this morning. 今天早上有点冷冰冰的。
chin [tSin] n. 下巴,颏 【例】He was so fat that he had a double chin. 他胖得有双下巴了。
choke [tSKuk] v. 1.(使)窒息,呛2.塞满,塞住 【同】smother; gasp; drown 【例】An old woman was found choked to death. 发现一个老妇人被掐死了。She choked with emotion. 她激动得说不出话来。
chorus ['kO:rKs] n. 1.合唱队2.合唱,合唱曲3.副歌,叠句4.齐声,齐声说的话(或发出的喊声)vt. 齐声说,随声附和 【例】The papers all chorused the praises of the President. 各报都异口同声地对总统表示赞扬。
chronic ['krOnik] a. 1.(疾病)慢性的,(人)久病的2.长久的,不断的3.积习难改的 【同】persistent; constant; habitual 【例】The country has a chronic unemployment problem. 这个国家长期存在失业问题。My brother has chronic bronchitis. 我的哥哥患有慢性支气管炎。There is a chronic unemployment problem in America. 在美国存在长期失业问题。
circuit ['sK:kit] n. 1.电路,线路2.环行,环行道 【例】The rocket did one circuit of the earth and returned to base. 火箭绕地球运行一周后返回基地。
circular ['sK:kjulK] a. 1.圆形的,环行的2.循环的,兜圈子的 n. 通知,通告 【例】The full moon has a circular form. 满月呈圆形。Stop giving me circular explanations and tell me what really happened. 别拐弯抹角地解释了,告诉我究竟发生了什么。
circulate ['sK:kjuleit] v. 1.(使)循环,(使)流通2.(使)流传,散布,传播 【例】Blood circulates through the body. 血液在体内循环。The news of her death circulated quickly. 她死去的消息迅速传开。Please open a window to allow the air to circulate. 打开窗子让空气流通。
circumference [sK:'kVmfKrKns] n.圆周,周长,圆周线 【例】The circumference of the earth is almost 25,000 miles. 地球的圆周长约为两万五千英里。
circus ['sK:kKs] n. 1.马戏,马戏团2.喧闹的场面3.环形广场 【例】The children are trying to persuade their mother to allow them to go to the circus. 孩子们试图说服妈妈让他们去看马戏。
cite [sait] vt. 1.引用,引证2.传唤,传讯3.表彰,嘉奖 【同】summon; quote; mention 【例】The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose. 魔鬼为了他的目的也会引用圣经。He was cited for contempt of court. 他因蔑视法庭而被传讯。It's no use citing the Bible to somebody who doesn't believe in God. 对不信上帝的人引用圣经的话是没用的。The soldier was cited by the king for his bravery. 这士兵由于英勇而受到国王的褒扬。
civil ['sivKl] a. 1.公民(间)的,国内的2.平民的,文职的,民用的3.民事的,民法的4.文明的,有教养的 【例】Man is a civil creature. 人是社会动物。It was a civil case so there was no question of him being sent to prison. 这是一桩民事案件,因此他没有被送进监狱 的可能。
civilian [si'viliKn] n. 平民,百姓 【例】People are indignant by their shooting of innocent civilians. 对于他们枪杀无辜平民,人们感到义愤填膺。
civilize ['sivilaiz] vt. 使文明,使开化 【例】Many a rough man has been civilized by his wife. 许多粗野的男人在妻子的开导下变得文雅了。
clap [klclarity ['klclash [klclassical ['klclassification [,klclassify ['klclaw [klO:] n. 爪,脚爪 v. (用爪)抓,撕 【例】A hen's claw has three toes. 母鸡的脚爪有三个脚趾。Cats have sharp claws. 猫有锋利的爪子。The editor got his claws into the opposition in a vicious editorial. 那个编辑在一篇社论中恶毒地攻击了反对 派。Anxiety clawed him. 忧虑撕裂他的心。
client ['klaiKnt] n. 委托人,当事人,顾客 【例】If a lawyer has plenty of clients, he grows rich. 律师如果有大量的诉讼委托人,就会财源不断。
cliff [klif] n. 悬崖,峭壁 【例】The man committed suicide by jumping off the cliff. 那人跳下悬崖自杀。
climate ['klaimKt] n. 1.气候,气候区2.风气,气氛 【同】weather; atmosphere 【例】In a happy marriage, it is the wife who provides the climate, the husband the landscape. 在幸福的婚姻中,提供气候的是妻子,而丈夫只是提供风景。Britain has a temperate climate. 英国气候温和。
climax ['klaimcling ['kliN] 坚持,?墨守;依靠?依恋 (to) 【同】adhere; stick; hold fast【例】The rich who are unhappy are worse off than the poor who are unhappy; for the poor, at least, cling to the hopeful illusion that more money would solve their problems —— but the rich know better. 不幸福的富人比不幸福的贫人更糟,因为穷人至少还紧抱着多些钱就会解决自己的问题这样充满希望的幻想──而富人知道事实并非如此。
clip [klip] n. 1.(弹簧)夹子, 回形针, 别针2.弹夹, 弹仓3.剪, 修剪4.剪报, 电影(或电视)片断 vt. 1.(用夹子、回形针等)夹住, 扣住2.剪, 修剪3.削减, 缩短 【例】The bus driver clipped our tickets to show we had used them. 公共汽车司机在我们的车票上打孔,标明使用过了。We clipped our visit by a week. 我们将访问缩短了一周。She wore a diamond clip on her new dress. 她在新衣服上戴了一枚钻石别针。
clockwise ['klOkwaiz] ad.& a. 顺时针方向地(的)
clue [klu:] n. 线索,提示 【同】sign; proof; evidence 【例】Appearances are not held to be a clue to the truth. 人们并不认为现象是真理的线索。
clumsy ['klVmzi] a. 1.笨拙的,粗陋的2.不得体的,不策略的 【同】inexpert; awkward; unskillful 【例】A clumsy artist is always wearing other’s glasses. 拙劣的艺术家总是戴着别人的眼镜。It's not easy walking in these clumsy shoes. 穿着这双笨重的鞋走路真难受。。
cluster ['klVstK] n. 1.(果实、花等的)串,簇2.(人、物等的)群,组 vi. 群集,丛生 vt. 使群集,集中 【例】You can see stars in clusters in the night sky. 你可以看到夜空中的星群。The men clustered together round the fire and sang songs. 人们聚集在篝火周围唱歌。
coarse [kO:s] a. 1.粗的,粗糙的2.粗劣的3.粗俗的 【同】rough; crude; unrefined 【例】His coarse manners shocked everyone. 他的粗鲁的举止使每个人震惊。
code [kKud] n. 1.准则,法规2.密码,代码 vt. 把...编码 【例】I can break the code of this box. 我能破译这个箱子的密码。The Highway Code has been carried. 公路法规已经被执行。
coherent [kK'hiKrKnt] a. 1.条理清楚的,连贯的2.一致的,协调的 【同】consistent; compatible; cooperative 【例】The sentences in a paragraph should be coherent. 段落中的句子应该具有连贯性。
coil [kOil] n. 1.(一)卷,(一)圈2.线圈 v. 卷,盘绕 【例】He passed me a coil of thread. 他递给我一卷线。She coiled her hair at the back of her head. 她把头发盘在脑后。The snake coiled itself around the tree. 蛇盘绕在树上。
coincide [,kKuin'said] vi. 1.同时发生2.相符,相一致3.位置重合,重叠
coincidence [kKu'insidKns] n. 1.巧合,巧事2.(意见、爱好等的)一致,符合 【同】agreement; incident; chance 【例】We are in coincidence in habits. 我们习惯相同。What a coincidence! 多巧的事啊!  By coincidence, we arrived here at the same time. 我们凑巧一同到达这儿。
collaborate [kK'lcollective [kK'lektiv] a. 集体的,共同的 n. 团体,集体 【同】massed; cooperative; gathering 【例】Patriotism is a lively sense of collective responsibility. 爱国主义是一种生动的集体责任感。In a system of collective bargaining, the workers as a group negotiate with the managers of the company. 在劳资集体谈判制度下,工人作为一个团体同公司经理进行谈判。
collide [kK'laid] vi. 1.碰撞,互撞2.冲突,抵触
collision [kK'liZn] n. 1.碰撞2.冲突,抵触 【同】impact; conflict; encounter 【例】Football is not a contact sport. It is a collision sport. Dancing is a good example of a contact sport. 足球不是接触运动。它是冲撞运动。跳舞是接触运动的好例子。The liner is reported to have been in collision with an oil tanker. 据报道,这艘客轮与一艘油轮相撞。Five persons died during the collision between two buses. 5个人死于公共汽车相撞。
colonel ['kK:nl] n. 上校 【例】The colonel ordered their soldiers to gather on the deck. 上校命令士兵们在甲板上集合。
colonial [kK'lKuniKl] a. 殖民地的 【例】The new house he bought was colonial architecture. 他新买的房子是美国初期的建筑。
combat ['kOmbcomedy ['kOmKdi] n. 1.喜剧2.喜剧性(事件) 【同】drama; entertainment; sensation 【例】Comedy, we may say, is society protecting itself. 可以说,喜剧是社会在保护自己。He prefers comedies to tragedies. 他比较喜欢喜剧而不太喜欢悲剧。There is not much comedy in modern war. 现代战争并不是好玩的事。
commemorate [kK'memKreit] vt. 纪念,庆祝 【同】honor; celebrate 【例】We commemorate the founding of our nation with a public holiday. 我们必须放假一天以庆祝国庆。Christmas commemorates the birth of Christ. 圣诞节是为了纪念耶酥的诞生。A monument was built to commemorate the victory. 为了纪念胜利,建造了一座纪念碑。
commence [kK'mens] v. 开始 【同】start; originate; begin; enter upon 【例】When a couple of young people strongly devoted to each other, commence to eat onions, it is safe to pronounce them engaged. 当一对相互恋爱的年轻人开始吃洋葱时,说他们订了婚准不会错。The second term commences in March. 第二学期自三月开始。
commend [kK'mend] vt. 1.表扬,称赞2.推荐 【同】praise; entrust; promote; laud 【例】His work was highly commended. 他的工作备受赞赏。Approve not of him who commends all you say. 不要称许对你的话句句赞扬的人。
comment ['kOment] n. 1.评论,意见2.闲话,议论 vt. 评论 【例】He made several favorable comments about their candidate. 他对他们的候选人发表了一些有利的评论。The minister refused to comment on the rumors of his resignation. 部长拒绝就他辞职一事的传闻发表评论。
commercial [kK'mK:Sl] a. 1.商业的,商务的2.商品化的,商业性的 n. 商业广告 【例】New York is a big commercial city. 纽约是一座大的商业城市。
commission [kK'miSn] n. 1.委员会2.佣金,回扣3.授权,委托 vt. 委任,委托 【同】commitment; authorization; duty 【例】Advertising agency, eighty-five percent confusion and fifteen percent commission. 广告代理公司:百分之八十五的糊涂加上百分之十五的佣金。He has secured two commissions to design buildings for a local authority. 他已承包两项为当地政府设计建筑物的业务。
commit [kK'mit] vt. 1.犯(错误、罪行等)干(蠢事、坏事等)2.(oneself)使承担义务,使承诺3.(to)把...托付给,把...置于4.调拨...供使用,拨出 【例】She committed herself to philanthropy. 她专心从事慈善事业。The girl was committed to the care of an aunt. 这女孩被交给姨母照顾。He would not commit himself in any way. 他不愿做出任何承诺。
commonplace ['kOmKnpleis] a. 普通的,平庸的 n. 寻常的事物,平庸的东西 【同】usual; conventional; common 【例】He is not at all exceptional; in fact, he’s really rather commonplace. 他毫不出奇实际上平庸的很。
commonsense ['kOmKn'sens] n.常识
commonwealth ['kOmKnwelT] n. 1.[the C-] 英联邦2.联邦,联合体
communicate [kK'mju:nikeit] vi. 1.交流,交际,通讯2.连接,相通 vt. 1.传达,传播2.传染 【例】He has communicated his wishes to me. 他已经把他的愿望告诉了我。I can't communicate with them; the radio doesn't work. 我无法和他们联系,无线电坏了。The door communicates with my room. 这门和我的房间相通。As soon as a child becomes old enough to communicate with other children, he begins having friends, who sometimes influence him more rapidly than families do.当一个孩子长到足以和其他人交流时,他开始交朋友,这些朋友有时比家庭对他影响更快。
communication [kK,mju:ni'keiSn] n. 1.交流,交际,通讯2.[pl.] 通信(或交通)工具,交通联系 【例】I am in communication with him on this subject. 关于这问题,我正和他交换意见。Radio and television are important means of communication. 无线电和电视是重要的通信手段。
commute [kK'mju:t] vi. 乘公交车上下班,经常乘车(或船等)往返于两地 vt. 1.减(刑)2.折合,折偿n. 上下班交通
compact ['kOmpcomparable ['kOmpKrKbl] a. (with, to)1.可比较的,类似的2.比得上的 【同】corresponding; alike; equivalent 【例】The quality of the commodity in this store is comparable to that in the other stores. 这个商店的商品质量可以和其他商店的商品相媲美。A comparable car would cost far more abroad. 类似的车子在国外要贵的多。His handwriting is not bad, but it's hardly comparable with yours. 他的书法不错,但是很难和你的相比。
comparative [kKm'pcompartment [kKm'pA:tmKnt] n. 1.卧车包房(客车车厢内的)隔间2.分隔的空间 【例】The first-class compartments are in the front of the train. 头等车室在列车的前面。This is a case with separate compartments for shoes, jewelry, etc. 这是一个分格存放鞋、珠宝等的箱子。
compatible [kKm'pcompel [kKm'pel] vt. 强迫,迫使 【同】enforce; constrain; force 【例】The heavy rain compelled us to stay indoors. 大雨迫使我们呆在户内。His cleverness and skill compel our admiration. 他的聪明和技巧使我们赞叹不已。
compensate ['kOmpKnseit] v. 补偿,弥补,抵消 【同】make up; counterbalance; repay; return 【例】True tragedy may be defined as a dramatic work in which the outward failure of the principal personage is compensated for by the dignity and greatness of his character. 真正的悲剧可以这样定义:一部剧作,剧中主人公的表面失败由其人格的高贵伟大予以补偿。Nothing can compensate for the loss of one's health. 什么都不能补偿健康受损。Because of these unique advantages offered by CAI (computer aid Instruction), nothing can compensate for the freedom to be my own master in learning, the pleasure of keeping my knowledge up-to-date, and curiosity about more unknown fields. 由于用CAI 学习有这些独特的优点,所以,没有什么东西可以抵得上做自己学习上的主人的自由、使自己的知识不断更新的乐趣以及对更多未知领域的好奇。
compensation [,kOmpen'seiSn] n. 1.补偿(或赔偿)的款物2.补偿,赔偿 【例】Compensation of injured workers has cost the company a lot. 公司花了一大笔钱赔偿受伤的工人。My job is hard, but it has its compensation. 我的工作虽苦,但也有所补偿。
compete [kKm'pi:t] vi. 竞争,比赛 【例】We have limited funds and several competing claims. 我们的基金有限而争相申请的却有几处。We should compete for our survival.我们应该为生存而竞争。While the small family has a unique advantage, it cannot compete with the large family. 虽然小家庭有独特的优点,但它仍不能和大家庭相提并论。
competent ['kOmpitKnt] a. 有能力的,能胜任的 【同】qualified; adequate; effective 【例】He is not competent to look after young children. 他没有照看小孩的本事。We know you are competent in doing this job. 我们知道你可以胜任这项工作。Is Mary competent as a teacher? 玛丽胜任教师的工作吗?
competitive [kKm'petKtiv] a. 1.竞争的,比赛的2.好竞争的, 求胜心切的3.(价格等)有竞争力的 【同】competing; opposing; rival; aggressive 【例】No longer is our firm competitive in world market. 我们公司在世界市场上已不具有竞争力。Our prices are competitive. 我们的价格是有竞争性的。America is a competitive society. 美国是一个充满竞争的社会。
compile [kKm'pail] vt. 汇编,编制,编纂
complaint [kKm'pleint] n. 1.抱怨,诉苦2.投诉,控告3.疾病 【同】objection; accusation; illness 【例】If you receive a customer complaint letter, give him or her what he or she wants. 如果收到顾客提出意见的信,就要满足顾客的要求。You have no cause for complaint. 你没有理由抱怨。I have a complaint of the chest. 我胸部不适。
complement ['kOmplimKnt] n. 1.补充,互为补充的东西2.编制名额,装备定额3.补(足)语 vt. 补充,与...相配 【同】supplement; addition; counterpart 【例】Guilt always hurries towards its complement, punishment; only there does its satisfaction lie. 罪行总是匆匆赶向它的配对物──惩罚,它只有在那里才能得到满足。This wine complements the food perfectly. 用这种酒配这种菜肴最妙不过了。A wine is a complement to a good meal. 美食加美酒才算完备。
completion [kKm'pli:Sn] n.完成,结束,完满 【例】Completion of the building work is taking longer than expected. 建筑工程的竣工比预计时间要长。The film is on the point of completion. 电影制作即将完成。You may move into the house on completion. 办完手续后,你就可以搬进去。
complicated ['kOmplikeitid] a. 复杂的,难懂的 【同】complex; confused; sophisticated 【例】I never blame failures —— there are too many complicated situations in life, but I am absolutely merciless toward lack of effort. 我从不责备失败──生活中复杂的情况实大太多;但是对于不肯努力,我绝对不讲情面。
complication [,kOmpli'keiSn] n. 1.(新出现的)困难,难题2.并发症 【例】I have enough complication in my life. 我生活里的麻烦已经够多了。A further complication was his refusal to travel by air. 更麻烦的是他不肯坐飞机旅行。Complications set in, and the patient died. 病人因出现并发症而死亡。
compliment ['kOmplimKnt] n. 1.赞美(话),恭维(话)2.[pl.] 致意,问候 vt. 赞美,恭维 【同】tribute; approval; flattery 【例】Whenever a man’s friends begin to compliment him about looking young, he may be sure that they think he is growing old. 当一个人的朋友都恭维他看上去还年轻时,那么这个人就可肯定自己已经变老了。Your presence is a great compliment. 承蒙光临,不胜荣幸。He complimented us with tickets for the football game. 他送给我们足球赛的门票。He complimented her on her new dress without even looking at it. 他连看都没看一眼,就称颂她的新衣服。She smiled when he paid her a compliment. 他恭维她时,她笑了笑。Things in classroom always go like this: teachers ask students to give their own different answers to the questions, but when students do speak up, they seldom get compliments for unique answers. 教室里的情形通常是这样的:老师要求学生用自己的观点回答问题。而当学生这样做的时候,老师却很少对独特的答案予以表扬。
comply [kKm'plai] vi. (with)遵从,依从,服从 【同】conform; agree; obey 【例】He that complies against his will is of his own opinion still. 违心服从的人仍然保留着自己的看法。Everyone should comply with the law. 每个人都应该遵守法律。
compose [kKm'pKuz] vt. 1.组成,构成2.创作(乐曲、诗歌等),为...谱曲3.使平静,使镇静 【例】He was composing at the piano at the age of seven. 他7岁时就会用钢琴作曲。Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. 水由氢和氧组成。
comprehend [,kOmpri'hend] v. 理解,领会 【例】If you can use a word correctly and effectively you comprehend it. 你如果可以正确有效地使用一个词,你就是了解它了。
comprehension [,kOmpri'henSn] n. 1.理解(力)2.理解力测验
comprehensive [,kOmpri'hensiv] a. 广泛的,综合的 【例】She has a comprehensive grasp of the subject. 她已全面掌握了这一学科。The reporter has made a comprehensive report. 记者已做了全面的报道。
compress ['kOmpres] vt. 压紧,压缩 【同】condense; concentrate; reduce 【例】To write or to speak is almost inevitably to lie a little. It is an attempt to clothe an intangible form; to compress an immeasurable into a mold. 无论作文还是说话,都几乎难免搀点儿假。那是试图以有形的形式表达无形的东西,试图将无限的东西压缩在一个模子里。The film compresses several years into half an hour. 这部电影将几年的事压缩于半小时内。
comprise [kKm'praiz] vt. 1.包含,包括,由...组成2.构成,组成 【例】A cricket team is comprised of eleven players. 一个板球队由11名队员组成。This month's figures are comprised in the total. 这个月的数字已包含在总数之内。
compromise ['kOmprKmaiz] n. 妥协,折中办法 vi. 妥协 vt. 危及,放弃(原则、理想等) 【同】concession; reconciliation 【例】All life is essentially the contributions that come from compromise. 整个人生基本上是妥协的结果。Progress has been made towards a political compromise between the two nations. 两国之间的政治和解已经取得进展。They refused to compromise their principles by doing a deal with the terrorists. 他们拒绝同恐怖分子做交易,以免原则受到损害。
compulsory [kKm'pVlsKri] a. 必须做的,强制性的,(课程)必修的 【同】obligatory; required; necessary 【例】Bodily exercise, when compulsory, does no harm to the body; but knowledge which is acquired under compulsion obtains no hold on the mind. 强制的身体锻炼不会损害身体,但被迫学习的知识占据不了头脑。Is military service compulsory in your country? 你们国家实行义务兵役制吗? Is English a compulsory subject? 英语是必修科目吗?
compute [kKm'pju:t] v. 计算,估算 【例】Scientists have computed the probable course of the rocket. 科学家利用计算机计算了火箭可能运行的轨道。He computed his losses at USD5,000. 他估计自己损失5000美元。
conceal [kKn'si:l] vt. 隐藏,掩盖,隐瞒 【同】cover; hide; screen 【例】Adversity reveals genius; fortune conceals it. 厄运显现才华,好运掩盖天资。It is wrong for a man to conceal things from his wife. 一个男人对妻子隐瞒事情是不对的。He concealed himself behind the tree. 他藏在树后。
conceive [kKn'si:v] vt. 1.(构)想出,认为2.怀(胎)vi. 1.(of)构想出,设想2.怀孕 【同】imagine; believe; visualize; envision 【例】As long as I can conceive something better than myself I cannot be easy unless I am striving to bring it into existence or clearing the way for it. 只要能想象出比我好的东西,我就安不下心来,除非我在努力使用权之成为现实,或者为之铺平道路。I can't conceive of your allowing the child to travel alone. 我想不通你怎么会让孩子独自去旅行。
concentrate ['kOnsKntreit] vi. 1.全神贯注,全力以赴2.集中,聚集 vt. 1.集中,聚集2.浓缩 n. 浓缩物,浓缩液 【例】I can't concentrate on my work when I'm tired. 我累了就无法集中精力工作。The crowds concentrated round the palace. 人群汇集在宫殿的四周。
concerning [kKn'sK:niN] prep. 关于
concession [kKn'seSn] n. 1.让步,妥协2.特许,特许权3.承认,认可 【同】granting; giving in; yielding 【例】The concessions of the weak are the concessions of fear. 弱者的让步是恐惧的让步。We will make some concession in price. 我们将在价格上做些让步。
concise [kKn'sais] a. 简明的,简要的 【同】brief; condensed; short 【例】The Concise Oxford Dictionary (COD) is a good assistant to English learners. 对英语学习者来说,《牛津英汉简明词典》是个好帮手。
concrete ['kONkri:t] a. 实在的,具体的 n. 混凝土 【同】particular; definite; detailed 【例】This post is made of concrete. 这根柱子是混凝土做的。Have you any concrete thoughts on how to deal with this difficulty? 处理这种困难你有什么具体的想法?
condemn [kKn'dem] vt. 1.谴责2.判...刑,宣告...有罪 【同】blame; criticize; accuse 【例】I wonder how anyone can have the face to condemn others when he reflects upon his own thought. 奇怪,有人既然反省了自己的思想,怎么还能有脸去指责别人。We condemned him for his bad conduct. 我们责备他行为不检点。The criminal was condemned to death. 这个罪犯被判死刑。The captured ship and her cargo were condemned. 这艘被俘获的船及其货物均被没收。
condense [kKn'dens] 1.(使)冷凝,(使)凝结2.浓缩,压缩,简缩 【同】compress; contract; abridge 【例】Steam condenses into water when cooling down. 蒸汽冷却时凝结成水。
conditional [kKn'diSKnl] a. 有条件的,假定的 【同】subject to; tentative 【例】The operation is conditional to the formulation. 运算应符合公式。
conductivity [,kOndVk'tiviti] n. 导电率,传导率,传导度
conductor [kKn'dVktK] n. 1.(乐队)指挥2.(公共汽车等的)售票员,列车长3.导体 【例】She is a bus conductor. 她是一名公共汽车售票员。
confer [kKn'fK:] vi. 商谈,商议 vt. (on)授予,赋予 【同】award; present; discuss; converse 【例】The Queen conferred knighthood on several distinguished men. 女王将爵士头衔授予几位杰出人才。The Queen conferred knighthood on several distinguished men. 女王将爵士头衔授予几位杰出人士。
conference ['kOnfKrKns] n. 1.(正式)会议2.讨论,商谈 【例】He is in conference and cannot come to the telephone. 他在开会,没空来接电话。You will see him at the press conference. 你会在记者招待会上见到他的。
confess [kKn'fes] v. 1.坦白,供认2.承认 【同】assert; utter; acknowledge 【例】I am not ashamed to confess that I am ignorant of what I do not know. 我不耻于承认对自己不懂的事情的无知。He
confident ['kOnfidKnt] a. 1.确信的,肯定的2.有信心的,自信的 【例】He felt at ease and confident about the future. 他对未来感到轻松自在并且充满信心。We are confident of victory. 我们确信能胜利。
confidential [,kOnfi'denSl] a. 1.秘密的,机密的2.表示信任(或亲密的)3.担任机密工作的                 【同】intimate; private; secret 【例】He was an author whose works were so little known as to be almost confidential. 他是一位作家,其作品是如些鲜为人知,以至几乎成为机密。Don't be too confidential with strangers. 不要过分相信陌生人。He told me the confidential information. 他向我透露了这个秘密的信息。
confine [kKn'fain] vt. 1.限制,使局限2.使不外出,禁闭 n.[pl.] 界限,范围 【同】imprison; restrain; enslave 【例】The world owes all its onward impulses to men ill at ease. The happy man inevitably confines himself within ancient limits. 世界前进的全部动力都归功于对现状不满的人。感到愉快的人必在把自己限在旧框框之内。I wish the speaker would confine himself to the subject. 我希望演说者不要离题。The thief was confined in a prison. 窃贼被关押在监狱里。
confirm [kKn'fK:m] vt. 1.证实,肯定2.进一步确定,确认3.批准 【例】The news confirmed my resolution. 这消息加强了我的决心。He looked around to confirm that he was alone. 他四处张望,要确定周围没人。
conflict ['kOnflikt] n. 1.冲突,抵触,争论2.战斗,战争 vi. 冲突,抵触 【同】clash; opposition; contrast 【例】A marriage without conflicts is almost as inconceivable as a nation without crisis. 没有冲突的婚姻几乎同没有危机的国家一样难以想象。The long drawn-out conflict between the employers and workers led to the strike last week. 劳资之间旷日持久的纠纷导致了上周的罢工。
conform [kKn'fO:m] vi. (to, with)1.遵守,适应,顺从2.相似,一致,符合 【同】comply; accord; submit 【例】A society can’t exist only by moral thoughts, it needs also deeds which conform to this moral thoughts. 社会仅凭道观无法存在。它还需要与之相应的行动。She refused to conform to the normal social conventions. 她拒绝遵从正常的社会习俗。The building does not conform to safety regulations. 这座建筑物不符合安全条例。
confront [kKn'frVnt] vt. 1.迎面遇到,遭遇2.勇敢地面对,正视3.使对质,使当面对证 【同】meet; oppose; counter 【例】He who confronts the paradoxical exposes himself to reality. 面对自相矛盾之事的人使自己接触到现实。They confronted the prisoner with his accusers. 他们让犯人与原告对质。Confronted by an angry crowd the police retreated. 警察面对愤怒的人群只好后撤了。A soldier often has to confront danger. 士兵常常要身临险境。
confuse [kKn'fju:z] vt. 1.使困惑,把...弄糊涂2.混淆,把...混同3.混乱,搞乱 【例】They asked so many questions that they confused me. 他们问了许许多多问题,把我弄糊涂了。Please don't confuse Australia with Austria. 别把澳大利亚和奥地利混淆了。
congratulate [kKn'grcongratulation [kKn,grconjunction [kKn'dZVNkSn] n. 1.接合,连接,联合2.连(接)词 【例】The conjunction of workmanship and artistry in making jewelry decides the value of the jewelry. 在珠宝饰物的制造中,手工与艺术的结合决定了珠宝的价值。
connection [kK'nekSn] (connexion)n. 1.联系,(因果)关系2.连接(部分),衔接3.[pl.] 熟人,关系(户) 【例】What is the connection between the two ideas? 这两个概念之间有何联系?
conquest ['kONkwest] n. 攻取,征服,克服 【例】They succeeded in the conquest of the city. 他们成功地征服了这座城市。
conscience ['kOnSKns] n. 良心 【同】moral; morals; shame 【例】A brave man risks his life, but not his conscience. 勇敢的人用生命冒险,但不以良心冒险。She gave him back the money she'd stolen for the sake of her conscience. 为了不受良心的谴责,她把从他那偷来的钱还给他了。
conscientious [,kOnSi'enSKs] a. 认真的,勤勤恳恳的 【例】She is a conscientious teacher. 她是一个有责任心的教师。We should be conscientious to our work. 我们应该对工作负责。
conscious ['kOnSKs] a. 1.意识到的,自觉的2.神志清醒的3.有意的,存心的 【例】He was very conscious of his shortcomings. 他对自己的缺点十分清楚。He was badly hurt, but he still remained conscious. 他伤得很重,但仍未失去知觉。
consciousness ['kOnSKsnKs] n.意识,觉悟;知觉 【例】When will the patient regain his consciousness? 这个病人什么时候恢复知觉?This experience helped to change her social consciousness. 这次经验有助于帮助她改变社会意识。They often complain that the development of cities will gradually deprive the dwellers of the closeness to nature, of the freedom on land, and even of the consciousness of seasons. 他们常抱怨道:城市的发展将使人们逐渐失去与大自然的近距离接触,失去在大堤上活动的自由,甚至失去对季节的感觉。
consensus [kKn'sensKs] n. (意见等)一致,一致同意 【同】agreement; unanimity; accord 【例】For a non-profit-seeking organization, success often lies in consensus. 对于非盈利企业,成功往往取决于一致意见。
conservation [,kOnsK'veiSn] n. 保存,(对自然资源的)保护,避免浪费 【同】inaction; stability; protection 【例】A state without the means of some change is without the means of its conservation. 不具备某种变革手段的国家也不具备保存自己的手段。Most people have come to accept the need for conservation of natural resources. 现在大多数人已认识到保护自然资源的必要。Who discovered the conservation of energy? 谁发现了能量守恒?
conservative [kKn'sK:vKtiv] a. 1.保守的,守旧的2.(式样等)不时新的,传统的n. 保守的人 【例】He was very conservative in the estimate. 他的这一估计很保守。
considerable [kKn'sidKrKbl] a. 相当大(或多)的 【例】The mayor is a considerable official. 市长是一位重要的官员。He bought the house at considerable expense. 他花了很多钱买了这所房子。
considerate [kKn'sidKrKt] a. 体贴的,体谅的 【同】sympathetic; thoughtful 【例】A child that lives with sharing learns to be considerate. 同意分享的孩子知道为人着想。
consideration [kKn,sidK'reiSn] n. 1.考虑,要考虑的事2.体贴,关心
consistent [kKn'sistKnt] a. 1.坚持的,一贯的2.一致的,符合的 【同】compatible; rational; matching 【例】Consistency is contrary to nature, contrary to life. The only completely consistent people are the dead. 一成不变违反自然,违反生命。能够做到始终完全如一的只有死人。What you're saying now is not consistent with what you said last week. 你现在说的话与上星期你说的不相符。I left as early as it was consistent with politeness. 我在不失礼的情况下提前离去了。The last five years have seen a consistent improvement in the country's economy. 在最近的五年里,这个国家的经济状况一直 在好转。
consolidate [kKn'sOlideit] v. 1.巩固,加强2.(把...)联为一体,合并 【同】unite; compress; pack; fuse 【例】All the debts have been consolidated. 所有债务均已合并。He bribes his leader to consolidate his position. 他贿赂他的领导来巩固他的地位。The two companies consolidated last year. 这两个公司去年合并了。
conspicuous [kKn'spikjuKs] a. 显眼的,明显的 【同】outstanding; eminent; striking 【例】If you’re walking along a badly-lit road at night you should wear conspicuous clothes. 晚上在照明很差的路上,应该穿显眼的衣服。A traffic sign should be conspicuous. 交通标志应该明显。Lincoln is a conspicuous example of a poor boy who succeeded. 林肯是一个穷苦孩子而功成名就的出色例子。
constituent [kKn'stitjuKnt] n. 1.选民,选区居民2.成分,组分a. 组成的,构成的 【例】Analyze the sentence into its constituent parts. 把这条句子的各个成份加以分析。Do you know the constituents of the mixture? 你知道这种混合物的成份吗?
constitute ['kOnstitju:t] vt. 1.组成,构成,形成2.设立,建立,任命 【例】Twelve months constitute one year. 十二个月构成一年。Laws are constituted to protect individual rights and properties. 法律是为保卫人民的权利和财产而制定的。
constitution [,kOnsti'tju:Sn] n. 1.宪法,章程2.体质,素质3.组成,设立 【同】basic laws; physical conditions 【例】Why is woman persistently regarded as a mystery? It is not that she has labored to conceal the organic and psychological facts of her constitution, but that men have showed no interest in exploring them. 为什么女人总是被视为神秘的事物?原因并不是她的事实,而是男人从来就没对探索这些事实表现过兴趣。The constitution of a primitive society is not necessarily simple. 原始社会的结构并不一定就是简单的。He has a good constitution. 他体质很好。
construct [kKn'strVkt] vt.建造;建设;构筑 【例】This factory was constructed by our company. 这家工厂是由我们公司建设的。
consultant [kKn'sVltKnt] n. 1.顾问2.会诊医师,专科医生
consumption [kKn'sVmpSn] n. 1.消耗量,消费量2.消耗,消费,挥霍 【例】Consumption of cotton increased even after it rose in price. 棉花的价格虽然提高了,但消耗依然增加。There's too great a consumption of alcohol in China. 在中国酒的消耗量太大了。
contact ['kOntcontaminate [kOn'tcontempt [kKn'tempt] n. 轻视,轻蔑 【同】scorn; hatred; malice 【例】I feel nothing but contempt for people who treat children so cruelly. 我鄙视如此虐待孩子的人。
contend [kKn'tend] vi. 1.争夺,竞争2.搏斗,争斗 vt. 声称,主张 【同】contest; fight; struggle 【例】Several teams are contending for the price. 有几个队在争夺锦标。
context ['kOntekst] n. 1.背景, 环境2.上下文, 语境
continual [kKn'tinjuKl] a. 1.不间断的, 不停的2.多次重复的, 频频的 【例】Are you tired of this continual rain? 你对于这不停的雨不感到厌烦吗?
continuous [kKn'tinjuKs] a. 连续不断的, 不断延伸的 【例】The brain needs a continuous supply of blood. 大脑需要不断地供血。
contract ['kOntrcontradict [,kOntrK'dikt] vt. 1.反驳, 否认...的真实性2.与...发生矛盾, 与...抵触 【同】oppose; confront; disagree 【例】Assertion is not argument, to contradict the statement of an opponent is not proof that you are innocent. 坚持已见不是论据,反驳对方的说法也不能证明你就是正确的。Don't contradict your father. 别和你父亲犟嘴。The report contradicts what we heard yesterday. 这个报道与我们昨天听到的有矛盾。
contrary ['kOntrKri] a. (to)相反的, 对抗的 n. [the~] 相反, 相反事物 【例】My sister's taste in dresses is contrary to my own. 在服装方面,我妹妹的爱好和我完全不同。The players on the contrary side now took their places. 双方运动员开始各就各位。
contribute [kKn'tribju:t] vi. 1.捐款, 作出贡献2.(to)有助于, 促成3.投稿 vt. 捐, 捐献 【例】Each worker contributed one dollar to the Red Cross. 每个工人都向红十字会捐献了一美元。She asked him to contribute a biweekly article on European affairs. 她约他每两周写一篇有关欧洲情况的文稿。Honesty and hard work contribute to success and happiness. 诚实加苦干有助于成功和幸福。
contribution [,kOntri'bju:Sn] n. 1.贡献, 促成作用2.捐款, 捐献物3.(投给报刊等的)稿件 【同】gift; grant; donation 【例】The editor is short of contribution for the May issue. 编辑缺少五月号的稿件。He has made an important contribution to the company's success. 他对公司的成功作出了重要的贡献。All contribution, however small, will be greatly appreciated. 所有捐款,无论数目多么少,我们都深表感谢。If they continue to work in a way their health permits, old people can still make a great contribution to the society. 如果他们继续以他们的健康允许的方式工作,老人仍然能够为社会作很大的贡献。
contrive [kKn'traiv] vt. 1.谋划, 策划2.设法做到3.设计, 想出 【同】devise; invent; create; concoct 【例】Their sudden outburst was obviously genuine; it couldn’t have been contrived. 他们突如其来的发作显然是真的,这是装不出来的。The prisoner contrived a way to escape. 囚犯图谋越狱。Can you contrive to be here early? 你能不能设法早到点?
controversial [,kOntrK'vK:Sl] a. 引起争论的, 有争议的 【例】Many of the new taxes are controversial. 许多新税收都是有争议的。
convenience [kKn'vi:niKns] n. 1.方便, 合宜2.便利设施, 方便的用具 【例】It's a great convenience to live in town. 住在城市里有很大的方便。We find our folding table a great convenience. 我们发现可折叠的桌子使用非常方便。On the contrary, some people are attracted by the convenience of the city. 相反,一些人被城市的便利所吸引。Those who welcome the Internet hold that it brings us great convenience and efficiency. 赞成互联网的人认为它给我们带来了极大的方便和提高了效率。With respect to convenience, it is difficult to say which one is better. 就方便来说,很难说哪个更好。Cities provide convenience and civilized lifestyle, but they also bring about a series of problems, such as pollution, traffic jam, and crime, etc. 城市给人们带来了便利和文明的生活方式,同时也带来了一系列问题,如污染、交通阻塞和犯罪等。
convention [kKn'venSn] n. 1.习俗, 惯例2.公约, 协议3.(正式)会议, (定期)大会
conventional [kKn'venSKnl] a. 1.普通的, 习惯的, 常规的2.符合习俗的, 因循守旧的 【同】established; prevailing; prejudiced 【例】She is so conventional in her views. 她的观点太保守。He often speaks a few conventional remarks. 他总是喜欢说老生常谈的那几句话。
conversely [kKn'vK:sli] ad. 相反(地) 【同】reversed; on the contrary 【例】Young people everywhere share a kind of experience that none of the elders ever have had or will have. Conversely, the older generation will never see repeated in the lives of young people their own unprecedented experiences of sequentially emerging change. 不同地方的年轻人共同拥有一种经历, 这种经历是年长者不曾经历过的,而且他们以后也不会经历。反之,老一代人也永远不会看到年轻人的生活中会重复他们自己独特的按顺序出现的变化。
conversion [kKn'vK:Sn] n. 1.转变, 变换2.改变信仰, 皈依 【例】Conversion to gas central heating will save you a lot of money. 改用煤气集中供暖将节省大笔开支。When he saw how the theory increased unemployment, he underwent quite a conversion. 当他看到这个理论加重了失业后,他彻底改变了看法。
convert ['kOnvK:t] v. 1.(使)转变, (使)转化2.(使)改变信仰(或态度等) 【例】Coal can be converted to gas. 煤可以转化成煤气。My mother has converted to Catholicism. 我母亲已转而信仰天主教。
convey [kKn'vei] vt. 1.表达, 传达, 传递2.运送, 输送
convict ['kOnvikt] vt. (经审讯)证明...有罪, 宣判...有罪 n. 囚犯 【例】The criminal was convicted of murder. 歹徒被判谋杀罪。The escaped convict has been caught by the police again. 越狱的逃犯已经再次被警方抓获。
conviction [kKn'vikSn] n. 1.确信, 坚定的信仰2.说服, 信服3.定罪, 判罪 【同】belief; faith; confidence 【例】Rich men without convictions are more dangerous in modern society than poor woman without chastity. 在现代社会里,没有坚定信仰的富人比没有贞操的穷女人更危险。I speak in the full conviction that I will win. 我深信我会赢。I have the conviction that he is right. 我深信他是对的。They have no previous convictions. 他们没有前科。
convince [kKn'vins] vt. 使确信, 使信服, 说服 【例】He convinced me of his sincerity. 他使我确信他的真诚。
cooperate [kKu'OpKreit] vi. 合作, 协作, 配合 【例】We want to cooperate with you greatly. 我们非常愿意与你们合作。
coordinate [,kKu'O:dKnKt] vt. 调节, 协调 n. 座标a. 同等的, 并列的 【同】coequal; equal; like 【例】We must coordinate our efforts to help the flood victims. 我们应该同心协力援助遭水灾的灾民。This is a coordinate clause. 这是一个并列子句。
cope [kKup] vi. (with)(成功的)应付, (妥善地)处理 【例】No one can cope with him in Chemistry. 在化学方面,谁也比不上他。I don't know how she copes with looking after her family and doing a full-time job. 既要照顾家庭又要全天工作,我不知道她是如何对付的。
cord [kO:d] n. 1.(细)绳2.[pl.] 灯心绒裤 【例】He tied the package with a cord. 他用绳子把包裹扎紧。
cordial ['kO:diKl] a. 热情友好的, 热诚的 【同】friendly; genial; amiable; sincere 【例】The hostess wore a cordial smile on her face. 女主人的笑十分热情。His friends gave him a cordial welcome. 他的朋友对他表示热诚的欢迎。
core [kO:] n. 1.果心2.核心, 要点 【例】He ate the plum, and threw the core away. 他吃掉了李子,并扔掉了果核。The core of our appeal is freedom of speech. 我们的要求的核心是言论自由。He is American to the core. 他是个地地道道的美国人。
correspond [,kOri'spOnd] vi. 1.(with)相符合, 成一致2.(to)相当, 相类似3.通信 【同】match; parallel; conform 【例】Two illusions fostered by higher education are that what is taught corresponds to what is learned, and that it will somehow pay off in money. 高等教育造成了两种错觉,一是教的东西就等于学到的东西,二是它总会通过某种方式以金钱回报。
correspondence [,kOri'spOndKns] n. 1.信件, 函件2.通信, 通信联系3.符合, 一致, 相似
correspondent [,kOri'spOndKnt] n. 通讯员.记者 【例】They are our Hong Kong correspondents. 他们是我们派驻香港的通讯员。He is a poor correspondent. 他是个懒于写信的人。
corresponding [,kOri'spOndiN] a. 1.相应的, 相当的2.符合的, 一致的
corrode [kK'rKud] vi. 受腐蚀 vt. 腐蚀, 侵蚀 【同】rot; destroy; decay 【例】The metal has corroded because of rust. 该金属已锈蚀。This acid may corrode iron. 这种酸能腐蚀铁。Iron corrodes easily. 铁易锈损。
corrupt [kK'rVpt] a. 堕落的, 腐败的, 贪赃舞弊的 vt. 腐蚀, 使堕落 【同】degraded; decreased; weakened 【例】Heaven is above all yet there sits a judge that no king can corrupts. 苍天高于所有的人:那里坐着一位法官,任何国王都无法贿赂。
cosmic ['kOzmik] a. 1.宇宙的, 外层空间的2.无比巨大的, 无穷尽的 【同】vast; universal 【例】Physics is governed by cosmic laws. 物理学受宇宙法则的制约。
couch [kautS] n. 1.长沙发2.(病人受检查时躺的)长榻 vt. 表达 【例】His black leather couch looks expensive. 他的黑色皮沙发看上去很昂贵。
counsel ['kaunsl] n. 1.律师, 法律顾问2.忠告, 劝告 vt. 劝告, 提议 【同】advise; caution; recommendation 【例】I have but one counsel for you —— be your own master. 我对你只有一个忠告:做自己的主人。Each side of a case in court has its own counsel. 法庭上原告和被告双方都有各自的律师。
counter ['kauntK] n. 1.柜台, 柜台式长桌2.筹码3.计数器 vt. 对抗, 反驳 ad. 反方向地, 对立地 【同】board; shelf; table 【例】The vanity of others runs counter to our taste only when it runs counter to our vanity. 别人的虚荣与我们的趣味相悖,只是在它与我们的虚心相悖之时。There was an enormous cat crouching on the counter. 柜台上蜷伏着一只硕大的猫。
counterpart ['kauntKpA:t] n. 与对方地位相当的人, 与另一方作用相当的物 【同】person or thing corresponding to 【例】The sales director phoned her counterpart in the other firm. 销售部经理给另一家的销售部经理打电话。
courtesy ['kK:tKsi] n. 1.谦恭有礼2.有礼貌的举止(或言词) 【同】civility; friendliness 【例】There can be no defense like elaborate courtesy. 没有什么防御比得上周详的礼节。They showed us every courtesy. 他们对我们彬彬有礼。There is always enough time for courtesy. 现在不必在这里说客气话。
crab [krcradle ['kreidl] n. 1.摇篮2.策源地, 发源地 vt. 轻轻地抱, 捧 【例】The sea is thought to have been the cradle of life. 人们认为海洋曾经是生命的发源地。
craft [krA:ft] vt. 1.工艺, 手艺2.船, 航空器, 航天器3. 手腕,狡猾,奸计 【例】He graduated from a school of crafts and arts. 他毕业于一所工艺美术学校。By crafts the gambler tricked them out of all their money. 那个赌徒用诡计赢去了他们所有的钱。
crane [krein] n. 1.起重机2.鹤 vt. 伸长(脖子等) 【例】We used a crane to lift the huge box into the backyard. 我们使用起重机将这个大箱子搬进了后院。Jane craned her neck to look for her mother in the crowd. 简伸长脖子张望,在人群中找她的母亲。
crash [krcrawl [krO:l] vi./n. 1.爬行, 匍匐行进2.缓慢(或费力)地行进 【例】The heavy traffic crawled through the narrow tunnel. 拥挤的车辆慢吞吞地穿过狭窄的隧道。
cricket ['krikit] n. 1.蟋蟀2.板球运动
cripple ['kripl] n. 跛子, 伤残人(或动物) vt. 1.使跛, 使受伤致残2.严重削弱, 使陷于瘫痪 【同】lame person; the disabled 【例】Ill news has wings, and with the wind does go. Comfort’s a cripple and comes very slow. 坏消息长着翅膀,乘风而行;安慰则是跛子,总是蹒跚来迟。
crisis ['kraisis] n. 1.危机, 危急关头2.决定性时刻, 关键阶段 【同】urgency; embarrassment 【例】True love is born of despair and nurtured by one crisis after another. 真正的爱出自绝望,由不断的危险机滋养。In times of crisis it's good to have a friend to turn to. 危难时好在有朋友可以投奔。Her fever passed its crisis. 她发烧已经过了危险期。Relation between the two countries has reached a crisis point. 两国关系已达到出现危机的地步。
crisp [krisp] a. 1.脆的, (果蔬等)鲜脆的2.挺括的3.(天气)清新的, 干冷的4.简明扼要的, (干净)利落的 n. [pl.] 油炸土豆片 【同】brittle; breakable; fragile 【例】The snow was crisp under foot. 雪踩上去是脆的。I like the delicious salad of crisp lettuce and tomatoes. 我喜欢这种脆莴苣和番茄做的沙拉,很好吃。
criterion [krai'tiKriKn] (pl. criteria [krai'tiKriK]) n. (批评、判断等的)标准, 准则 【同】basis; standard; measure 【例】Success in making money is not always a good criterion for success in life. 能挣钱并不是衡量人生幸福的可靠标准。
critical ['kritikl] a. 1.决定性的, 关键性的, 危急的2.批评的, 批判的 【同】observant; faultfinding; crucial 【例】If we cannot love unconditionally, love is already in a critical condition. 如果不能无条件地爱,爱情就已经处于危机之中。The inquiry was critical of her work. 该项调查对她的工作提出了批评。In the current critical climate her work is not popular. 在当前评论风气影响下,她的作品不怎么受欢迎。Why are you always so critical? 你怎么总是这样吹毛求疵?
crucial ['kru:Sl] a. 至关重要的, 决定性的 【同】indispensable; vital; necessary 【例】We have entered a crucial era. 我们已经步入了关键性的年代。
crude [kru:d] a. 1.粗鲁的, 粗俗的2.天然的, 未加工的3.简陋的, 粗糙的 【例】It was crude of him to say that. 他那样说太粗鲁了。
crust [krVst] n. 1.(一片)面包皮, 硬外皮2.外壳, 地壳 【例】The crust on the snow was thick enough for us to walk on it. 外层的雪已经冻硬,可以在上面行走。
crystal ['kristl] n. 1.水晶, 石英晶体2.结晶, 结晶体 a. 清澈透明的, 水晶(制)的 【同】clear; transparent 【例】A word is not a crystal, transparent and unchanging, it is the skin of a living thought and may vary greatly in color and content according to the circumstances and time in which it is used. 词不是透明且无变化的水晶;它是活生生的思想的皮肤,色彩与内涵可以随使用的环境和时间而大幅度变换。This set of crystal wine cups is very expensive. 这套水晶玻璃酒杯非常昂贵。
cucumber ['kju:kKmbK] n. 黄瓜 【例】Have some cucumber. 吃点黄瓜吧。I like to eat cucumber sandwiches. 我喜欢吃有黄瓜的三明治。
cue [kju:] n. 1.暗示, 信号2.提示 vt. 提示, 暗示 【同】signal; hint; suggestion; indication 【例】You can finish the assignment in the light of the cues given. 你可以根据所给的提示完成作业。
cultivate ['kVltiveit] vt. 1.耕作, 载培, 养殖2.培养, 陶冶, 发展 【同】plant; encourage; educate 【例】To cultivate oneself in disposition is not for the others, but for strengthening his own capacity in life. 修养性情不是为了他人,而是为了加强自己的生活能力。To dispel loneliness and kill the time, they can cultivate some other hobbies such as growing flowers, collecting stamps and learning to paint. 为乐趣感孤独和消磨时光,他们可以培养其他的爱好,比如养花、集邮和学习绘画。It seems that the aim of school education is to achieve the tameness of students for society rather than the unique minds for the individuals. 学校教育似乎是为了给社会培养驯服的学生,而不是培养有独立思考的个体。
cunning ['kVniN] n. 狡猾(的), 诡诈(的) 【同】tricky; skillful; dishonest 【例】Nothing does more hurt in a state than that cunning men pass for wise. 为害国家者,莫过于奸诈之徒被当成贤明之士。He is as cunning as a fox. 他象狐狸一样狡猾。She showed her cunning in the way she avoided answering the question. 她对问题避而不答,显示出她很狡猾。
curiosity [,kjuKri'Ositi] n. 1.好奇(心)2.奇物, 奇事, 古玩 【例】Curiosity is part of the children's nature. 好奇是儿童的天性。I had to explain the reasons to satisfy his curiosity. 我只好解释原因来满足他的好奇心。As we know, out textbooks remain unchanged for ages while the up-to-date software on various subjects is easily available anywhere, say, on the Internet, thus stirring up my curiosity about more knowledge. 众所周知,我们的教材是多年不变,而各学科的新软件任何地方都唾手可得,例如从因特网下载。这样一来就可以激起我对更多知识的好奇心。
currency ['kVrKnsi] n. 1.通货, 货币2.通行, 流行 【例】Government has decreed a paper currency. 政府颁布了发行一种纸币的法令。Most countries have a decimal currency. 大多数国家使用十进制货币。The word has attained general currency. 这个词已经通用起来了。 
curriculum [kK'rikjulKm] (pl. curricula [kK'rikjulK])n. 课程, (学校等的)全部课程
cushion ['kuSKn] n. 垫子, 坐垫 【例】He lay on the floor with a cushion under his head. 他躺在地板上,头下枕着一个垫子。
customary ['kVstKmKri] a. 习惯上的, 惯常的, 合乎习俗的 【同】usual; habitual; conventional 【例】Is it customary to tip waiters in your country? 在贵国按惯例是否应该付小费? It's customary to give people gifts on their birthdays. 给人送生日礼物是惯常的事。
cycle ['saikl] n. 1.自行车, 摩托车2.循环, 周期 vi. 1.骑自行车, 骑摩托车2.循环 【例】This is the cycle of economic booms and slumps. 这是经济繁荣和经济萧条的周期变化。He goes to work by cycle. 他骑自行车上班。
cylinder ['silindK] n. 1.圆柱体, 圆筒2.汽缸, 泵(或筒)体 【例】The cylinder is a crucial part of the washing machine. 滚筒是洗衣机必不可少的部分。
dairy ['dEKri] n. 牛奶场, 乳品店 a. 乳制品的
dam [ddaring ['dEKriN] a.大胆的,勇敢的
darling ['dA:liN] n. 1.[用作称呼] 亲爱的2.心爱的人, 可爱的人 a.可爱的, 心爱的 【例】She is a little darling. 她是一个极可爱的小孩。
datum ['deitKm] n. (sing.) 数据
daylight ['deilait] n. 日光, 白昼 【例】He was up at daylight. 他天亮就起来了。
dazzle ['ddeadline ['dedlain] n. 最后期限
deafen ['defn] vt. 使聋;使隔音
dealer ['di:lK] n. 1.商人2.发牌者 【例】He bought a used car from a car dealer. 他从汽车商那里买了一辆旧汽车。
debate [di'beit] v. 辩论, 争论 【例】After a long debate the bill was passed. 经长时间的辩论,议案获得通过。He debated carefully before he decided. 他慎重考虑后方做决定。This is a question that they have often debated. 这是个他们经常讨论的问题。
decade ['dekeid] n. 十年, 十年期 【例】Several decades have elapsed since I graduated from the college. 我大学毕业已数十年了。Prices have risen steadily during the past decade. 在过去十年里,物价一直在上涨。
deceit [di'si:t] n. 欺骗, 欺诈, 诡计 【同】trick; insincerity; dishonesty 【例】It is discouraging to think how many people are shocked by honesty and how few by deceit. 对诚实感到吃惊的人那么多,而对欺骗感到吃惊的人那么少,想到这些真叫人沮丧。He is full of deceit. 他诡计多端。His deceit is disgusting; he took everybody in! 他的欺诈手段令人憎恶,弄得人人上当!
decent ['di:snt] a. 1.像样的, 过得去的, 体面的2.宽厚的, 大方的3.正派的, 合乎礼仪的, 得体的 【同】mannerly; virtuous; proper 【例】Our task is not to create an idyllic environment peopled by the poor. Our task is to create a decent environment peopled by the proud. 我们任务不是造就住着穷人的田园式环境。我们的任务是造就住着充满自尊的人的体面的环境。It was decent of her to help the homeless. 她帮助无家可归的人,真是可敬。
decided [di'saidid] a. 确定的,坚决的
decisive [di'saisiv] a. 1.决定性的2.坚定的, 果断的, 决断的 【例】The injury to their key player could be a decisive factor in the game. 他们主力队员受伤可能是这场比赛胜负的决定性因素。Be decisive, tell them exactly what you think should be done. 果断些,确切地告诉他们你认为应该怎么做。
decline [di'klain] n. 下降, 减少, 衰退 vi. 1.下降, 减少2.衰退, 衰落3.谢绝, 拒绝 vt. 谢绝, 拒绝 【同】refuse; decrease; sink 【例】The decline of literature indicates the decline of a nation; the two keep pace in their downward tendency. 文学的衰落表现着民族的衰落,这二者在走下坡路时步调是一致的。I wish prices would decline. 但愿物价下降。The wall declined slightly on account of the earthquake. 墙壁因地震而倾斜。He spent his declining years in the country. 他在乡间度过晚年。Divorcing ourselves from the masses and from reality only results in the nation’s falling behind and power decline. 闭门造车只能导致国家的落后和国力的衰退。Television is having such a vast effect on national habits that it has caused a serious decline in the film attendance, and many cinemas have had to close down. 电视正对国民的生活习惯产生着巨大影响,导致了电影上座率的严重下滑,许多电影院也不得不关门大吉。
decompose [,di:kKm'pKuz] v.腐败;分解 【例】There is a decomposing corpse of a deer. 那儿有一具鹿的腐尸。
decorate ['dekKreit] vt. 装饰, 装璜 【例】We decorated the house for Christmas. 我们装饰房屋过圣诞节。Several soldiers were decorated for bravery. 数名士兵因英勇而受嘉奖。
decrease ['di:kris] v. 减小, 减少 n. 减小, 减少(量) 【例】They are making further efforts to decrease military spending. 他们正在做进一步的努力来减少军费开支。His interest in this subject gradually decreases. 他对这门学科的兴趣逐渐减退。There has been a steady decrease in population in this city. 这个城市的人口在持续下降。
dedicate ['dedikeit] vt. 1.题献词于(著作等)上2.(to)把(一生等)献给, 把(时间、精力等)用于 【同】consign; bless; devote 【例】In old age, there is no greater comfort than realizing that he had dedicated all his vigor and vitality to an immortal cause when he was young. 暮年时最大的欣慰莫过于认识到,自己已经把年轻时的全部活力,全部生命都献给了不朽的事业。The ancient Greek dedicated many shrines to Aphrodite. 古希腊人为爱神阿弗罗狄特造了许多神庙。She dedicated her life to science. 她毕生致力于科学。
deduce [di'dju:s] vt. 推论, 推断, 演绎
deem [di:m] vt. 认为, 视为 【同】assume; consider; believe 【例】She was deemed the winner. 人们认为她获胜。I deem it proper to refuse. 我看还是拒绝为好。
deepen ['di:pKn] vt.加深 vi.深化 【例】The night deepened. 夜深了。
deer [diK] n. 鹿 【例】The deer escaped to the deep forest. 那鹿逃入了丛林深处。The white-lipped deer are rare in this area. 白唇鹿在这个地区很罕见。
defect ['di:fekt] n. 缺点, 缺陷, 毛病 vi. 变节, 叛变 【同】fault; drawback 【例】The fundamental defect of fathers is that they want their children to be a credit to them. 父亲们根本的毛病是想通过孩子争光。A defect in the fuel lines prevented the missile from blasting off. 燃料管路上的一个缺陷妨碍了导弹的发射。
deficit ['defisit] n.赤字,亏空,亏损 【同】shortage; lack; deficiency 【例】A recent survey revealed that Americans suffered from an epidemic of sleep deficit. 最近的调查表明,美国人广泛睡眠不足。The company had a deficit of 5000 dollars. 公司亏空了五千美元。
define [di'fain] vt. 1. 给…下定义;解释; 2.限定,规定 【例】When boundaries between countries are not clearly defined, there is usually trouble. 国与国之间的边界未明确划定时,通常会发生纠纷。The powers of a judge are defined by law. 法官的权限是由法律规定的。
definition [,defi'niSn] n.1.定义,释义;2.清晰(度),鲜明(度) 【例】To give a definition of a word is more difficult than to give an illustration of its use. 给一个词下定义要比举例说明它的用法困难。The photo lacks definition. 这张照片不够清晰。
deform [di'fO:m] vt. 损坏…的形状 【同】disfigure; deface; damage 【例】Sitting badly for long periods of time can deform your spine. 长时间的错误坐姿会使你的脊柱变形。His leg was deformed in an accident. 他的腿在一次事故中致畸。
deformation [,difO:'meiSn] n. 变形
defy [di'fai] vt. 1.(公然)违抗,藐视 2.使成为不可能;3.挑,激 【同】challenge; oppose; dare 【例】Death defies the doctor. 死亡蔑视医生。Her beauty defies description. 她的美貌难以形容。The pine trees defy severe cold. 松树不畏严寒。
degenerate [di'dZenKrKt] vi.衰退,堕落,蜕化; a.衰退的,堕落的; n.堕落者 【同】corrupt; worse; immoral 【例】Aging is accompanied by a slow degeneration of his mental faculties. 随着年龄的增长他的智力逐渐衰退。
delegation [,deli'geiSn] n.代表团
deliberate [di'libKrKt] a. 1.故意的, 蓄意的2.慎重的, 深思熟虑的 v. 仔细考虑, 思考 【同】resolute; determined; purposeful 【例】The only time to lose your temper is when it’s deliberate. 惟一可以发怒的时候是你有意为之的时候。He entered the room with deliberate steps. 他从容不迫地走进室内。He told us a deliberate lie. 他存心说谎。
delicate ['delikKt] a. 1.易碎的, 脆弱的2.微妙的, 棘手的3.娇弱的, 纤细的4.精美的, 雅致的 【同】feeble; sensitive; susceptible 【例】Pride is seldom delicate; it will please itself with very mean advantages. 骄傲难得讲究,它会由于微乎其微的优势而自鸣得意。Her delicate health needs great care. 她娇弱的身体需要小心照料。The international situation is very delicate at present. 目前的国际形势极其微妙。The scientist needs some delicate instruments. 这位科学家需要一些精密的仪器。
delivery [di'livKri] n. 1.投递, 送交2.投递的邮件, 发送的货物3.分娩4.讲话方式, 演讲风格 【例】The next postal delivery is at 4 o'clock. 下一次邮递时间是四点钟。
demonstrate ['demKnstreit] vt. 1.论证, 证明2.说明, 演示3.显示, 表露 vi. 举行示威游行(或集会) 【例】Please demonstrate how the machine works. 请示范机器的使用方法。She demonstrated that 2 and 2 are four. 她证明2加2等于四。
denial [di'naiKl] n. 1.否认2.拒绝, 拒绝给予 【同】rejection; opposition; refusal 【例】Never think that God’s delays denials. Hold on; hold fast; hold out. Patience is genius. 千万不要以为上帝的拖延就是上帝的拒绝。坚持、抓紧,顶住。耐心就是天才。The prisoner repeated denials of the charges against him. 囚犯对被控罪名再三否认。The government has issued a denial of an election in May. 政府发表声明否认五月份要进行选举。
denote [di'nKut] vt. 1.意思是2.表示, 是...的标志 【同】mean; signify; represent 【例】Wisdom denotes the pursuing of the best end by the best means. 明智指的是以最好的办法追求最好的结果。This word denotes a certain kind of animal. 这个词是一种野兽的名称。A smile often denotes pleasure and friendship. 微笑常常表示高兴和友善。
dense [dens] a. 1.密集的, 稠密的, 浓密的2.密度大的 【例】I can't see anything in this dense mist. 这样的浓雾里,我什么也看不见。One or two of the students in my class are a bit dense. 我班上有一两个学生有点迟钝。
density ['densiti] n. 1.密集, 稠密2.密度 【同】solidity; thickness; impenetrability 【例】There are people who bear their pains with a better grace when they think of greater sufferings on the part of other people, and so, in a density’s chair, they keep their minds upon hospitals. 有些人在想到别人更大的苦难时能较为从容地承受自身的痛苦,于是,坐在牙医的椅子上,他们一心想着医院。The density of population in this city is very high. 这个城市的人口密度非常高。
dentist ['dentist] n. 牙科医生 【例】The dentist was cleaning and taking out teeth. 牙科医生正在清洁和拔牙。I was fitted an artificial tooth by the dentist. 牙医给我镶了颗假牙。
dependence [di'pendKns] n. 依赖,依存,信赖 【例】Are the Hawaiian Islands a dependence of the USA? 夏威夷群岛是美国的属地吗?This kind of dependence on computer can also lead to the dependence on their parents in life. 这种对电脑的依赖也会导致他们在生活上对父母的依赖。
dependent [di'pendKnt] a. (on, upon)1.依靠的, 依赖的2.取决于...的 【例】The child is dependent on his parents for support. 这个小孩靠他的父母养活。
depict [di'pikt] vt. 描绘, 描述 【同】picture; design; portray 【例】The drawing depicts her sitting on a sofa. 这幅画画的是她在沙发上的坐姿。This painting depicts the birth of Venus. 这幅画描绘的是维纳斯的诞生。The book depicts him as a rather unpleasant character. 这本书把他刻画成一个相当令人讨厌的人物。
deposit [di'pOzit] n. 1.定金, 押金2.存款3.沉积物, 矿床, 矿藏 vt. 1.使沉淀, 使沉积2.存放, 寄存3.储蓄 【同】drop; place 【例】The mark of the historic is the indifference with which it picks up an individual and deposits him in a trend, like a house playfully moved in a tornado. 历史性事件的标志是冷漠,它拈起一个人并把它置于某种趋势中,使之像龙卷风中的房子一样被戏弄。He deposited the case in the left luggage office. 他把箱子放在行李寄存处。
deposition [,depK'ziSn] n.免职,罢免
depress [di'pres] vt. 1.使沮丧, 使消沉2.使不景气, 削弱3.按下, 压下 【例】The thought of having to take the exam again depressed me. 想到还需重新考试,我就感到沮丧。The threat of war has depressed business activity. 战争的威胁使经济萧条。Depress this button to rewind the tape. 按下这个按钮倒带。
deprive [di'praiv] vt. (of)剥夺, 使丧失 【同】lose; rob 【例】Poverty often deprives a man of all spirit and virtue; it is hard for an empty bag to stand upright. 贫穷常常使人丧失全部精神与美德,空口袋是难以站直的。What will a student do if he were deprived of his books? 一个学生如果没有了书籍,将怎么办?
deputy ['dipju:ti] n. 1.副职, 副手2.代表, 代理人 【同】appointee; delegate 【例】I抦 acting as deputy till the headmaster returns. 我在校长回来前代行他的职务。I must find someone to act as a deputy for me during my absence. 我必须找一个人,在我离开期间代理我的职务。He is the deputy mayor of the city. 他是本市的副市长。
derive [di'raiv] vt. 1.取得, 得到2.追溯...的起源(或来由) vi. (from)起源, 衍生
descent [di'sent] n. 1.下降, 下倾2.斜坡, 坡道3.血统, 世系 【同】falling; slope; origin 【例】The man of thirty who loves for the first time is usually the embodiment of cautious discretion. He does not fall in love with a violent descent, but rather lets himself gently down, continually testing the rope. 初次恋爱的30岁常常小心谨慎的化身。他不是一条栽进情网,而是愿意不断检验着绳子慢慢滑下来。There was a descent of temperature after rain. 雨后气温下降了。The descent down the mountain took nearly two hours. 下山差不多花了两个小时。
designate ['dezigneit] vt. 1.指派, 委任2.标出, 把...定名为 【同】indicate; appoint 【例】The green marks on this drawing designate emergency doors. 这张图上的绿色符号标示太平门。She was designated sportswoman of the year. 她被指定为本年度的体坛明星。The town has been designated a development area. 该城市已被定为开发区。The chairman has designated that boy as his successor. 主席已经指定那个男孩作他的继承人。
desirable [di'zaiKrKbl] a. 1.值得想望的, 值得拥有的2.可取的, 有利的 【同】satisfactory; helpful; profitable 【例】Property is the fruit of labor —— property is desirable —— is a positive good in the world. 财富是劳动成果──财富是合乎需要的──是人世间实际的利益。It isn't really desirable to have him working here. 让他在这里工作其实并不必要。
desolate ['desKlKt] a. 1.荒芜的, 无人烟的2.被遗弃的, 孤独凄凉的 vt. 1.使悲惨, 使孤独凄凉2.使沦为废墟, 使荒芜 【同】deserted; bare; barren; bleak; sad 【例】The house looked out over a bleak and desolate landscape. 从屋子望出去是一片萧瑟和荒凉的景色。
despair [di'spEK] n. 1.绝望2.使人绝望的人(或事物) v. (of)绝望, 失去希望 【同】depression; discouragement; gloom 【例】He who has never hoped can never despair. 从不抱希望的人永远不会失望。He gave up the attempt in despair. 他绝望之下放弃了尝试。Trying to keep this garden in order is the despair of my life. 把这个花园管理好是我力不能及的事。
despatch [di'spdesperate ['despKrKt] a. 1.不顾一切的, 孤注一掷的2.极想望的, 极需要的3.绝望的, 危急的 【同】hopeless; sad; despairing 【例】If the failures of this world could realize how desperate half the present-day geniuses once felt, they would take heart and try again. 世上的失败者若能了解到当今的天才有半数一度感过多绝望,他们就会振作精神,再次努力。
despise [di'spaiz] vt. 鄙视, 看不起 【同】feel contempt for; scorn; disdain 【例】It is easy to despise what you cannot get. 对得不到的东西表示看不起并不难。I despise his refusing to accept responsibility. 他拒不承担责任,我鄙视他。A dish of strawberries and cream is not to be despised. 一盘草莓加乳酪应该算不差了。
despite [di'spait] prep. 不管, 尽管 【例】He came to the meeting despite his illness. 尽管生病,他还是来参加会议。Demand for these books is high, despite their high price. 尽管这些书价钱昂贵,对他们的需求仍然很高。
dessert [di'zK:t] n. (餐后)甜食, 甜点心 【例】I like to have ice cream for dessert. 我喜欢在正餐后吃冰淇淋当甜点。
destination [,desti'neiSn] n. 1.目的地, 终点2.目标, 目的 【同】objective; goal; aim 【例】No wind blows in favor of a ship without a destination. 没有目的地船永远得不到顺风。The parcel was sent to the wrong destination. 包裹送错了地方。We eventually arrived at our destination. 我们终于到达了目的地。
destruction [di'strVkSn] n. 破坏, 毁灭, 消灭 【例】It will cause pollution and the destruction of our seas and oceans. 这会引起污染,破坏我们的海洋和江河。
destructive [di'strVktiv] a. 破坏(性)的, 毁灭(性)的 【例】Are all small children so destructive? 是不是儿童都喜欢破坏? The destructive force of the storm is huge. 暴风雨的破坏力是巨大的。
detail ['di:teil] n. 1.细节, 详情2.枝节, 琐事 vt. 详述, 详细说明 【例】The full details of the agreement haven't been made public. 协议的细节尚未公布。He told us the accident in detail. 他详细地把事故讲给我们听。Could you detail all your expenses on this form? 请把你的各项开支列在这张表格上,好吗?
detain [di'tein] vt. 1.拘留, 扣留2.留住, 耽搁 【同】hold; keep; delay; restrain 【例】The police detained him for questioning. 警察对他拘留审问。
detector [di'tektK] n.发觉者,探测器
deteriorate [di'tiKriKreit] vi. 恶化, 变坏 【同】decline; corrupt; corrode; disintegrate 【例】The situation is deteriorating. 局势正在恶化。
deviate ['di:vieit] vi. (from)背离, 偏离
device [di'vais] n. 1.装置, 设备, 器械2.手段, 策略
devise [di'vaiz] vt. 发明, 策划, 想出 【同】design; invent 【例】Too often we forget that genius, too, depends upon the data within its reach, that even Archimedes could not have devised Edison’s inventions. 我们实在是经常忘记,天才也依赖于所能得到的资料,就连阿基米德都无法设计出爱迪生的发明。The government devised a scheme for redeveloping the city center. 政府制定了市中心重建计划。
diagnose ['daiKgnKuz] vt. 诊断, 判断 【同】analyze; investigate; inquire 【例】The doctor diagnosed measles. 医生诊断出麻疹。
dialect ['daiKlekt] n. 方言, 土语 【例】Do you speak Sichuan dialect? 你会说四川话吗?
dictate ['dikteit] v. 1.口授, 口述2.命令, 支配 n. 命令, 规定, 要求 【例】He was dictating a letter to his secretary. 他在向秘书口授信稿。I will not be dictated to. 我不愿受人摆布。
dictator [dik'teitK] n.独裁者,专政者 【同】tyrant; oppressor; absolute ruler 【例】God is no dictator. He leaves us the freedom to master ourselves. 上帝不是独裁者,他为我们留下了主宰自己的自由。
diet ['daiKt] n. 1.日常饮食2.(病人或减肥者的)特种饮食, 规定饮食vi. 进特种饮食, 节食 【同】food; menu 【例】Diet cures more than the doctor. 饮食治愈的病比医生治愈的多。Proper diet and exercise are both important for health. 适当的饮食和运动对身体健康都很重要。The doctor put me on a very strict diet. 医生严格限制我的饮食。
differ ['difK] vi. 1.不同, 相异2.(在意见方面)发生分歧 【例】Although our looks differ, we are both attractive. 尽管我俩相貌不同,但都讨人喜欢。We differ about moral standards. 我们对道德标准看法不一致。
differentiate [,difK'renSieit] vi. (between)区分, 区别vt. 1.区分, 区别2.使不同, 使有差异 【同】adapt; modify; alter; change 【例】Refereeing by journalists facilitates differentiating amateurs and professionals. 区分业余人士和专业人士由于记者的审核变得容易。
diffuse [di'fju:s] v.1.扩散, (使)弥漫2.传播, 散布 a. 1.(文章等)冗长的, 漫无边际的2.四散的, 弥漫的 【同】dispersed; scattered 【例】This light radiates diffuse illumination. 这个灯散发的是散光。Fashion trends diffuse themselves rapidly around the globe. 时装新潮很快就在全世界流行起来。The light was diffused by the leaves. 树叶使光线漫射。
digest ['daidZest] vt. 1.消化2.吸收, 领悟 n. 文摘 【同】consume; absorb; understand 【例】To eat is human, to digest is divine. 能吃的是人,能消化的是神。This rich food doesn't digest easily. 这种油腻的食物不易消化。It took me some time to digest what I had heard. 我花了一些时间才把听到的东西弄明白。
digital ['didZitl] a. 数字的, 数字显示的 【例】Most of the computers we are using are digital computers. 我们正在使用的计算机大多数是数字计算机。
dignity ['digniti] n. 1.庄严, 端庄2.尊严, 高贵 【同】nobility; respect; regard 【例】Perhaps the only true dignity of man is his capacity to despise himself. 人惟一真正的尊贵也许在于能够鄙视自己。There was something impressive about Julia's quiet dignity. 朱丽亚的宁静端庄给人印象很深。The real dignity of a man lies in what he is, not in what he has. 一个人的真正尊严在于他的品格,而非他的财富。
dilemma [di'lemK] n. (进退两难的)窘境, 困境 【同】difficult choice; difficult situation 【例】She was in a dilemma over staying in her tiny room or moving to a bigger one. 她左右为难,不知是继续住小套间还是搬到大套间。
dim [dim] a. 1.昏暗的, 暗淡的2.朦胧的, 隐约的3.(视力等)模糊不清的 v. (使)变暗淡, (使)变模糊 【例】The light was too dim for me to read easily. 光线太暗,我看书有困难。She is rather dim about the importance of keeping records. 她不明白作记录的重要性。The light of a candle is dimmed by sunlight. 烛光在日光下显得很黯淡。
dimension [di'menSn] n. 1.方面, 特点2.尺寸, 长(或宽、厚、深)度3.[pl.] 面积, 规模, 程度 【同】size; measurement 【例】Man’s mind stretched to a new idea never goes back to its original dimension. 人的头脑伸展到触及新思想之后,绝不会缩回原先的尺寸。Time is sometimes called the fourth dimension. 时间有时被称为第四度空间。There is another dimension to this problem which you haven't considered. 这个问题还有你尚未考虑到的另一个方面。
diminish [di'miniS] vi. 变少, 变小, 降低 vt. 减少, 减小, 降低 【同】decrease; decline; reduce 【例】Absence diminishes little passions and increases great ones, just as the wind blows out a candle and fans a fire. 离别减弱浅薄的感情而增强深厚的感情,正如风吹灭蜡烛而扇旺火焰。His illness diminished his health. 疾病侵蚀了他的健康。He likes to diminish the skills of others. 他喜欢贬低别人的技能。As he turned the knob, the sound diminished. 他一转旋钮,声音就变小了。
dip [dip] vt. 浸, 蘸 vi. 落下, 下降 n. 浸, 蘸 【例】He dipped his pen in the ink. 他拿钢笔蘸墨水。The boat dipped into the waves. 小船沉没在波涛之中。The land dips gently to the south. 地面缓缓向南倾斜。
diploma [di'plKumK] n. 毕业文凭, 毕业证书, 资格证书 【同】graduation certificate; credentials 【例】Don’t hang your diplomas in your office unless you’re an M. D. 不要把学位证书挂在办公室里,除非你是医学博士。He obtained a diploma in architecture. 他获得了建筑学的学位证书。The diploma is very important for him to get the job. 对他来说,要得到那份工作,文凭是很重要的。
diplomatic [,diplK'mdirectory [di'rektKri] n. 人名地址录, 工商行名录, (电话)号码簿 【例】The telephone directory gives people's names, addresses, and telephone numbers. 电话号码簿提供人名、地址和电话号码。
disable [dis'eibl] vt. 丧失能力, 伤残 【同】cripple; weaken; damage 【例】He was disabled from walking by the accident. 由于车祸,他不能走路了。The soldier disabled by wounds in his leg is buried in sadness. 那个腿部受伤致残的士兵正沉浸在悲哀之中。Old age disabled him for hard labour. 年迈使他不能干繁重的工作。
disadvantage [,disKd'vA:ntidZ] n.不利,不利地位 【例】If you don't speak good English, you'll be at a big disadvantage when you try to get a job. 你要是英语讲得不好,找工作时就会处于非常不利的地位。One of the main disadvantages of this system is that it uses very large amounts of fuel. 该系统的主要弱点之一是消耗大量燃料。There are some diasvantages brought about by raising pets. 养宠物有一些弊端。But the disadvantage of this solution lies in the fact that too much land that could be used for farming or housing will inevitably be occupied by more and more roads. 但这种方案的不足之处在于这样一个事实:建造道路会不可变面的占用过多的土地,而这些土地本来是可以用于耕作或建房的。
disagree [,disK'gri:] vi.意见不同;不一致 【例】I disagree with you on this point. 我不同意你的意见。The climate disagrees with me. 我不适应这里的气候。These two reports of the accident disagree with each other. 这两篇关于事故的报道不太一致。
disaster [di'zA:stK] n. 1.灾难,大祸2.彻底的失败 【例】They had led the country into economic disaster. 他们把国家带入了经济灾难中。
disastrous [di'zA:strKs] a. 1.灾难性的,造成灾害的2.极坏的,很糟的 【同】ruinous; harmful; unfavorable 【例】Buying this house was a disastrous step; it’s going to have a main road built behind it. 买下这所房子是一大失策;因为房子后面要建一条公路。The new system has had a disastrous effect on productivity. 新制度已对生产力造成了灾难性的影响。
disc [disk] n. 1.圆盘2.唱片, 磁盘, 光盘 【例】Have you recorded the data in disc? 你已把那些数据存储到磁盘上了吗?
discard ['diskA:d] vt. 丢弃, 抛弃 【同】reject; expel; protest; cast aside 【例】If in the last few years you haven’t discarded a major opinion or acquired a new one, investigate and see if you are not growing old. 倘若近几年你不曾抛弃一种主要的见解或获得一种新的,就调查一下看看自己是否变老了。He discarded his winter clothing. 他把冬天穿的衣服都脱掉了。History discarded him. 他被历史所抛弃。You've got to discard before you can pick up another card. 你得先打出一张牌,才能拿另一张牌。
discern [di'sK:n] vt. 1.看出, 察觉出2.识别, 认出 【同】make out; perceive; detect 【例】The beginning of all war may be discerned not only by the first act of hostility, but by counsels and preparations foregoing. 一切战争的开端不仅可由首次敌对行动中察觉出到,亦可由事前的策划和准备识别。He was just able to discern the road from the dark. 他在黑暗中只能勉强辨认出道路。I soon discerned that the man was lying. 我马上察觉出那人在撒谎。
discharge ['distSA:dZ] vt. 1.允许...离开, 释放, 解雇2.排出, 放出, 发射3.卸(货), 下(客) vi. 排出, 流出, 放电 n. 1.获准离开, 释放2.排出, 放出, 放电 【同】unload; remove; emit; dismiss 【例】A principal fruit of friendship is the ease and discharge of the fullness and swelling of the heart. 友谊的一个主要成果就是满腹心事的安顿和宣泄。The judge discharged the prisoner. 法官把囚犯释放了。They discharged their arrows at the enemy. 他们把箭射向敌人。How long will the discharge of the cargo take? 卸货需要多久?
disclose [dis'klKuz] vt. 揭露, 泄露, 透露 【例】I have no intention of disclosing their names. 我无意泄露他们的姓名。The authorities finally disclosed the truth to the press. 当局终于向新闻界透露了真相。The report disclosed that he had served in prison. 报告披露他曾坐过牢。
discount ['diskaunt] n. (价格、债款等)折扣 vt. 1.把...打折扣2.不(全)信, 漠视, 低估 【同】deduct; reduce; diminish 【例】Western sources in the talks discounted the harsh Eastern reaction. 会谈中,西方的消息源轻描淡写地报道了东方的反应。The discount was very huge. 折扣的幅度非常大。We give 10 percent discount for cash. 现金付款,我们九折优惠。
discriminate [di'skrimineit] vi. 1(between)区别, 辨别2.(against)有判别地对待, 歧视 【例】Can you discriminate good books from bad? 你能区别好书与坏书吗? People should not be discriminated against. 人们不应该被区别对待。
disgust [dis'gVst] n. 使厌恶, 使反感 vt. 厌恶, 反感 【例】He returned downstairs in disgust. 他厌恶地转身下楼。His behavior filled her with disgust. 她对他的行为充满了厌恶。
dishonour [dis'OnK] n.不光彩;丢脸的人, 不名誉【例】His behaviours have brought dishonour onto his family. 他的行为给他的家庭带来了耻辱。He was a dishonour to his regiment. 他是那个团的耻辱。
dislike [dis'laik] vt.& n. 不喜爱, 厌恶 【例】If you behave like that, you'll get yourself disliked. 如果你的行为那样,你会让人厌恶的。He dislikes dogs. 他不喜欢狗。
dismay [dis'mei] n. 1.失望, 气馁2.惊恐, 惊愕 vt. 1.使失望, 使气馁2.使惊恐, 使惊愕 【同】frighten; alarm; dread 【例】My guess is that well over 80% of the human race goes through life without having a single original thought. Whenever a new one appears the average man shows signs of dismay and resentment. 我认为足足百分之八十以上的人一辈子连一个独创性的想法都没有。一有新思想出现,平常人就现出惊慌和反感的迹象。To my dismay, he made the same mistakes. 使我惊讶的是,他又犯了同样的错误。It dismayed us that the project had been canceled. 那个计划取消了,这让我们非常惊讶。
dismiss [diz'mis] vt. 1.不再考虑, 不接受2.免...职, 解雇, 开除3.解散, 遣散4.驳回, 不受理 【例】If you are late again, you will be dismissed. 如果你再迟到,你将被解雇。He dismissed the unpleasant subject and talked about something else. 他不谈论这个令人不愉快的话题,而去谈论别的事情。
disorder [dis'O:dK] n. 1.混乱, 凌乱2.骚乱, 动乱3.(身心、机能的)失调, 病 【例】The room is in dreadful disorder. 房间里乱七八糟。Anxiety may disorder the stomach. 忧虑可能会引起胃部不适。
dispatch [di'spdisperse [di'spK:s] vi. 1.使分散, 散开2.使消散, 消失 vt. 1.分散, 赶散2.消散, 驱散 【同】separate; scatter; break up 【例】The wind dispersed the cloud from the sky. 风吹散了天上的云。The police dispersed the crowd. 警方驱散群众。
displace [dis'pleis] vt. 1.取代, 替代2.迫使...离开家园, 使离开原位 【同】remove; dislodge; mislay 【例】He displaced a bone in his knee while playing football. 他踢球时,膝盖骨脱臼了。Moderates have displaced the extremists on the committee. 在委员会中,稳健派人士取代了激进派人士。Weeds tend to displace other plants. 杂草有取代其他植物之势。The indigenous population was soon displaced by the settlers. 没过多久,外来移民就把当地人赶出了家园。
displacement [dis'pleismKnt] n.移置;免职;置换
display [di'splei] vt. 1.陈列, 展览2.显示, 表现 【例】The bestsellers were sold out before they were displayed. 这些畅销书尚未陈列就卖光了。His paintings are on display at the exhibition. 他的绘画正在展览会上展出。
displease [dis'pli:z] vt.使不愉快,使生气 【例】Her husband's failure to notice her new hairstyle displeased her very much. 她丈夫没注意到她的新发型,这使她大为不悦。
disposal [di'spKuzl] n. 1.丢掉, 清除2.排列, 布置 【同】discarding; transfer 【例】I am at your disposal. 我听你调遣。He has a large number of reference books at his disposal. 他有大量的参考书可供使用。We placed everything at his disposal. 我们把一切事情都交给他处理。
dispose [di'spKuz] vt. 1.排列, 布置2.使倾向于, 使有利于 vi. (of)1.去掉, 丢掉, 除掉2.处理, 解决 【例】Hardship disposes man to meet adversity. 艰苦能让人适应逆境。He doesn't know how to dispose of his spare time. 他不知道怎样安排业余时间。
disregard [,disri'gA:d] vt. 不理会, 漠视 n. 忽视, 漠视 【同】neglect; omission; oversight 【例】Courage is not an absence of fear, but the ability to overcome or fear. 勇敢不是没有恐惧,而是能够克服或不理会恐惧。He disregarded his doctor's advice. 他无视医生的劝告。Disregarding all the difficulties, we arrived here in time. 尽管有那么多困难,我们仍然及时地到达了这儿。The official has shown a total disregard for the needs of the poor. 这个官员对穷人的需求表现出完全漠视的态度。
dissatisfy [di'sdissolve [di'zOlv] vi. 1.溶解, 融化2.消失, 减弱 vt. 1.使溶解, 使融化2.解散, 结束 【同】melt; disintegrate; destroy 【例】If we were all given by magic the power to read each other’s thoughts, I suppose the first effect would be to dissolve all friendships. 假如我们都被魔法赋予了看穿彼此内心的能力,我猜想第一个效果会是消除一切友谊。The parliament was dissolved. 议会解散了。Ice dissolved in the warm weather. 冰在温暖的天气中溶化了。
distillation [,disti'leiSn] n. 蒸馏
distinct [di'stiNkt] a. 1.有区别的, 不同的2.清楚的, 清晰的3.明确的, 显著的 【例】Those two ideas are quite distinct from each other. 这两种观点截然不同。There is a distinct possibility that she'll be your teacher next term. 她下学期当你们的老师的可能性非常大。
distinction [di'stiNkSn] n. 1.差别, 不同2.区分, 辨别3.优秀, 杰出4.荣誉, 优待 【同】difference; excellence; feature 【例】Success seems to be that which forms the distinction between confidence and conceit. 成功似乎是区别自信与自负的标准。We should make a distinction between right and wrong. 我们应该分清是非。He passed the examination with distinction. 他以优异成绩通过考试。
distort [di'stO:t] vt. 1.歪曲, 曲解2.扭曲, 使变形 vi. 变形 【同】twist; deform 【例】Get your facts, and then you can distort them as you please. 首先得掌握事实,然后你可以随意歪曲它们。You have distorted my motives. 你曲解了我的动机。The government was accused of having systematically distorted the protester's case. 政府因为有计划地歪曲抗议者的观点而受到责难。
distract [di'strdistress [di'stres] n. 1.痛苦, 悲伤, 忧虑2.贫困, 困苦3.危难, 不幸 vt. 使痛苦, 使悲伤, 使忧虑 【同】worry; grief; trouble 【例】His wild behavior was a great distress to his mother. 他的放荡的行为使他的母亲极为苦恼。The lifeboat went out to a ship in distress. 救生船去救一艘遇险的船只。What are you looking so distressed for? 什么事情使你看起来如此烦恼?
disturb [di'stK:b] vt. 1.打扰, 妨碍2.使不安, 使烦恼3.弄乱, 打乱 【例】He put his oars in the water and disturbed the smooth surface of the lake. 他把桨放入水中,搅乱了平静的湖面。
ditch [ditS] n. 沟, 渠道 【例】The frog jumped into the ditch. 青蛙跳进了沟里。
diverse [dai'vK:s] a. 1.不同的, 相异的2.多种多样的 【同】various; distinct; altered 【例】Diverse paths lead diverse folk the right way to Rome. 不同的道路引导不同的人直抵罗马。The program deals with subjects as diverse as pop music and Beijing Opera. 节目涉及从流行音乐到京剧这样形形色色的题材。They are the people from diverse cultures. 他们是一些有着不同文化背景的人。
diversion [dai'vK:Sn] n. 1.转移, 转向2.消遣, 娱乐3.(修路时的)临时绕行路 【例】Chess is his favorite diversion. 象棋是他最喜欢的娱乐活动。I think your last argument was a diversion to make us forget the main point. 我认为你最后的那个论点是在转移目标,以便我们忘掉要点。
dizzy ['dizi] a. 1.头晕目眩的, 眩晕2.(可能)人头晕 【同】confuse; unsteady 【例】Love intrudes most easily when one is weak —— when one is dizzy with success or is in a dilemma or is lone. 爱情在人们虚弱的时候最容易闯入──在由于成功而晕头转向,在处于困境或感到孤独的时候。The room was so hot that she felt dizzy. 房间里热得她头晕目眩。We were dizzy by the strong wind. 我们被大风刮得头晕目眩。
doctrine ['dOktrin] n. 教义, 教条, 主义 【同】dogma; teaching; conviction 【例】The wisest man preaches no doctrines; he has no scheme; he sees no rafter, not even a cobweb, against the heaven. It is clear sky. 最大的智者不鼓吹任何学说,没有任何体系。遥望天空,他眼中没有橼木,甚至没有蛛网。那是一片澄明的天宇。Christian and Muslim doctrines are very different. 基督教教义和穆斯林教义极为不同。
documentary [,dOkjK'mentKri] n. 纪录片 a.1.纪录的, 纪实的2.文件的, 文献的
dome [dKum] n. 圆屋顶, 穹顶 【例】The dome of St. Paul Cathedral is well known in the world. 圣保罗教堂的圆顶闻名于世。
domestic [dK'mestik] a. 1.本国的, 国内的2.家(庭)的, 家用的3.驯养的 【例】The newspaper provides more foreign news than domestic news. 这家报纸刊登的国外消息多于国内消息。He has had many domestic troubles. 他有许多家庭纠纷。Within 30 minutes in front of the TV set, I am promptly informed about things ranging from important domestic events, the latest developments in industry and agriculture to the current international situation.坐在电视机前看三十分钟电视,我就可以迅速地获取从重大的国内事件、工农业上的最新发展到最新的国际形势等信息。
dominant ['dOminKnt] a. 1.占优势的, 支配的, 统治的2.居高临下的, 高耸的 【同】ruling; prevailing; predominant 【例】She’s the dominant child of the group. 她是这群孩子的孩子头。Peace was the dominant theme of the conference. 和平是大会的首要议题。The right hand is dominant in most people. 大多数人的右手是优势手。
dominate ['dOmineit] vt. 1.在...中占首要地位2.支配, 统治, 控制3.耸立于, 俯视 vi. 处于支配地位, 拥有优势 【例】He has authority, but he doesn't try to dominate others. 他有权威,但并不想控制别人。She dominated the meeting by sheer force of character. 她单凭个人气势就镇住了会场。The teacher dominates the 50-minute period and the students are refrained from airing their opinions no matter whether they agree or disagree with what the teacher says. 老师支配着课堂的五十分钟,无论学生们同意还是不同意老师的观点,他们都不能发表自己的意见。Some professors prefer to control discussion, while others prefer to guide the class without dominating it. 有些教授喜欢控制讨论,而其他一些教授则喜欢引导学生讨论,而不是控制它。
donkey ['dONki] n. 驴 【例】He is as stubborn as a donkey. 他像驴子一样倔强。
doom [du:m] vt. 注定, 命定 n. 厄运, 劫数 【同】fate; destination; destiny 【例】A society that gives to one class all the opportunities for leisure, and to another all the burdens of work, dooms, both classes to spiritual sterility. 一个将闲暇的全部机会都给予一个阶级,劳作的全部重负都给予另一个的社会,注定了两个阶级都处于精神贫瘠。People sent the criminal to his doom. 人们将这个罪犯处死。Everyone is doomed to die. 每个人都是注定要死的。
doorway ['dO:wei] n.门口;出入口 【例】She stood in the doorway, unable to decide whether to go in. 她站在门口,拿不定主意是否进去。
dorm ['dO:m] n. =dormitory
dormitory ['dO:mitri] n. (集体)宿舍
dose [dKus] n. (一次)剂量, 一剂, 一份 【例】Take one dose of this cough syrup three times a day. 每天服三次这种止咳糖浆,每次服一剂量。In the accident, the workers received a heavy dose of radiation. 在这次事故中,工人受到大剂量的辐射。
doubtful ['dautfKl] a. 1.难以预测的, 未定的2.怀疑的, 可疑的 【例】Because of a long drought, the farmers are doubtful about the prospect of a good yield. 因为长时间的干旱,农民们对于好收成的前景是怀疑的。
dove [dVv] n. 1.鸽2.温和派人物, 鸽派人物
downward ['daunwKd] a. 向下的, 下行的 ad. [-(s)] 向下地, 下行地
doze [dKuz] n. 打瞌睡 【例】He dozed off during the sermon. 在做礼拜时,他打瞌睡。I had a quick doze on the train. 我在火车上打了一会儿瞌睡。
dragon ['drdramatic [drK'mdrastic ['drdrift [drift] vi. 1.漂流, 漂2.漂泊, 游荡 n. 1.漂流, 漂流物2.大意, 主旨3.趋势, 转移 【例】A tiny fishing boat was drifting slowly along. 一只小小的渔船在缓缓地漂去。The road was edged with snow drifts. 路边上有一个个雪堆。
drunk [drVNk] a. 1.(酒)醉的2.陶醉的 【例】Several drunks lay on the floor. 好几个醉汉躺在地板上。
dubious ['dju:biKs] a. 1.怀疑的, 犹豫不决的, 无把握的2.有问题的, 靠不住的 【同】doubtful; indecisive; uncertain 【例】The police feel dubious of his motive. 警方怀疑他的动机。I feel dubious about his honesty. 我对他的诚实表示怀疑。I remain dubious about her motives. 我对她的动机仍存疑念。
dull [dVl] a. 1.乏味的, 单调的2.(色彩等)晦暗的, (天气等)阴沉的3.(声音等)低沉的, 沉闷的4.愚钝的, 笨的5.钝的 【例】This student is very dull. 这个学生非常愚钝。It's impossible to cut a pineapple with such a dull knife. 用一把这么钝的刀子切菠萝是不可能的。And the life in cities is never dull, for you could be near your friends and will never be cut off by weather conditions. 而且,城市生活永远不会令人感到单调,因为你离自己的朋友很近,而且不受天气变化的影响。
dumb [dVm] a. 1.哑的2.(因惊恐等)说不出话的, 沉默的 【例】We were struck dumb with horror and grief. 惊恐和忧伤使我们哑口无言。
duplicate ['dju:plikKt] n. 完全一样的东西, 复制品 a. 完全一样的, 复制的 vt. 1.复制, 复印2.重复 【同】reproduce; copy; repeat 【例】The director asked me to duplicate 20 copies of the document. 主任要我将文件复印20份。He gave me a duplicate key of his house. 他给了我另配了一套他房子的钥匙。This research merely duplicates work already done elsewhere. 这项研究仅仅是重复别人已经做过的工作。
durable ['djuKrKbl] a. 耐用的, 持久的 【同】enduring; lasting; long-wearing 【例】The next thing most like living one’s own life over again, seems to be recollection of that life; and to make that recollection as durable as possible the putting it down in writing. 最接近于将自己的一生重复一遍的事,似乎就是回忆这一生了。而要使这种回忆尽可能持久,就得用文字把它记下来。This pair of shoes is durable. 这双鞋很耐磨。
duration [dju'reiSn] n. 持续, 持续期间 【例】Well, I'm stuck here for the duration. 哎,这段时间我只得呆在这儿了。He finished the work of three years' duration. 他用三年的时间完成了这项工作。
dusk [dVsk] n. 薄暮, 黄昏 【例】The lights go on at dusk. 一到黄昏灯就亮了。He usually goes out for a walk at dusk. 他通常在黄昏时出去散步。
dwelling ['dweliN] n.住处,寓所
dye [dai] n. 染料 vt. 给...染色 【例】The wounded soldier's blood dyed the ground red. 受伤士兵的血染红了地面。A good dye will not fade. 染得好的颜色不会褪色。
dying ['daiiN] a.垂死的;临终的
dynamic [dai'ndynamical [dai'n2.有力的,有生气的;能动的;(工作)效率高的。【例】
He is a man of a dynamic personality. 他性格活跃。 There is a dynamic atmosphere everywhere. 到处是生气勃勃的景象。 a dynamic population 动态人口。
dynasty ['dinKsti] n. 王朝, 朝代 【例】The Qing Dynasty ended in 1911. 清朝结束于1911年。How many dynasties are there in China's history? 中国历史上有多少个朝代?
eastward ['i:stwKd] a.& ad.向东的,向东 【例】The hospital is on the eastward slope of the hill. 医院在小山的东坡。He walked eastward. 他向东走去。
eclipse [i'klips] n. 1.(日、月)食2. (地位、声誉等的)消失, 黯然失色 vt. 1.(日、月)食, 遮掩(天体的)光2.使暗淡, 使失色, 使相形见绌 【同】obscure; shadow 【例】Cats are to dogs what modern people are to the people we used to have. Cats are slimmer, cleaner, more attractive, disloyal, and lazy. It’s easy to understand why the cat has eclipsed the dog as modern America’s favorite pet. People like pets to possess the same qualities they do. 猫之于狗等于现代人之于古人。猫更纤细,更爱干净,更有魅力,同时猫又最不忠而且懒散。但猫为何超越狗而成为现代美国人最受宠爱的动物不难理解。人们喜欢宠物的具有跟他们一样的品格。It was reported that there would be an annular eclipse tomorrow. 据报道说,明天有日环食。The moon is partly eclipsed. 月偏食了。Our happiness was soon eclipsed by the terrible news. 我们的快乐没多久就被可怕的消息蒙上了一层阴影。
ecology [i:'kOlKdZi] n. 1.生态2.生态学 【例】He started to study ecology and decided to devote his whole life to the science. 他开始研究生态学,并决心将他的一生献身于这门科学。
economy [i'kOnKmi] n. 1.经济,经济制度,经济情况2.省俭,节约,充分利用 【例】Most of the countries in the region have unstable economies. 这个地区大多数国家的经济都不稳定。We are trying to make a few economies. 我们正想办法节省一些。
edible ['edibl] a. 可以吃的, 可食用的 【同】digestible; nutritious; eatable 【例】This food is scarcely edible. 这种食物算不上能吃。This food is scarcely edible. 这种食物真是难以下咽。These are edible wild berries. 这些野莓可以食用。
editorial [,edi'tO:riKl] a. 1.编辑的, 主笔的, 编者的2.社论的, 社论式的 n. (报刊的)社论, 重要评论 【例】I work in an editorial office. 我在编辑部工作。I have made a lot of editorial changes in their book. 我在他们的书上做了许多编辑上的修改。
effective [i'fektiv] a. 1.有效的, 生效的, 起作用的2.给人印象深刻的3.实际的, 事实上的 【例】When does the new system become effective?新制度何时生效?Their efforts to improve the production have been very effective. 他们提高生产力的措施卓有成效。That's rather an effective use of color. 这种使用颜色的手法效果相当好。
efficiency [i'fiSnsi] n. 效率, 效能, 功效 【例】Their labor efficiency is very high. 他们的工作效率很高。We must improve our efficiency as soon as possible. 我们必须尽快地提高工作效率。
efficient [i'fiSnt] a. 效率高的, 有能力的 【例】He's efficient at his job. 他胜任工作。This is a highly efficient new heating system. 这是个高效的新取暖系统。With their help, human beings’ life become much more convenient and efficient. 在它们的帮助下,人们的生活变得便捷而高效。
elaborate [i'lelastic [i'lelectrician [i,lek'triSn] n. 电工, 电气技师
electrify [i'lektrifai] vt.使触电;使充电 【例】The athlete has an electrifying burst of speed. 这个运动员具有惊人的爆发速度。They are electrifying the battery. 他们正给电池充电。
electron [i'lektrOn] n. 电子
electronics [,ilek'trOniks] n. 电子学
elegant ['eligKnt] a. 1.优美的, 文雅的, 讲究的2.简练的, 简洁的 【例】The lady wears an elegant dark suit. 那位女士穿着雅致的深色套装。
element ['elimKnt] n. 1.元素2.成分, 要素, 元件3.[pl.] 基础, 纲要, 原理4.[pl.] 自然力 【例】Honesty, industry and kindness are elements of a good life. 诚实、勤劳和善良是幸福生活的要素。
elementary [,eli'mentKri] a. 1.基本的2.初级的, 基础的, 小学的 【例】The question is elementary. 这个问题很简单。My son is studying at an elementary school. 我儿子在一家小学上学。
elevate ['eliveit] vt. 1.提升...的职位, 提高, 改善2.使情绪高昂, 使兴高采烈3.举起, 升降机 【例】Reading good books elevates your mind. 阅读好书使人思想高尚。
elevation [,eli'veiSn] n.高度;标高;隆肿 【例】We climbed to the top of the small elevation, from which we could look at the town. 我们爬上小丘的顶端,由此可以俯瞰城市。The house is at an elevation of 1000 meters. 这所房子在海拔1000米处。This drawing shows what the front elevation of the house will look like when it is built. 这张图显示这幢房子建成后正面的外观。
elevator ['eliveitK] n. 电梯, 升降机 【例】I took the elevator to the eighteenth floor. 我坐电梯上了第十八层。
eliminate [i'limineit] vt. 1.排除, 消除, 根除2.淘汰 【例】Their team was eliminated in the first round. 他们队在第一轮就被淘汰了。This new process has eliminated the need for checking the products by hand. 采用这种新方法无须再用手工检验产品。As you begin to eliminate your need for perfection in all areas of your life, you’ll begin to discover the perfection in life itself. 当你开始放弃对生活方方面面的完美的追求时,你就会发现生活本身就是完美的。
elite [ei'li:t] n. 1.[总称] 上层人士? 掌权人物? 实力集团2.[总称] 出类拔萃的人(或集团)? 精英 【同】nobility; celebrities 【例】Many scientific elites came to the US during the World War II. 二战期间许多科学精英来到美国。
eloquent ['elKkwKnt] a. 1.雄辩的, 口才流利的, 有说服力的2.明白显示出的 【同】articulate; expressive 【例】The spokesman is very eloquent on such a big occasion. 这个政客在如此大的场合相当地健谈。These ruins are an eloquent reminder of the horrors of war. 这些废墟形象地提醒人们不要忘记战争的恐怖。
embark [im'bA:k] vi. 1.上船(或飞机、汽车等)2.(on, upon)着手, 开始工作 【同】(on) set out; begin; start 【例】He embarked on a new career. 他开始从事一新事业。The ship embarked passengers and food at a Spanish port. 这艘船在西班牙的一个港口装载了乘客和食品。
embarrass [im'bembassy ['embKsi] n. 1.大使馆2.大使馆全体成员 【例】He works at the American Embassy in Moscow. 他在莫斯科的美国驻俄大使馆工作。
embody [im'bOdi] vt. 1.使具体化, 具体表现, 体现2.包括, 包含, 收入 【同】materialize; integrate; establish 【例】To me he embodies all the qualities of a teacher. 在我看来,他本身体现了老师应有的一切优秀品质。The new car embodies many improvements. 这辆新车包含了许多改进的项目。The country's constitution embodies the ideals of freedom and equality. 这个国家的宪法体现了自由和平等的理想。She embodies her principles in her behavior. 她把自己的原则体现在行动中。
embrace [im'breis] vt. 1.拥抱, 怀抱2.包括, 包含3.包围, 环绕 n. 拥抱, 怀抱 【同】clasp in the arms; include; embody 【例】Created by life, in definite circumstances, to act on definite things, how can science embrace life, of which it is merely an emanation or aspect? 由生命创造,处于一定情况下,作用于一定事物,科学只是生命的一种释放或一个方面,怎么能包括生命?We embraced each other. 我们互相拥抱。She eagerly embraced the offer of a trip to Europe. 她热情地接受了到欧洲旅行的建议。
emerge [i'mK:dZ] vi. 1.(from)浮现, 出现2.(问题等)发生, 显露, (事实等)暴露 【例】The sun emerged from behind the clouds. 太阳从云层后面露出来了。It has emerged that he stole the money. 现在终于发现,是他偷了那笔钱。Large scale industry emerged only gradually as technology evolved. 大工业只是随着技术发展而逐渐开始存在的。However, new educational trends have emerged in the humanities and social sciences in the past two decades. 然而在过去二十年中,在人文科学和社会科学出现了新的教学趋势。
emergency [i'mK:dZKnsi] n. 紧急情况, 不测事件, 非常时刻 【同】outburst; appearance 【例】Coward is one who in a perilous emergency thinks with his legs. 懦夫就是在危急时刻用两条腿思考的人。Ring the bell in an emergency. 情况紧急时请按铃。The rioting grew worse and the government declared a state of emergency. 骚乱恶化,政府只得宣布进入紧急状态。
emission [i'miSn] n.散发;传播;发出物 【同】ejection; eruption; radiation 【例】The emission of light from the sun is strong. 阳光的照射很强。
emotion [i'mKuSn] n. 情感, 感情, 激情 【例】Love, joy, hate, fear and grief are all emotions. 爱、喜、恨、惧、悲都是情感。He appealed to our emotions rather than to our reason. 他诉诸我们的情感而非我们的理智。Chopin aroused very complicated emotions in her. 肖邦的乐曲唤起了她极其复杂的感情。
emphasis ['emfKsis] n. 强调, 重点 【例】Our English course places great emphasis on conversational skills. 我们的英语课程非常重视会话技能。
emphasize ['emfKsaiz] vt. 强调, 着重, 加强...的语气 【例】He emphasized the importance of careful driving. 他强调小心驾驶的重要性。I would like to emphasize that we are ready to meet the management at any time. 我想着重指出,我们愿意在任何时候与管理部门会谈。
empirical [im'pirikl] a. 以经验(或观察)为依据的, 经验主义的, 经验的 【同】speculative; hypothetical; experimental 【例】Empirical studies show that this medicine is extremely effective. 实验研究表明这种药很有效。
enable [i'neibl] vt. 使能够, 使可能, 使可行 【例】The collapse of the strike enabled the company to resume normal bus services. 罢工的失败使公司恢复了正常的公共汽车营业。
enclose [in'klKuz] vt. 1.围住, 包住2.把...装入信封, 附入 【例】He enclosed the land with a hedge. 他用篱笆把地圈起来。Enclosed please find a money order. 兹附上一张汇票,请查收。
enclosure [in'klKuZK] n. 1.四周有篱笆(或围墙等)的场地, 围场2.(信中的)附件 【同】concentration; building 【例】They put an enclosure around the garden. 他们在花园周围修起了围墙。She keeps a horse in that enclosure. 她在那个围栏里养了一匹马。They are opposed to the enclosure of common land. 他们反对把公地圈为私有。There are several enclosures in the envelope. 信封内装有几份附件。
encounter [in'kauntK] n. 遇到, 遭遇, 遭到 【同】confront; come across; conflict 【例】If we encountered a man of rare intellect, we should ask him what books he read. 倘若遇到才智非凡的人,就应询问他读的是哪些书。I encountered an old friend at Rome. 我在罗马邂逅了一个老朋友。One rainy night the policeman had a chance encounter with a gang of smugglers. 在一个雨夜,那个警察正巧碰上了一伙走私犯。
encouragement [in'kVridZmKnt] n. 鼓励,激励,奖励 【例】The students shout encouragement in that game. 那场比赛中,学生们大声鼓劲。The teacher's words were a great encouragement to him. 教师的话对他是极大的鼓舞。Encouragement and confidence are priceless gifts that can help change a person’s life. 鼓励和信心是改变人的一生的无价之宝。
encyclopaedia [in,saiklK'pi:diK] n.(美encyclopedia) 百科全书 【例】I have a set of encyclopaedia of music. 我有一套音乐百科全书。The boy likes to read the children's encyclopaedia. 那个男孩很喜欢看那本儿童百科全书。
endanger [in'deindZK] vt.危及,危害 【同】expose to danger; put into hazard 【例】In its last analysis, it is not freedom of thought which endangers Jewish values, but the freedom which some people arrogate to themselves not to think at all. 归根结底,危及犹太人价值观的并不是思想自由,而是某些大无端赋予自己的根本不动脑筋的自由。We should do our best to save endangered species. 我们应该竭尽全力挽救濒于灭绝的生物。
endeavour [in'devK] (美endeavor)vt./ n. 努力, 尽力, 尝试 【同】attempt; aim; try 【例】Please make every endeavor to be early. 请尽量早点儿。To endeavour to work upon the vulgar with fine sense, is like attempting to hew blocks with a razor. 力图以微妙的感受打动凡夫俗子,有如试图用剃刀劈开大块木头。
ending ['endiN] n. 结局, 结尾, 终结
endurance [in'djuKrKns] n. 忍耐力, 持久(力), 耐久(性) 【同】persistence; sufferance; undergoing 【例】Sorrow and silence are strong, and patient endurance is godlike. 悲痛与沉默力量强大,持久的忍耐近乎神圣。He showed remarkable endurance throughout his illness. 他生病的整个阶段都表现出非凡的忍耐力。His treatment of her was beyond endurance. 他这样对待她是无法忍受的。The soldiers eventually completed the endurance tests. 士兵们最终完成了耐力测验。
endure [in'djuK] vt. 忍受, 容忍 vi. 1.忍受, 忍耐, 耐住2.持久, 持续 【例】I cannot endure listening to that any longer. 我再也不耐烦听那一套了。The secret endured. 秘密一直没有泄漏。
energetic [,enK'dZetik] a. 精力充沛的, 充满活力的 【例】His son is an energetic child. 他的儿子是个精力旺盛的孩子。I like to take some energetic exercise at weekend. 我喜欢在周末做些剧烈运动。
enforce [in'fO:s] vt. 1.实施, 生效, 执行2.强迫, 迫使2. 【同】impose by force; compel; exert 【例】Peace, like war, can succeed only where there is a will to it, and where there is available power to enforce it. 和平有如战争,只有在具有推行它的意志与现成力量的地方才能获胜。Policemen and judges enforce the law. 警察与法官执行法律。Have you any statistics that would enforce your argument? 你有任何统计资料可以加强你的论点吗?
engineering [,endZi'niKriN] n. 工程(学), 工程师行业
enhance [in'hA:ns] vt. 提高, 增加, 加强 【同】heighten; intensify; magnify 【例】Those clothes do nothing to enhance her appearance. 她穿那些衣服也并没显得更漂亮。He made many efforts to enhance his reputation. 他做了许多努力来提高他的声誉。
enjoyment [in'dZOimKnt] n.享乐;欣赏 【例】I didn't get much enjoyment out of that novel. 我并没有从那本小说里得到多少乐趣。
enlarge [in'lA:dZ] v. 1.扩大, 扩展, 扩充2.放大 【例】I needn't enlarge upon this matter; you all know my views. 我不需要详述此事;你们都知道我的意见。
enlighten [in'laitn] vt. 启发, 开导 【同】inform; teach; illuminate 【例】Whatever we may do to enlighten ourselves or others, guard against checking or chilling a single earnest sentiment. 在自修和启蒙别人时,无论做什么都要防止挫伤或打击专一的、热切的情感。Can you enlighten me on this subject? 关于这个问题,你能指点我一下吗? She was anxious to enlighten me about the events that led up to the dispute. 她急着要使我明白引起这场争执的那些事情。So one thing is clear enough: for the sake of our students’ prospects, teachers should also be called on to respect students and add more attention to enlightening the individuality of the students. 所以,这一点是很明确的:为了学生的前途,教师也应该尊重学生,把更多的注意力放在启发学生的个性发展上。
enormous [i'nO:mKs] a. 巨大的, 极大的, 庞大的 【例】Long ago enormous animals lived on the earth. 很久以前,地球上生活着巨大的动物。Sometimes, a little fatal breakdown of the system, or a disastrous error could bring us an enormous amount of danger and loss. 有时系统中有一点致命的故障或一点灾难性的错误都和给我们带来巨大的损失。
enquiry [in'kwaiKri] n. 1.打听, 询问2.调查
enroll [in'rKul] vi. (in, on)入学, 加入 vt. 招收, 吸收 【同】employ; hire; file; register 【例】We enrolled him as a member of our society. 我们吸收他为会员。
ensure [in'SuK] vt. 保证, 担保, 确保 【例】If you want to ensure that you catch the plane, take a taxi. 你要想确保能赶上那班飞机,就坐出租车去 吧。This medicine will ensure you a good night's sleep. 这药保证能让你好好睡一觉。
entertain [,entK'tein] vt. 1.招待, 款待2.给...娱乐, 使快乐 vi. 招待, 请客 【例】I like to entertain friends with music and refreshments at home. 我喜欢在家里用音乐和茶点招待朋友。The child entertained himself with his building blocks. 孩子在搭积木玩。By contrast, the classroom lesson organized in an enjoyable, entertaining atmosphere usually offers students more than what they have expected. 相反,学生们在趣味性的课堂里学到的东西通常比他们期望的要多。
entertainment [,entK'teinmKnt] n. 1.娱乐, 文娱节目, 表演会2.招待, 款待, 请客 【例】He fell into the water, much to the entertainment of the onlookers. 他跌进水中,旁观者大乐。There are few entertainments in that town. 那个镇上几乎没有娱乐设施。This hotel is famous for its entertainment. 这家旅馆以殷勤待客著称。Smoking is just a personal hobby and entertainment. 抽烟只是一种个人爱好和娱乐。
enthusiasm [in'Tju:zientitle [in'taitl] vt. 1.给...权利, 给...资格2.给(书、文章等)题名 【同】authorize; qualify; allow 【例】I figure that everyone is entitled to just so much happiness in life. Some get it in the beginning and some in the middle and others at the end. And then there are those that have it spread thin all through the years. 我想每个人一生中只能得到一定的幸福。有的人在开始时获得,还有一些人在中段,也有的在末尾。还有一些人的幸福星星点点地散落在岁月里。The new book is entitled Love Story. 这本新书名叫《爱情故事》。
entry ['entri] n. 1.参赛的人(或物), 参赛者名单2.进入3.入口处, 门厅, 河口4.登记, 条目, 词条 【例】This dictionary has over 30,000 entries. 这本字典有3 万多词条。How many entries are there for the high jump? 报名参加跳高比赛的有多少人?
environment [in'vaiKrKnmKnt] n. 环境, 周围状况, 自然环境 【例】Children need a happy home environment. 孩子需要一个幸福的家庭环境。The house itself is not particularly to my mind, but I like its environment. 这房子本身并不特别合我的心意,但我喜欢它周围的环境。Over the last generation, they have worked hard to restore our national treasures and to find a way to conduct our economy that is more in harmony with the environment. 我们的父辈努力保护自然环境,设法找到使我们的经济与环境协调发展的途径。
envy ['envi] vt. 妒忌, 羡慕 n. 1.妒忌, 羡慕2.妒忌的对象, 羡慕的目标 【同】jealous; rivalry; opposition 【例】Beggars do not envy millionaires, though of course they will envy other beggars who are more successful. 乞丐并不羡慕百万富翁,尽管他们一定会羡慕比自己乞讨得多的其他乞丐。He was filled with envy at my success. 他对我的成功满怀羡慕。They envy him his good fortune. 他们羡慕他的好运气。
epidemic [,epi'demik] n. 1.流行病2.流传, 盛行 a. 流行性的, 流传极广的 【同】infection; contagion; plague 【例】He was infected an epidemic. 他传染上了一种流行病。I have an influenza epidemic. 我得了流行性感冒。There has recently been an epidemic of crime in our major cities. 近来我们一些大城市中罪案频繁。Football hooliganism is now reaching epidemic proportions. 足球比赛中恣意闹事现在已经达到愈演愈烈的地步。
episode ['episKud] n. 1.(一连串事件中的)一个事件2.(剧本、小说等中的)插曲, 片断, 连续剧的一集 【同】happening; occurrence; event 【例】Love is the history of a woman’s life; it is an episode in man’s. 爱情是女人一生的历史,是男人一生中的一个插曲。The episode of this film sounds good. 这部电影的插曲很好听。That's an episode in my life I’d rather forget! 那是我一生中宁愿忘记的经历!  One of the funniest episodes in the book occurs in chapter 6. 书中最有趣的情节是在第6章。
epoch ['i:pOk] n. 时期, 时代 【同】era; period; age 【例】The epoch of individuality is concluded and it is the duty of reformers to initiate the association. 个体的时代已告结束,改革者的职责就是开创联合的时代。集体主义的人类对脚下的地球无所不能。The teaching method marked a now epoch in education. 这种教学方法标志着教育的新时代。Einstein's theory marked a new epoch in physics. 爱因斯坦理论开创了物理学的新纪元。
equation [i'kweiZn] n. 方程(式), 等式 【例】The equation of wealth with happiness can be dangerous. 把财富与幸福等同起来是很危险的。x + y =7 is an equation. x + y =7 是个等式。
equivalent [i'kwivKlKnt] a. 相等的, 等价的, 相当的 n. 相等物, 等价物, 意义相同的词 【同】of equal value; similar; comparable 【例】In truth, politeness is artificial good humor, it covers the natural want of it, and ends by rendering habitual a substitute nearly equivalent to the real virtue. 礼貌实际上是人为的好性情,它掩盖了人们天生的坏性情,结果给惯于此道者提供了真正的美德的代用品。He changed his pounds for the equivalent amount in dollars. 他把英镑兑换成等值的美元。Changing his job like that is equivalent to giving him the sack. 那样调换他的工作等于是解雇了他。
erase [i'reiz] vt. 擦掉, 抹去, 清除 【例】He erases pencil marks. 他擦去铅笔的痕迹。She couldn't erase the incident from her memory. 她难以忘记那次事件。
erosion [i'rKuZn] n. 1.腐蚀, 侵蚀, 磨损2.削弱, 减少 【例】The erosion of the coastline by the sea was ignored by people. 海水对海岸的冲刷被人们忽视了。They had to face the steady erosion of the president's credibility. 他们不得不面对总统的威信日渐丧失的局面。
erroneous [i'rKuniKs] a. 错误的, 不正确的 【例】We should not be infected by erroneous ideas. 我们不应该受错误观念的影响。The result of your report is an erroneous conclusion. 你的报告结果是错误的结论。
erupt [i'rVpt] vi. 1.(火山、喷泉等)喷发, (岩浆等)喷出2.(战争、危机、问题等)爆发, 突然发生 【同】explode; eject; emit 【例】It’s many years since the volcano last erupted. 火山上次爆发至今已有很多年了。
essential [i'senSl] a. 1.必不可少的, 绝对必要的, 非常重要的2.本质的, 实质的, 基本的 n. [常pl.] 1.要素, 要点2.必需品 【例】Her most essential quality is kindness. 她最主要的品质是善良。Food is essential to life. 食物对生命是必不可少的。In considering this problem, you should grasp its essentials. 在考虑这一问题时,你应当抓住实质。Limit your expenditure to what is essential. 你要把开销限制在必要的范围内。
establishment [i'stestate [i'steit] n. 1.(上有大片建筑物的)土地, 住宅区2.地产, 财产, 遗产3.(在乡村的)大片私有土地, 庄园, 种植园 【同】property; heritage; land 【例】Next to the writer of real estate advertisements, the autobiographer is the most suspect of prose artists. 自传作者是仅次于房地产广告作者的最可疑的散文家。The old man left an estate of two million dollars when he died. 那老人去世时留下二百万美元的遗产。He has a beautiful estate near London. 他在离伦敦不远处有一个美丽的庄园。
esthetic [i:s'Tetik] a. 1.美学的, 审美的2.悦目的, 雅致的
estimate ['estimKt] n. 1.估计, 估量2.评价, 看法 vt. 估计, 估量 【例】He is highly estimated among his colleagues. 他在同事中受到的评价很高。They estimated the number of visitors at 10 million. 他们估计参观者人数为1000万。My estimate of the length of the room was 10 feet. 我估计房间的长度为10 英尺。It is estimated that this trend will continue in the years to come. 据估计这种趋势将在未来的几年中保持不衰。
eternal [i'tK:nl] a. 1.永久的, 永世的2.无休止的, 没完没了的3.永恒的, 永不改变的 【同】endless; everlasting; perpetual 【例】Genius is eternal patience. 天才就是永久的耐心。The idea that the world is eternal is now seldom advanced. 地球是永恒的这种看法现在很少提出了。
evaluate [i'vevaluation [i,vevaporate [i'vevenly ['i:vnli] ad.平坦地,均匀地 【同】smoothly; impartially; squarely 【例】He is breathing evenly, which shows that he has got over his excitement. 他均匀的呼吸表明他已由兴奋转为平静了。
eventually [i'ventSuKli] ad. 终于, 最后 【例】It was a long journey, but we eventually arrived. 旅程很长,但我们最后还是到达了。
everlasting [,evK'lA:stiN] a.永久的;持久的 【同】endless; immortal; permanent 【例】The youth of the soul is everlasting, and eternity is youth. 心灵的青春是永久的,永恒就是青春。He believes in life everlasting after death. 他相信死后永生。
evident ['evidKnt] a. 明显的, 明白的 【同】obvious; apparent 【例】It was evident that the policy was a failure. 显然这项政策是失败的。
evolution [,i:vK'lu:Sn] n. 演变, 进化, 发展 【同】growth; development; unfolding 【例】Evolution is not the force but a process, not a cause but a law. 进化不是动力而是过程,不是原因而是法则。Do you know about the evolution of a seed into a plant? 你知道从种子发展成为植物的过程吗? In politics Britain has preferred evolution to revolution. 在政治上,英国喜欢渐进而不喜欢革命。
exaggerate [ig'zexceed [ik'si:d] vt. 超过, 越过 【例】His knowledge of history exceeds mine. 他的历史知识超过我。The demand for skilled personnel far exceeds the supply and big companies compete with other to recruit students before they have completed their studies. 技术人员供不应求,以致于大公司竞相招募未完成学业的学生。
exceedingly [ik'si:diNli] ad. 非常, 极其 【同】remarkably; very; greatly 【例】It is seldom very hard to do one’s duty when one knows what it is, but it is often exceedingly difficult to find this out. 如果知道自己的责任是什么时尽责往往并不困难,但要弄清责任究竟是什么常常极其费力。We found out that he was exceedingly fond of fishing. 我们发现他极其喜欢钓鱼。My teacher asked me to answer an exceedingly difficult question. 老师让我回答一个非常难的问题。
exception [ik'sepSn] n. 例外 【同】exclusion; difference; deviation 【例】Experience shows that exceptions are as true as rules. 经验表明,例外和规律一样真实。Most children like sweets, but there are some exceptions. 大多数孩子都喜欢吃糖果,但也有一些例外。He took great exception to what I said. 他极力反对我的话。There is always an exception to any rule. 任何规律总有例外。
excess ['ekses] n. 1.过量, 过度, 无节制2.超越, 超过 a. 过量的, 额外的, 附加的 【例】Usury is interest in excess of a legal rate. 高利贷是指超过法定利率取息。The fat boy went on a diet to get rid of his excess weight. 这个胖男孩节制饮食以减轻过量的体重。
excessive [ik'sesiv] a. 过多的, 过分的, 过度的 【同】extreme; disproportionate 【例】It is not money, as is sometimes said, but the love of money —— the excessive, selfish, covetous love of money, that is the root of all evil. 金钱并非如人们有时所说的那样是万恶之源。对金钱的追求──过度的、自私的、贪婪的追求,才是真正的万恶之源。Excessive rainfall had made the harvest impossible. 雨量过多,丰收已经不可能了。
exclaim [ik'skleim] v. 呼喊, 惊叫, 大声说 【同】shout; yell; proclaim; shriek 【例】When my sonnet was rejected, I exclaimed, “Damn the age; I will write for antiquity.” 当我的十四行诗被退稿时,我感慨万分: “该死的时代! 我要为古人而写作。” The newspapers exclaimed against the government's action. 报纸指责政府的行动。She exclaimed at the beautiful view. 她对这美丽的景色感到惊奇。
exclude [ik'sklu:d] vt. 把...排斥在外, 不包括 【例】No one was excluded from sentry duty. 人人都得站岗放哨。We cannot exclude the possibility that he killed his wife. 我们不能排除他杀了他妻子的可能性。
exclusive [ik'sklu:siv] a. 1.奢华的, 高级的2.独有的, 独享的3.排斥的, 排他的4.(of)不包括...的, 不把...计算在内的 n. 独家新闻 【例】He moves in exclusive social circles and belongs to the most exclusive clubs. 他活动于社交甚严的社交圈内,而且属于那些最不愿吸收外人的俱乐部。Dictionary-making has not been his exclusive employment. 编字典一直都不是他唯一的工作。The matter will be given our exclusive attention. 此事将引起我们的全部关注。This company has exclusive rights for the sale of Ford cars in the city. 这家公司享有福特汽车在本市的独家经销权。
excursion [ik'skK:Sn] n. 远足, 短途旅行 【同】ramble; tour; journey 【例】Many excursions have been arranged by Holiday Company. 短程旅游原先多由度假服务公司安排。We shall make an excursion to Hangzhou this weekend. 这个周末我们将去杭州旅行。
execute ['eksikju:t] vt. 1.处死, 处决2.实施, 执行, 完成 【例】The nurse executed the doctor's orders. 护士执行医生的命令。Congress makes the laws; the President executes them. 国会制定法律,总统执行法律。They executed the king. 他们把国王处决了。
executive [ig'zekjutiv] n. 1.主管, 高级行政人员, 行政官2.(政府的)行政部门 a. 执行的, 行政的 【同】managing; governing; administrative 【例】The business system is blessed with a built-in corrective, namely, that one executive’s mistakes become his competitor’s assets. 商界有一条天然的矫正法则,即:决策者的失误会变成竞争对手的资产。He is a man of great executive ability. 他是个具有极高管理才能的人。
exemplify [ig'zemplifai] vt. 1.是(或作为)...的典型(或榜样)2.例示, 举例证明 【同】show by example; illustrate; demonstrate 【例】The third paragraph exemplifies the abuse of this device. 文章的第2自然段举例说明了该仪器的滥用实例。
exert [ig'zK:t] vt. 1.用(力), 尽(力)2.运用, 发挥, 施加 【同】use; force; impose 【例】In the world, a man who would make his way, must exert and bestir himself day and night. 世人欲成功须努力发奋,夜以继日。He exerted all his influence to make them accept his plan. 他用尽一切影响力使他们接受他的计划。Her husband exerted a lot of pressure on her to succeed. 她丈夫殷切地希望她能成功,给了她很大的压力。
exhaust [ig'zO:st] vt. 1.使筋疲力尽2.用光, 花光, 耗尽3.详尽论述 n. 1.排气装置, 排气管, 排气孔2.(排出的)废气, 废液 【同】tire; weary; wear out 【例】We read of industrial vapors, automobile and jet plane exhausts that contaminate the air. We never hear of the millions of human exhausts expelling tobacco smoke. 我们读到污染空气的工业烟雾、汽车与喷气飞机的排气口。我们从未听说吐出烟草烟雾的千百万人的排气口。She did not cry out; her tears were exhausted. 她哭不出来了,因为眼泪都已哭干了。
exhibit [ig'zibit] vt. 1.显示, 显出2.展出, 展览, 陈列 n. 展览品, 陈列品 【例】Many unearthed cultural relics were exhibited at the museum. 博物馆展出了许多出土文物。
exit ['eksit] n. 1.出口, 通道, 安全门2.退出, 退场 v. 离开, 退出 【同】passage; outlet; escape 【例】All the world is a stage, and all the men and women merely players; they have their exits and entrances. 整个世界就是座舞台,天下的男男女女不过是演员。他们有上场,也有下场。There are four emergency exits in the department store. 这家百货公司有四个紧急出口。At the roundabout, take the third exit. 在环状交叉路口,从第三条出路驶出。
expand [ik'spexpansion [ik'spexpectation [,ekspek'teiSn] n. 1.期待, 预期2.[pl.] 前程, 成功的前景 【例】She ate a light lunch in expectation of a good dinner. 她午饭吃得很少,期待晚饭时饱餐一顿。He has great expectations from his uncle. 他渴望从叔叔那继承大笔遗产。
expedition [,ekspi'diSn] n. 1.(为特定目的而组织的)旅行, 出行, 远征2.远征队, 探险队, 考察队3.迅速, 动作敏捷 【同】excursion; voyage; journey 【例】The search for a scapegoat is the easiest of all hunting expeditions. 寻找替罪羊是所有狩猎探险中最容易的一种。They planned to organize a scientific expedition. 他们计划组织一次科学考察。The mail is conveyed with expedition. 那封信被迅速地传递出去。
expel [ik'spel] vt. 1.把...除名, 把...开除2.驱逐, 赶走, 放逐3.排出, 喷出 【同】send out or away 【例】One love expels another. 爱情互相排斥。He was expelled from the school. 他被学校开除了。The bullet was expelled from the gun. 子弹从枪中射出。
expend [ik'spend] vt. 花费, 消费, 消耗 【例】I had expended much time on the work but they told me it's useless. 我花了很多时间在这件工作上,他们却告诉 我说这是无用的。The soldiers expended all their ammunition in that fight. 士兵在那场战斗中用尽了所有的弹药。
expenditure [ik'spenditSK] n. 1.经费, 费用, 支出额2.(时间、金钱等的)花费, 支出, 消耗 【同】investment; payment; expense 【例】Expenditure on armaments is increasing. 军费正在增加。The expenditure of money on weapons is very large. 购置武器的开支很大。
expertise [,ekspK:'ti:z] n. 专门知识(或技能等), 专长
expire [ik'spaiK] vi. 1.期满, (期限)终止2.断气, 死亡 【同】come to end; terminate; run out 【例】Take vacations and long weekends. Never let vacation time expire. 去度假日和长周末吧。但别让假期过期失效。My passport is due to expire in two months. 我的护照再过两个月就到期了。
explicit [ik'splisit] a. 1.详述的, 明确的, 明晰的2.直言的, 毫不隐瞒的, 露骨的 【同】expressed; understandable; plain 【例】His attitude toward the whole thing was quite explicit. 他对此事的态度相当明确。
exploit ['eksplOit] vt. 1.剥削2.利用, 开发, 开采 n. [常pl.] 业绩, 功绩, 功勋 【同】utilize; employ; take advantage of 【例】I will not make age an issue of this campaign. I am not going to exploit for political purpose my opponent’s youth and inexperience. 我不会把年龄作为这次竞选的一个问题。我不打算为了政治目的而利用对手的年轻和缺乏经验。People should read the related regulations before they exploit natural resources. 在开发自然资源前,人们应该先了解相关的规定。
exploration [,eksplK'reiSn] n.考察;勘探;探查 【例】They decided to make a full exploration of the accident. 他们决定对事故做一次全盘研究。Despite the fact that many of my fellow students like other ways of learning, I never give up any opportunity to sit at my computer for the exploration of the ocean of knowledge. 尽管我的很多同学喜欢其他的学习方式,但是我决不放弃任何坐在计算机前去探索知识海洋的机会。
explore [ik'splO:] v. 1.勘探, 勘查, 探测2.仔细查阅, 探索, 探究 【例】The experts are exploring every part of the island. 专家们正在勘查这个岛的各个部分。Some people suggest that we should not help the adventurers, because any kind of help would ruin their pleasure of exploring. 一些人认为我们不应该帮助探险者,因为任何形式的帮助都会破坏他们探险的乐趣。I longed to explore much further into those areas. 我渴望在这些方面作进一步的探索。
explosion [ik'splKuZn] n. 1.爆炸, 爆发2.激增, 扩大 【例】The explosion was heard a mile away. 那爆炸声一英里外也可以听到。The explosion of oil prices caused an economical crisis. 石油价格的急剧上涨引起了经济危机。
explosive [ik'splKusiv] a. 1.爆炸的, 爆发的2.极易引起争论的 n. 炸药 【例】Gunpowder is an explosive. 火药是一种爆炸物。Hydrogen is highly explosive. 氢极易爆炸。Politics can be an explosive subject. 政治问题容易引起争论。
expose [ik'spKuz] vt. 1.暴露, 显露2.(to)使处于...作用(或影响)之下, 曝光3.揭露, 坦露 【例】You shouldn't expose the soldiers to unnecessary risks. 你不应该让士兵们冒不必要的危险。The reporter was killed because he tried to expose a plot. 这名记者因为试图揭露一个阴谋而被杀害。The photographs exposed the absurdity of the undertaking. 这些像片揭示了这种做法的荒谬性。
exposure [ik'spKuZK] n. 1.暴露, 显露2.揭发, 揭露3.曝光 【同】disclosure; betrayal; unfolding 【例】The greatest crime committed in American cities may not be murder, rape or robbery, but rather the wholesale and constant exposure of children to noise, ugliness and garbage in the street. 在美国城市中犯下的最大罪行可能不是凶杀、强奸或抢劫,而是儿童大量、持久地接触大街上的噪声、丑恶现象和垃圾。Exposure of the body to strong sunlight can be harmful. 身体受烈日暴晒会造成伤害。The exposure of the plot against the President probably saved his life. 揭发了反总统的阴谋可能救了他一命。How many exposures have you left? 还剩多少底片没有照?
extension [ik'stenSn] n. 1.伸出, 伸展, 扩大2.延长部分, 扩大部分, 扩建部分3.电话分机, 分机号码 【例】He built an extension onto his house. 他给自己的住宅扩建了一部分。He asked for an extension of his visa. 他申请延长签证有效期。
extensive [ik'stensiv] a. 1.广大的, 广阔的2.广泛的, 大量的 【例】The device had undergone extensive testing. 这种装置经受过广泛的试验。He selected an extensive reading course this term. 这个学期他选修了泛读课程。
extent [ik'stent] n. 1.程度, 范围, 限度2.广度, 宽度, 大小 【例】From the roof we were able to see the full extent of the park. 从屋顶上我们能看到公园的全景。I was amazed at the extent of his knowledge. 我对他知识的渊博感到惊奇。
external [ik'stK:nl] a. 外部的, 外面的, 外表的 【同】exterior; covering 【例】Everybody acts not only under external compulsions but also in accordance with inner necessity. 每个人的行动都不仅出于外部的推动,也同样依据内在的需要。All his injuries are external. 他受的伤都是外伤。This news program only covers external events. 这一新闻节目只报道国外消息。
extinct [ik'stiNt] a. 1.灭绝的, 绝种的2.(火山等)不再活跃的, (火等)熄灭了的, (风俗等)已废弃的 【同】ended; vanished; abolition 【例】I am sorry to say that there is too much point to the wisecrack that life is extinct on other planets because their scientists were more advanced than ours. 我要遗憾地说,由于其他星球上的科学水平比我们的更高, 所以其他星球的生命已经灭绝的警世之言实在很有道理。Dinosaurs have been extinct for millions of years. 恐龙已绝种几百万年了。
extinguish [ik'stiNwiS] vt. 1.熄灭, 扑灭2.使消亡, 使破灭 【例】We have to extinguish the memory of the defeat. 我们必须抹去对那次失败的记忆。Smoking is forbidden. Please extinguish your cigarettes. 吸烟是禁止的,请你把烟熄掉。Nothing could extinguish his faith in human nature. 没有什么能使他丧失对人性的信心。
extraction [ik'strextraordinary [ik'strO:dnri] a. 不平常的, 特别的, 非凡的 【例】He married a girl of extraordinary beauty. 他娶了一位非常美丽的姑娘。
extravagant [ik'streyebrow ['aibrau] n. 眉毛 【例】There were a lot of eyebrows raised at the news of minister's dismissal. 部长被解职的消息令很多人感到惊讶。
eyesight ['aisait] n. 视力 【例】The house is within eyesight. 房子在视力范围之内。He has poor eyesight. 他的视力不好。
fabric ['ffacilitate [fK'siliteit] vt. 使变得(更)容易, 使便利 【同】aid; simplify; make easy 【例】It would facilitate matters if you were more cooperative. 要是你们再合作些就省事了。Let good advertisements facilitate communication between business people and the public, and help keep the business world moving. 让好的广告促进商人和公众之间的交流,并帮助商业界运行。
faculty ['ffailure ['feiljK] n. 1.失败2.失败的人(或事)3.失灵, 故障4.没做到, 不履行 【例】I shall have another chance in the event of failure. 如果失败,我还有另一个机会。Production in the factories stopped because of frequent power failures. 频繁的停电使工厂停产。The play was a dead failure. 这场戏完全失败了。
famine ['ffantastic [ffascinate ['ffatal ['feitl] a. 1.致使的, 灾难性的, 毁灭性的2.重大的, 决定性的 【同】inevitable; mortal; deadly 【例】It is most important in this world to be pushing, but it is fatal to seem to. 世间最重要的是有进取心,但虚有其表却是致命的。This was his fatal defect; he was of feeble will. 这是他致命的弱点,他意志薄弱。His illness was fatal to our plan. 他的患病给我们的计划带来灾难。
father-in-law ['fA:DKr-in-lO:] n.岳父;公公
fatigue [fK'ti:g] n. 疲劳, 劳累v. (使)疲劳 【同】weariness; exhaustion; faintness 【例】Those who expect to reap the blessings of freedom must undergo the fatigue of supporting it. 想要获得自由恩惠的人必须承受支持自由的劳苦。Finally, her mind gave in to fatigue and she fell asleep. 最后她的心力疲惫不堪,就睡着了。I am utterly fatigued. 我完全累坏了。The patient fatigues easily. 病人容易疲劳。
favourable ['feivKrKbl] a. 1.称赞的? 赞同的2.有利的? 顺利的 【同】desirable; commending; approving 【例】Why do men seek honor? Surely in order to confirm the favorable opinion they have formed of themselves. 人们为什么寻求荣誉?当然是为了证实他们对自己形成的好评。Most people were favorable to the idea. 大多数人赞成这个主意。The conditions are favorable for opening a new business. 各种条件有利于开办新企业。
fearful ['fiKfKl] a. 1.可怕的, 吓人的2.不安的, 忧虑的 【例】A fearful person is a weak person. 怕这怕那的人是软弱的人。They were fearful that the river would flood. 他们担心河流会发洪水。
feasible ['fi:zKbl] a. 可行的, 可能的, 可用的 【同】achievable; attainable; workable 【例】It’s not feasible to follow your proposals. 照你的建议去做是行不通的。
federal ['fedKrKl] a. 联邦(制)的, 联邦政府的 【例】In the USA foreign policy is decided by the federal government and federal laws are made by Congress. 美国外交政策取决于联邦政府,联邦法律由 国会制定。
fee [fi:] n. 费, 酬金 【例】The doctor's fee was higher than we expected. 这位医生的收费比我们预料的高。
feeble ['fi:bl] a. 1.虚弱的, 衰弱的, 无力的2.无效的, 无益的 【同】fragile; strengthless; ineffective 【例】Superstition is the religion of feeble minds. 迷信是心智虚弱者的宗教。A sick person is often feeble. 病人常常虚弱无力。A feeble attempt is liable to fail. 愚蠢的尝试多半是要失败的。
feedback ['fi:dbfellowship ['felKuSip] n. 1.伙伴关系, 交情, 友谊2.团体, 协会, 联谊会3.(研究生的)奖学金, (大学)研究员职位 【例】He was granted a fellowship. 他被准许入会。They offered him the hand of fellowship when he was in difficulties. 当他身处困境时,他们向他伸出了友谊之手。
feminine ['femKnin] a. 1.女性的, 女子的2.女子气的 【同】female; womanlike; irrational 【例】The great question that has never been answered and which I have not yet been able to answer, despite my thirty years of research into the feminine soul, is What does a woman want? 这个从未得回答、我尽管探究女性心灵30 年也尚未能够回答的重大问题是:女人究竟想要什么? Jewelry and lace are mostly feminine belongings. 珠宝和丝织品大多是女性用品。
fertile ['fK:tail] a. 1.肥沃的, 富饶的2.多产的, 丰产的3.(想象力或创造力)丰富的 【同】productive; plentiful 【例】Now man is not as fertile as in the past. 人类的繁殖能力现在不如以前。Fertile soil yields good crops. 肥沃的土地能种出好庄稼。
fertilizer ['fK:tKlaizK] n. 肥料 【例】Crushed bones make one of the best fertilizers. 碎骨是最好的肥料之一。
festival ['festivl] n. 1.(文化娱乐的)节2.节日, 喜庆日 【例】Christmas is a festival of the Christian Church. 圣诞节是基督教的节日。This city has a music festival every summer. 本市每年举行一次夏季音乐节。
feudal ['fju:dl] a. 封建制度的,封地的,领地的 【例】The feudal barons were cruel to the people. 封建贵族对人民很残酷。The way some landlords treat their tenants today still seems feudal. 今天有些地主仍以近乎封建的方式对待佃户。
fibre ['faibK] ([美]fiber) n. 纤维(物质) 【例】Scientists are recommending that people eat more fibre. 科学家建议人们多吃些纤维素。He is a man of real fibre. 他是一个有骨气的男子。I love my country with every fibre of my being. 我深爱我的祖国。
fiction ['fikSn] n. 小说 【同】fabrication; romance; story 【例】Truth, fact, is the life of all things; falsity, fiction, or whatever it may call itself, is certain to be the death. 真实,事实,是一切事物的生命;虚假,虚构, 或者它可能自称的任何名目,都必定是死亡。I like to read science fiction. 我喜欢阅读科幻小说。His account of the crime was a complete fiction. 他所讲述的那种罪刑完全是虚构的。
filter ['filtK] n. 滤器, 过滤用料, 过滤咀 vt. 过滤 vi. 1.透(过)2.(消息等)走漏, 慢慢传开 【同】soak through; penetrate; purify; separate 【例】You need to filter the drinking water. 你需要把饮用水过滤。The sunlight filtered through the curtains. 阳光透过窗帘映了进来。The teacher gave each of us a piece of filter paper before doing the experiment. 做试验前,老师给我们每个人发了一张滤纸。
finance ['fainfinding ['faindiN] n. 1.[常pl.] 调查(或研究)的结果2.(陪审团的)裁决
finite ['fainait] a.1.有限的,有限制的2. 限定的
fireman ['faiKmKn] n. 消防队员 【例】Being a fireman sometimes may be dangerous. 做个消防队员有时候会有危险。
fireplace ['faiKpleis] n. 壁炉 【例】She felt warm only when she sat before the fireplace. 她只有坐在壁炉前才感觉到暖和。
firework ['faiKwK:k] n. 焰火
fishery ['fiSKri] n. 渔场
fitting ['fitiN] n. 1.[常pl.] (房屋内的)设备, 家具, 日用器具2.[常pl.] 配件, 附件, 零件3.试穿, 试衣 a. 适合的, 恰当的
fixed [fikst] a. 固定的
fixture ['fikstSK] n. 1.[常pl.] (房屋等的)固定装置2.固定在某位置的人(或物) 【例】The price includes all fixtures and fittings. 这个价钱把全部固定装置和设备都打在里面 了。
flap [flflare [flEK] vi. 1.(火焰)闪耀, (短暂地)烧旺2.突发, 突然发怒(或激动) n. 闪光信号, 照明弹 【例】The skirt flares out at the hem. 这条裙子的下摆张的很大。Her nostrils flared angrily. 她气得鼻孔都鼓了起来。The fire flared up as I put more logs onto it. 我加了几块木材,火顿时亮了起来。
flatten ['flflatter ['flflavour ['fleivK] n. 1.味? 滋味? 味道2.特色? 风味 vt. 给...调味? 加味于 【同】taste; savor 【例】Variety is the very spice of life, that gives it all its flavor. 变化是生活的调料。经赋予生活所有的滋味。I don't like the flavor of onion. 我不喜欢洋葱的味道。This bread has plenty of flavor. 这面包味道真好。
flaw [flO:] n. 缺点, 瑕疵, 缺陷 【同】fault; stain 【例】The absence of flaw in beauty is itself a flaw. 美得没有缺陷本身就是缺陷。The flaw in this vase makes it less valuable. 这个花瓶因为有点缺陷,不那么值钱了。Your argument has a fatal flaw. 你的论点有一个致命的错误。
flexible ['fleksKbl] a. 1.易弯曲的, 柔韧的2.灵活的, 可变通的 【例】This tube is flexible but tough. 这管子柔软但很坚固。We need a foreign policy that is more flexible. 我们需要一个更为灵活的外交政策。
flourish ['flVriS] vi. 茂盛, 繁荣, 兴旺 vt. 挥动(以引起注意) 【同】prosper; thrive; increase 【例】The sciences are of sociable disposition, and flourish best in the neighborhood of each other. 各门科学性喜交际,因而在相邻地带最为繁荣。There were two or three palm trees flourishing in the promenade garden. 街心花园里有两三棵枝繁叶茂的棕榈树。She rushed in flourishing a document. 她急匆匆地走了进来,手里挥舞着一份文件。The doctor showed us about his hospital with much flourish. 这位医生颇为炫耀地带着我们参观了他的医院。
fluctuate ['flVktSueit] vi. 波动, 涨落, 起伏 【同】vibrate; wave; hesitate 【例】The price fluctuates between $5 and $6. 价格在五到六美元之间波动。
fluid ['flu:id] n. 流体, 液体 a. 流体的, 流动的 【同】liquor; vapor; solution 【例】The opinions which we hold of one another, our relations with friends and kinsfolk are in no sense permanent, save in appearance, but are as eternally fluid as the sea itself. 我们互相都看到、我们与朋友亲属的关系不是恒定的。除了表面平静, 它们恰似大海一般,永远都在变动。Air, whether in the gaseous or liquid state, is a fluid. 空气,无论是气态的还是液态的,都是一种流体。
flush [flVS] n. 脸红, 红光 vi. 1.被冲洗2.(脸)发红, 脸红 vt. 1.冲洗, 清除2.使(脸等)涨红, 使发红3.赶出 a. 1.(with)齐平的, 同高的2.(尤指钱)充裕的, 富裕的 【例】She shows a flush of joy at his coming. 对他的到来她表现出一阵兴奋。Mary flushed crimson with embarrassment. 玛丽羞得脸红了。
flyover ['flaiKuvK] n.低空访问飞行;高架平交道
foodstuff ['fu:dstVf] n. 食料,食品 【例】Rice is our essential foodstuff in life. 大米是我们生活的基本食物。Nowadays, the foodstuffs in our life are more various. 如今,我们生活中的食品品种越来越多样化了。
footstep ['futstep] n. 脚步, 脚步声 【例】There are many footsteps in the snow. 雪地上有许多脚印。
forecast ['fO:kA:st] vt. 预测, 预报 【同】prediction; forethought; foresight 【例】Our present addiction to pollsters and forecasters is a symptom of our chronic uncertainty about the future. Even when the forecasts prove wrong, we still go on asking for them. 我们现在对民意调查人和各种预测者的沉迷,是对未来长期没有把握的一种病态。即使预测结果错了,我们还是继续寻求它们。They tried to forecast the result of the football match. 他们试图预测这场足球比赛的结果。The weather forecast says it will be sunny tomorrow. 天气预报说明天是晴天。
forefinger ['fO:fiNgK] n. 食指
foregoing [fO:'gKuiN] adj.先行的,上述的
foremost ['fO:mKust] a. 首要的, 最佳的 【例】Do you know who is the foremost writer in the English language? 你知道谁是最重要的英语作家吗?
foresee [fO:'si:] vt. 预见, 预兆 【同】foretell; predict; prophesy 【例】He who foresees calamities suffers them twice over. 预见灾难的人受到灾难的两次袭击。Do you foresee any problems with the new system? 对于这种新体制,你看会有什么问题吗?He foresaw that his journey would be delayed by bad weather. 他预知自己的旅程会被恶劣天气耽搁。
forge [fO:dZ] vt. 1.伪造(货币、文件等), 假冒2.锻造, 锤炼 【同】hammer out; beat into shape; fabricate 【例】The power of quotation is as dreadful a weapon as any which the human intellectual can forge. 名言的威力作为强大的武器,与人类智慧能够制造出的任何武器相比都不逊色。They forged their manager's signature on the cheque. 他们在支票上伪造了经理的签名。The ship forged ahead under a favorable wind. 船乘风快速前进。
formal ['fO:ml] a. 1.正式的, 正规的, 合乎礼仪的2.形式上的, 表面的 【例】Business letters must always be formal, but we should write in a natural way to friends. 商业信函必须是正式的,但是写信给朋友应写得自然一些。There is only a formal likeness between the two brothers, for their natures are very different. 这两兄弟仅外表相似,本性却很不一样。He is very formal with everyone; he never joins in a laugh. 他对任何人都很拘谨,从不跟人说笑。
formation [fO:'meiSn] n. 1.形成, 组成2.形成物, 结构3.队形, 排列 【例】Her front teeth were irregular in formation. 她的门牙排列不整齐。School life has a great influence on the formation of a child's character. 学校生活对小孩个性的形成有很大影响。There are several kinds of cloud formations. 云层的构成方式有好几种。
formula ['fO:mjulK] (formulae ['fO:mjuli:] pl. )n. 1.原则, 方案2.公式, 方程式3.配方 【例】What is the formula for water?水的分子式是什么? It's the formula for converting gallons into liters. 这是加仑与升的换算公式。
formulate ['fO:mjuleit] vt. 1.构想出(计划、方法等), 规划(制度等)2.系统地(或确切地)阐述 【同】form; set down; express 【例】The contract was formulated in difficult legal language. 该合同是用深奥的法律术语订立的。He formulated his thought clearly. 他清楚确切地表达了自己的思想。The contract was formulated in difficult legal language. 该合同是用深奥的法律术语订立的。
forthcoming [,fO:T'kVmiN] a. 1.即将到来的, 即将出现的2.可得到的, 乐于提供消息的
fortnight ['fO:tnait] n. 十四天, 两星期 【同】two weeks 【例】When a man knows he is to be hanged in a fortnight, it concentrates his mind wonderfully. 自己将于两星期内被绞死的消息会令人惊奇地集中一个人的思想。I see them about once a fortnight. 我大约两星期见他们一次。
forum ['fO:rKm] n. 论坛, 讨论会, (电视等的)专题讨论节目 【例】The letters page serves as a useful forum for the exchange of readers' views. 读者来信版是读者们交换意见的有益园地。There was a forum where meetings were held. 那儿曾是集会的场所。
fossil ['fOsl] n. 1.化石2.食古不化的人, 老顽固 【例】He found a piece of fossil of an ancient bird. 他发现一块古代鸟类的化石。Coal is a fossil fuel. 煤是一种矿物燃料。
foundation [faun'deiSn] n. 1.[pl.] 地基2.基础, 基本原理, 根据3.基金会4.建立, 设立, 创办 【同】base; basis; establishment 【例】The greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation. 最大多数人的最大幸福是道德和法律的根据。The foundation of this university took place over 100 years ago. 这所大学于一百多年前创建。He laid the foundation of his success by study and hard work. 他通过学习和努力工作为成功打下了基础。
fraction ['frfracture ['frfragment ['frfragrant ['freigrKnt] a.香的,芬芳的 【同】perfumed; sweet-scented 【例】Certainly virtue is like precious odors, most fragrant when they are incensed or crushed. 美德无疑有如珍贵的香料,点燃或粉碎后最为芬芳。The air in the garden was warm and fragrant. 花园里的空气一片温馨。
framework ['freimwK:k] n. 1.框架, 构架2.参照标准, 准则, 观点3.构成方式, 体系 【例】It's a bridge of steel framework. 那是座钢铁结构的桥梁。All the cases can be considered within the framework of the existing rules. 一切情况都可依据现行章程的结构加以考虑。
frequency ['fri:kwKnsi] n. 1.次数, 频率2.经常发生, 频繁 【同】regularity; recurrence 【例】The drop of rain makes a hole in the stone, not by violence, but by the frequency of falling. 水滴穿石靠的不是强力,而是不断的下落。Accidents on that highway are happening with increasing frequency. 那条高速公路上车祸发生得越来越频繁。
friction ['frikSn] n. 1.不和, 抵触2.磨擦(力) 【例】Friction against the rock, combined with the weight of the climber, caused his rope to break. 与岩石之间的摩擦加上攀登者的重量,使得绳子断了。My daughter and son always have frictions. 我女儿和儿子总发生矛盾。
frontier ['frVntiK] n. 1.边境, 边界2.[the~] 开发地区的边缘, 边远地区3.[常pl.] 前沿, 新领域 【同】boundary; verge; country 【例】There exists limitless opportunity in every industry. Where there is an open mind, there will always be a frontier. 每种事业都存在无限的机会。哪里有开放的头脑,哪里就永远会有新的领域。Sweden has frontiers with Norway and Finland. 瑞典与挪威和芬兰接壤。The frontiers of medical knowledge are being pushed forwards as time goes on. 医学知识的新领域正随着时间向前推进。
frozen ['frKuzKn] freeze的过去分词
fruitful ['fru:tfKl] a. 多产的, 富有成效的 【同】productive; fertile; profitable 【例】The most fruitful and natural play of the mind is in conversation. 谈话能最有成效,最自然地运用头脑。The apple tree is seldom fruitful. 这棵苹果树很少结果。Working is just one of the many useful and fruitful activities you do that enables you to live a good life and give your family their needs. 你可有许多富有成效的活动使你过上好日子并满足你家人的需要,而工作就是这些活动中的一种。
frustrate [frV'streit] vt. 1.使沮丧, 使灰心2.挫败, 使受挫折 【同】defeat; prevent; disappoint 【例】Bad weather has frustrated plans to launch the spacecraft today. 今日发射宇宙飞船的计划因天气恶劣而落空。The terrible weather frustrated our hopes of going out. 恶劣的天气使我们外出的愿望无法实现。I'm feeling rather frustrated in my present job; I need a change. 我感到现在干得很不顺心,需要换一换工作。
fry [frai] vt. 油煎, 油炸, 油炒 【例】Shall I fry the fish for dinner? 晚饭要不要我炸鱼? The eggs are frying in the pan. 鸡蛋正在平底锅里煎着。
fulfil [ful'fil] vt. 1.履行, 实现, 完成2.满足, 使满意
function ['fVNkSn] n. 1.功能, 作用, 职能2.重大聚会(或宴会)3.函数, 随他物变化而变化的事物 vi. 工作, 运行, 起作用 【例】The function of an adjective is to describe or add to the meaning of a noun. 形容词的作用是描述或增加名词的意思。The minister has to attend all kinds of functions. 部长必须参加各种集会。The machine won't function properly if you don't oil it well. 如果你不给机器好好加油的话,它就不会正 常运转。
fundamental [,fVndK'mentl] a. 基本的, 根本的, 基础的 n. [pl.] 基本原则, 基本法则 【例】There is a fundamental difference in attitude between these two politicians. 这两位政治家的态度有着根本的区别。A knowledge of economics is fundamental to any understanding of this problem. 经济知识对于理解这个问题是至关重要的。If you two are going to marry, I advise that you need to know the fundamentals of cooking. 如果你们要结婚的话,我建议你们了解烹调的基本知识。
funeral ['fju:nKrKl] n. 葬礼, 丧礼 【同】gloomy; burial 【例】Success is a public affair. Failure is a private funeral. 成功是公众的喜事。失败是个人的葬礼。They held a state funeral in honour of the statesman. 他们为这位政治家举行了国葬。The funeral made its way slowly through the streets. 送葬队伍缓缓地穿过街道。
furious ['fjuKriKs] a. 1.狂怒的, 暴怒的2.强烈的, 激烈的 【同】enraged; angry; indignant 【例】She was absolutely furious. 他大发雷霆。After receiving the insulting letter, he became furious. 他收到辱骂信后怒不可遏。There was a furious knock at the door. 有人在猛烈地敲门。
furnace ['fK:nis] n. 熔炉, 火炉 【例】This room is like a furnace. 这屋子热得象火炉一样。
furthermore [,fK:DK'mO:] ad. 而且, 此外 【例】The house isn't big enough for me, and furthermore, it's too far from the town. 这栋房子不够我们住,而且,它离市区太远。
fuss [fVs] n. 忙乱, 大惊小怪, 小题大做 vi. 1.小题大做, 大惊小怪2.(为小事)烦恼, 过于忧虑 【同】trouble; complaint; bother; disturbance 【例】Don't make so much fuss over losing a pen. 别为了丢失一支笔就这样大惊小怪。There is sure to be a fuss when my parents find the window is broken. 我父母发现窗子被打破后,一定会有一番斥责。She fusses too much about her health. 她对自己的健康过分担心。
gage [geidZ] (=gauge)
galaxy ['ggallery ['ggallon ['ggallop ['ggamble ['ggarbage ['gA:bidZ] n. 1.垃圾, 废物2.废话3.无用(或不正确)的资料 【例】Please put the garbage in the dustbin. 请把垃圾放在桶里。She threw the leftovers in the garbage. 她把剩饭倒进垃圾桶。
gasoline ['ggasp [gA:sp] vi. 喘气, 喘息, 倒抽气 vt. 喘着气说出(或发出) n. 喘气, 喘息, 倒抽气 【同】pant; labor; gulp 【例】I gasped in astonishment at the magician’s skill. 那魔术师技艺惊人,我不禁倒吸一口凉气。I gasped with surprise at the unexpected news. 听到意外的消息,我惊讶地吸了一口气。He gasped out the message. 他喘着气说出了这个消息。
gathering ['ggauge [geidZ] n. 1.测量仪表2.(金属板的)厚度, (金属线的)直径3.(标准)规格, 尺度 vt. 1.估计, 判断2.计量, 度量 【例】We must gauge the diameter of wire first. 我们必须先测量电线的直径。It was difficult to gauge how people would respond. 大家的反应如何难以估计。It's a rain gauge. 这是一个测雨器。
gear [giK] n. 1.齿轮, 传动装置, (排)挡2.(从事某项活动所需的)用具, 设备, 衣服 vt. 使适应, 使适合 【同】regulate; harness; match; adjust 【例】Our effort is geared to a higher level of production. 我们调整力量将生产推向更高的水平。Most cars have four forward gears. 大多数汽车有四个前进挡。The plumber stowed all his gear in a canvas bag. 管子工把他所有的工具都装进一只帆布袋里。Education should be geared to the children's needs and abilities. 教育应适应儿童的需要和能力。
geese [gi:s] n. goose的复数,雌鹅
generalize ['dZenrKlaiz] v. 概括, 归纳, 推断 【同】theorize; hypothesize; derive 【例】Every science begins by accumulating observations, and presently generalizes these empirically. 各门科学以积累观察结果开始,旋即凭借经验对它们进行概括。
generate ['dZenKreit] vt. 1.生成, 产生(光、热、电等)2.引起, 导致 【同】produce; breed; yield 【例】War. There is no solution for it. There is never a conqueror. The winner generates such hatred that he is ultimately defeated. 战争。它没有解决的办法。征服者是不存在的。胜利者造成了如此之深的仇恨,他最终仍被打败。This hatred was generated by racial prejudice. 这种仇恨是由种族偏见引起的。
genius ['dZi:niKs] n. 1.天才, 天赋2.天才人物 【同】talent; exceptional 【例】Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration. 天才的百分之一是灵感,百分之九十九是汗水。She has a genius for finding mistakes in my work. 她有一种从我的工作中找错误的本领。
genuine ['dZenjuin] a. 1.真的, 非人造的2.真诚的, 真心的 【同】real; original; sincere; actual 【例】Genuine poetry can communicate before it is understood. 真正的诗歌能够未经理解便达到沟通。Is this bracelet genuine gold? 这个手镯是纯金的吗? He has a genuine desire to help us. 他真心诚意地愿意帮助我们。
geographical [,dZiK'grgeology [dZi'OlKdZi] n. 1.地质学2.地质情况 【例】I've studied geology in my college. 我在大学里已经学过地质学。
geometry [dZi'OmKtri] n. 几何 (学) 【例】I feel that geometry is a difficult subject. 我认为几何是一门难学的课程。
germ [dZK:m] n. 1.微生物, 细菌, 病菌2.(某事的)发端, 萌芽 【例】Disinfectant kills germs. 消毒剂灭杀细菌。
gesture ['dZestSK] n. 1.姿势, 手势2.(人际交往时做出的)姿态, 表示 v. 作手势(表示) 【同】sign; indication; signalize 【例】The invitation was meant as a friendly gesture. 那邀请是友好的表示。A speaker often makes gestures with his hands or arms to stress something he is saying. 演讲者常用手或手臂做手势来强调他所说的某些要点。The doctor gestured me to take off my coat. 医生做手势要我脱去外套。She gestured her disappointment by laying her hand on her forehead. 她把手放在额头上,以表示失望。
gifted ['giftid] a. 有天赋的
gigantic [dZai'gglare [glEK] vi. 1.(at)怒目而视2.发射强光, 发出刺眼的光线 n. 1.强光2.怒视, 瞪眼3.炫耀, 张扬 【例】The sun glared on the sea. 太阳在海上发出令人目眩的光芒。They stood there, glaring at each other. 他们站在那,互相怒视着对方。The windows were tinted to reduce the glare. 窗户上涂上了浅色以减少强光。
glide [glaid] n. 滑行, 滑动, 滑翔 【例】The figure skater glided gracefully over the ice. 花样滑冰者在冰上优雅地滑行。Youth glided past without our awareness. 青春在我们不知不觉中逝去。
glimpse [glimps] n. 一瞥, 一看 【例】I glimpsed at her among the crowd before she disappeared from sight. 就在她即将消失在人群里之前,我瞥见了她。I only caught a glimpse of him sitting in the car, so I can't tell exactly what he looked like. 我只瞥见他坐在车里,所以我无法确切说出他长得什么样。A glimpse of her face will tell you that she is innocent. 你只要一看见她的脸就会明白,她是无辜的。
glitter ['glitK] vi. 闪闪发光, 闪耀 n. 1.闪光, 灿烂的光辉2.耀眼, 辉煌 【同】sparkle; shimmer; shine 【例】All that glitters is not gold. 闪闪发光者,未必皆黄金。The diamond ring on her finger glittered in the light. 她手指上的钻石戒指在灯光下闪闪发光。He stared at me with a cruel glitter in his eyes. 他眼露凶光地瞪着我。
global ['glKubl] a. 1.全球的, 全世界的2.总的, 完整的 【同】overall; comprehensive; complete 【例】Global scoring is applied to the grading of the students’ essays. 批改学生的作文时使用的是整体评分法。
gloomy ['glu:mi] a. 1.忧郁的, 沮丧的2.令人沮丧的, 令人失望的3.昏暗的, 阴暗的, 阴沉的 【同】dim; clouded; sad; depressed 【例】Love is the flame of life, without it, everything in life becomes gloomy. 爱是生命的火焰。没有它,生命中的一切都变得暗淡无光。She is always in that gloomy mood. 她总是那样情绪低沉。It's a gloomy day. 这是一个令人沮丧的日子。
glorify ['glO:rifai] vt.赞美(上帝);颂扬 【同】give glory to; exalt; revere; praise 【例】This ancient epic glorified hero’s deeds in battle. 这部古代史诗歌颂了战斗英雄的业绩。The newspapers glorified their heroic deeds. 报纸称颂了他们的英雄事迹。The setting sun glorified the scene. 落日使景色更美。
glue [glu:] n. 胶, 胶水 vt. 胶合, 粘贴 【例】This glue sticks fast. 这胶水粘得很牢。He glued a stamp onto the envelope. 他把邮票贴在信封上。The kids glued their eyes to the TV set, watching a cartoon. 孩子们目不转睛地盯着电视机看卡通片。
gossip ['gOsip] n. 1.流言蜚语2.爱说长道短的人 vi. 传播流言蜚语, 说长道短 【同】talk idly; tell tales; chat 【例】Gossip is what no one claims to like —— but everybody enjoys. 流言蜚语是没有谁宣称喜欢的东西,可是人人都乐此不疲。I never talk about gossip. 我从不传播流言蜚语。There has been much gossip in political circles. 政界里有许多流言蜚语。She loves to gossip to her neighbors. 她喜欢议论邻居们的是非长短。
grab [grgraceful ['greisfKl] a. 1.优美的, 优雅的2.得体的 【同】elegant; beautiful 【例】Golf is an awkward set of bodily contortions designed to produce a graceful result. 高尔夫球运动是意在选成优雅结果一套笨拙的身体扭曲。His refusal was worded in such a graceful way that we could not be offended. 他的拒绝是那样委婉得体,所以我们并未感到不快。She runs up the stairs with a light graceful step. 她以轻快优雅的步子奔上楼去。
gracious ['greiSKs] a. 1.亲切的, 和蔼的2.优美的, 雅致的, 雍容华贵的 int. (表示惊讶)天哪 【同】polite; courteous 【例】If a man be gracious and courteous to strangers, it shows he is a citizen of the world. 人若对陌生人亲切有礼,这表明他是个世界公民。He is gracious to his inferiors. 他待下级和蔼可亲。
gradual ['grgramme [grgraph [grA:f] n. 图表, 图解, 曲线图
grasp [grA:sp] n. &v. 1.抓紧, 抓牢2.理解, 领会 【例】I grasped the main point of the speech. 我领会了这篇演讲的要点。You must grasp this opportunity. 你必须抓住机会。I kept her hands in my grasp. 我紧握着她的手。She has a good grasp of the English language. 她精通英语。
grateful ['greitfKl] n. 感激的, 感谢的 【例】He was grateful for all you did. 他对你所做的一切表示感激。Your kindness is grateful. 你的友善令人感激。Rather than being content and grateful for what we have, we are focused on what is wrong with something and our need to fix it. 我们不是对我们拥有的事物感到满足,心存感激,相反地,我们将注意力集中于该事物的缺点及我们如何弥补这些缺点上。
gratitude ['grgrease [gri:s] n. 1.(动物)油脂2.润滑脂, 润滑油 vt. 用油脂涂, 给...加润滑油 【同】fat; oil; lubricant 【例】The wheel that squeaks the loudest is the one that gets the grease. 叫得最凶的车轮会得到的润滑油。The engine was covered in grease. 发动机上有层油脂。He puts grease on his hair to make it shiny. 他给头发擦上发油使它发亮。If you grease the lock it will turn more easily. 如果你给这把锁涂上油脂,转动起来就容易了。
greedy ['gri:di] a. 1.贪食的, 嘴馋的2.贪婪的, 贪心的3.渴望的 【同】avid; selfish; miserly; tight-fisted 【例】Being neither jealous nor greedy, being without desires, and remaining the same under all circumstances —— that is nobility. 既不忌妒也不贪婪,不存奢望,在任何情况下都保持不变──这就是高贵。He looked at the shop window with greedy eyes. 他用贪婪的眼光看着商店的橱窗。The greedy little boy ate all the candy at the party. 那个贪吃的小男孩把宴会上所有的糖果都吃光了。
greenhouse ['gri:nhaus] n. 温室 【例】They planted many flowers in their greenhouse. 他们在花房里种了很多花。
grieve [gri:v] vi. (for, over)感到悲痛, 伤心 vt. 使伤心, 为...而伤心 【同】regret; sorrow; mourn 【例】What the eye doesn’t see, the heart doesn’t grieve over. 眼不见,心不痛。It grieves me to see him in such bad health. 看见他的健康状况如此不佳,我很伤心。
grip [grip] n. 1.紧握, 抓牢2.掌握, 控制 vt. 1.握紧, 抓牢2.吸引住...的注意力(或想象力等) 【例】The frightened child gripped his mother's arm. 这个受惊的孩子紧紧地抓着妈妈的胳膊。The brake doesn't grip properly. 刹车不灵了。We'll come to grips with the problem very soon. 我们将很快处理这个问题。
groan [grKun] vi. 1.呻吟, 抱怨2.发出呻吟般的声音 n. 1.呻吟, 抱怨2.呻吟般的声音 【同】moan; murmur; cry 【例】How alike are the groans of love to those of the dying. 爱的呻吟与垂死者的呻呤何其相似。The girl groaned in pain. 那女孩在痛苦中呻吟。The old chair gave a groan when the fat man sat down on it. 那个胖子坐下时,旧椅子发出嘎吱的响声。
grocer ['grKusK] n. 食品杂货商
grocery ['grKusKri] n.食品杂货店 【例】He brought the box of groceries in from the car. 他把一盒食品从汽车上拿进来。He brought the box of groceries in from the car. 他把一盒食品从汽车上拿进来。
gross [grKus] a. 1.总的, 毛的2.严重的, 显著的3.粗俗的, 粗野的4.臃肿的 vt. 获得...总收入(或毛利) 【同】coarse; whole; entire 【例】Gratitude is a fruit of great cultivation; you do not find it among gross people. 感激是深厚教养的成果,在粗野的人当中是找不到的。You can tell from his gross language that the man was uneducated. 从他那粗俗的语言可以看出,这个人没受过教育。The gross national product had increased 5 percent last year. 去年的国民生产总值提高了百分之五。
grown-up ['grKunVp] a. 已经成人的 【例】I have a grown-up son who lives abroad. 我有一个住在国外的成年儿子。The grown-ups applauded after the children had finished their performance. 孩子们表演完后,大人们鼓掌。
guarantee [,gguilt [gilt] n.有罪,犯罪;内疚 【例】His face showed guilt though he said he had done nothing wrong. 尽管他说自己没做过错事,他的脸上却显出了内疚的神情。
guilty ['gilti] a.内疚的;有罪的 【例】The man was proved guilty of murder. 这个男子被证实犯了杀人罪。
gum [gVm] n. 1.牙龈2.口香糖3.树胶 【例】He likes chewing gum. 他喜欢嚼口香糖。His pocket was all gummed up with candy. 他的口袋全被糖粘住了。
gunpowder ['gVnpaudK] n.黑色火药;有烟火药 【例】The rebels were short of gunpowder. 反叛者们缺少弹药。
gym [dZim] (= gymnasium)n. 体育馆, 健身房 【例】We go to play badminton in the nearest gym every Sunday. 每个星期天我们都去最近的体育馆打羽毛球。A new gymnasium has been built on our campus. 我们大学的校园里新建了一座体育馆。
habitual [hK'bitSuKl] a.习惯性的,惯常的 【同】in the habit of; accustomed; customary 【例】There is no more miserable human being than one in whom nothing is habitual but indecision. 没有比只习惯于优柔寡断的人更可悲的人了。His habitual place at the table was occupied by a stranger. 他惯常坐在桌旁的位置被一个陌生人占据了。My girlfriend and I are habitual cinema-goers. 我和女友是电影院的常客。
haircut ['hEKkVt] n.理发 【例】You ought to have a haircut. 你该去剪发了。That's a nice haircut. 那个发式很漂亮。
halt [hO:lt] n. 停住, 停止, 暂停 v. (使)停住, (使)停止 【同】cease; pause; stop; terminate 【例】To follow, without halt, one aim. There’s the secret of success. 追随一个目标而无停顿,这就是成功的秘诀。The soldiers halted for a rest. 士兵们停下来休息。He tried to bring that debate to a halt. 他试图使这场辩论停止。The car came to a halt just in time to prevent an accident. 汽车及时停下,避免了一场车祸。
ham [hhamburger ['hhamper ['hhandbook ['hhandful ['hhandicap ['hhandy ['hhardware ['hA:dwEK] n. 1.五金器具2.硬件 【例】I know nothing about computer hardware. 我对计算机硬件一窍不通。
hare [hEK] n.野兔 【例】They went hunting for hares. 他们出去打野兔了。
harmony ['hA:mKni] n. 和谐, 融洽, 一致 【同】agreement; consistency; symmetry 【例】No family harmony, no social stability. 没有家庭的和睦便没有社会的稳定。There was not much harmony in international affairs during those years. 那些年国际事态不很协调。His tastes are in harmony with mine. 他的爱好和我的相同。
harness ['hA:nis] n. 马具, 挽具vt. 1.治理, 利用2.给(马等)上挽具 【同】restrain; control; govern 【例】People must understand that science is inherently neither a potential for good nor for evil. It is a potential to be harnessed by man to do his bidding. 人们必须懂得,科学在根本上既非为善的、亦非为恶的潜力。它是由人类利用来为自己服务的潜力。The farmer harnessed the horse. 农夫给马套上挽具。The cashier died in harness. 出纳员以身殉职。
hasty ['heisti] a. 1.草率的, 轻率的2.急速的, 匆忙的, 仓促完成的 【例】His hasty temper made him offensive. 他的急躁的脾气使他令人讨厌。
hatch [hhateful ['heitfKl] a.可恨的,可恶的 【例】The sight of food was hateful to the seasick girl. 那个晕船的女孩看到食物就感到厌恶。
haul [hO:l] vt. 1.(用力)拖, 拉2.(用车等)拖运, 运送n. 1.拖, 拉, 拖运2.一次获得(或偷得等)的数量 【例】They hauled the boat up the beach. 他们把船拖上岸。
hawk [hO:k] n. 1.鹰, 隼2.(主战或主张强硬路线的)鹰派人物 vt. 叫卖, 兜售 【例】Hawks will not pick other hawks' eyes out. 同类不相残。
hazard ['hheading ['hediN] n. 标题
headline ['hedlain] n. 1.大字标题2.[pl.] 新闻提要
headquarters [hed'kwO:tKz] n. 1.(机构、企业等的)总部, 总店2.司令部, 指挥部 【同】station; office; center 【例】Seek rotational assignments, especially if one will put you in a key operational role or close to the seat of power in corporate. 争取人员轮换的工作岗位,特别是要由你发挥重要作用,或者接近公司总部权力中心的那些。Are their any orders coming from the headquarters? 有司令部的任何命令吗?
heal [hi:l] vt. 1.使愈合, 治愈, 使康复2.调停(争吵等), 消除(分歧等) vi. 愈合, 痊愈, 恢复健康 【例】The medicine and rest will soon heal your wound. 药物治疗和休息会使你的伤口很快愈合。Time heals most troubles. 时间会消除痛苦。
hearing ['hiKriN] n. 1.听力, 听觉2.听力所及之距离3.意见(或证言) 听证会, 申辩(或发言)的机会
heartily ['hA:tili] ad. 衷心地,真实地,热心地 【例】I am heartily grateful to your help. 我衷心地感激你的帮助。
hearty ['hA:ti] a.衷心的;丰盛的 【例】They gave him a hearty welcome. 他们衷心欢迎他。
heating ['hi:tiN] n.加热,供暖
heavily ['hevili] ad.重重地;大量地 【例】The truck was heavily loaded. 这辆卡车装载很重。The crime lies heavily on his conscience. 那罪行沉重地压在他心上。
hedge [hedZ] n. 1.(矮树)树篱2.防备, 障碍物vt. 用篱笆围vi. 避免直接回答 【例】Will the hedge keep the sheep out of the field? 这篱笆能将羊群挡在田地外面吗?
hemisphere ['hemisfiK] n. 1.地球的半球2.大脑半球 【例】The Western Hemisphere refers to North and South America. 西半球是指南北美洲。
henceforth [hens'fO:T] ad. 从今以后, 从此以后 【例】The man said that he would work hard henceforth. 那人说从今以后他要努力工作了。
heritage ['heritidZ] n. 遗产, 继承物, 传统 【同】estate; legacy 【例】The disappointment of manhood succeeds to the delusion of youth; let us hope that the heritage of old age is not despair. 继青年时期的幻想而来的是成年的失望。但愿老年所继承的不是绝望。These beautiful old palaces are part of our national heritage. 这些美丽的古老宫殿是我们民族遗产的一部分。If we tear down the old buildings, we are ruining the cultural heritage and the traditional value as well. 如果我们推倒老建筑,我们就破坏了文化遗产或传统价值。
heroin ['herKuin] n. 海洛因, 吗啡
heroine ['herKuin] n. 1.女主角2.女英雄 【例】She was chosen to play the heroine in this film. 她被选定在这部影片中扮演女主角。
hesitation [,hezi'teiSn] n. 暂停,犹豫,口吃,含糊,踌躇 【例】She agreed without hesitation. 她毫不犹豫地答应了。There is no room for hesitation. 没有犹豫的余地。
highland ['hailhighlight ['hailait] vt. 强调, 突出, 使显著n. 最精彩的部分, 最重要的事件 【同】stress; emphasize 【例】The highlights of the match will be shown on TV tonight. 比赛的最精彩场面将在今晚的节目中播放。
highly ['haili] ad. 1.高度地, 极, 非常2.非常赞许地 【例】Your boss speaks very highly of your work. 你的老板对你的工作称颂备至。His paintings are highly original. 他的作品很独特。
hijack ['haidZhillside ['hilsaid] n.(小山)山腰,山坡 【例】The hillside is covered by grass and flowers in summer. 夏天时,山坡上长满了花草。He possesses a huge house on the hillside. 他在山上拥有一栋巨宅。
hind [haind] adj.后面的,后部的 【例】The hind leg of this horse was broken. 这匹马的后腿断了。
hinder ['hindK] vt. 阻碍, 妨碍 【例】Heavy snow hindered the construction work. 大雪妨碍了这项建筑工程的进行。The crowd hindered him from leaving. 人群使他无法脱身。
hinge [hindZ] n. 铰链 【例】The door opens easily because the hinges were oiled. 这门开起来很容易,因为合页上了油。
historian [hi'stO:riKn] n. 历史学家, 史学工作者 【例】Historians advise that we should never forget the past. 历史学家们告诫我们,我们不应忘记过去。
historic [hi'stOrik] a. 历史上著名的, 具有重大历史意义的 【例】This battle is of historic meaning. 这一战具有历史意义。
hitherto [,hiDK'tu:] ad. 到目前为止, 迄今 【例】This is a fact hitherto unknown. 这是一个至今无人知道的事实。
hoist [hOist] vt. 举起, 升起, 吊起 n. 1.起重器械2.举起, 升起, 吊起 【同】raise; lift; elevate 【例】Hoist sail when the wind is fair. 扬帆趁好风。The sailors hoisted the flags in the morning. 水手们早晨把旗子升起来。He hoisted the package over his shoulder. 他把包裹扛上了肩。We need a hoist to lift the concrete blocks. 我们需要一台起重机来吊起混凝土块。
holder ['hKuldK] n. 1.持有者, 占有者2.支托物, 夹具 【例】The holder of the office of chairman is responsible for arranging meetings. 担任主席的人有责任安排会议。
honourable ['OnKrKbl] a. 1.光荣的, 荣誉的2.可敬的, 高尚的
horizon [hK'raizn] n. 1.地平线2.[pl.] 眼界, 见识 【例】The sun appeared above the horizon. 太阳出现在地平线上。
horizontal [,hOri'zOntl] a. 地平的 , 水平的 【例】First, draw a horizontal line. 首先,画一条水平线。
horrible ['hOrKbl] a. 1.令人恐惧的, 可怕的, 骇人听闻的2.极讨厌的, 使人不愉快的, 糟透的 【例】What horrible weather! 这天气多讨厌! Everything is in a horrible muddle. 一切都陷入可怕的混乱。
horsepower ['hO:spauK] n. 马力
hose [hKuz] n. (橡皮或帆布等制的)软管, 水龙带vt. 用软管淋浇(或冲洗) 【例】This fire hose is about sixty feet long. 这段消防水管大约有60 英尺长。
hospitality [,hOspi'thostage ['hOstidZ] n. 人质 【同】person held as a pledge 【例】He that has a wife and children, has given hostages to fortune. 有了妻子儿女的人等于向命运交出了人质。He kept the pilot as a hostage. 他把驾驶员当作人质。The company took the cars as hostage. 公司把汽车当作抵押品。
hostile ['hOstail] a. 1.敌对的, 敌意的, 不友善的2.敌方的 【同】unfriendly; war-like 【例】Four newspapers are more to be feared than a thousand bayonets. 四份敌对的报纸要比一千把刺刀更可怕。The new government was hostile to them. 新政府对他们怀有敌意。
housewife ['hauswaif] n. 家庭主妇 【例】Many women chose to be a housewife after marriage. 许多妇女选择了在婚后当家庭主妇。
hug [hVg] vt. 1.(热烈地)拥抱2.紧抱, 怀抱 vi. 紧抱在一起, 互相拥抱 n. 紧抱, 热烈拥抱 【例】The child was hugging her doll. 那孩子紧抱着她的洋娃娃。The president hugged himself with pleasure over the quick withdrawal from the gulf war. 总统为自己能从海湾战争中见好就收感到暗自庆幸。She gave her daughter a big hug. 她紧紧拥抱着她的女儿。
humble ['hVmbl] a. 1.谦逊的, 谦虚的2.地位(或身份)低下的, 卑贱的3.简陋的, 低劣的 vt. 使谦恭, 使卑下 【同】lowly; submissive; gentle; quiet 【例】A humble man argues for his fault, while a brave man makes his faults known to all. 卑微的人为自己的过失辩解,勇敢的人则把自己的过失公之于众。He is a very humble person. 他是一个非常谦恭的人。
humid ['hju:mid] adj.湿的,潮湿的 【例】Foods are easily to be mouldy in humid days. 潮湿的日子里,食物很容易发霉。
humorous ['hju:mKrKs] a. 幽默的, 诙谐的 【例】Her husband is a humorous man. 她的丈夫是一个幽默的人。
humour ['hju:mK] n. 1.幽默, 诙谐2.情绪, 心境
hydrogen ['haidrKdZKn] n. 氢 【例】Water contains hydrogen and oxygen. 水含有氢和氧。
hypothesis [hai'pOTKsis] n. 假说, 假设, 前提 【同】supposition; speculation; assumption 【例】A proper hypothesis is helpful for successful reasoning. 适当的假设有助于成功的推理。
hysterical [hi'sterikl] a. 情绪异常激动的, 歇斯底里般的
ideal [ai'diKl] a. 1.理想的, 完满的2.想象的, 空想的 n. 1.理想2.理想的东西(或人) 【例】It is an ideal day for a picnic. 这是一个出外野餐的理想日子。He is looking for a wife but he hasn't found his ideal mate. 他正在寻找未来的妻子,但还没有找到理想人选。
identical [ai'dentikl] a. 1.(to, with)相同的, 相等的2.同一的 【同】twin; indistinguishable; alike 【例】We can never find two men who hold identical views on the same one thing. 我们绝对找不出对同一事物持相同看法的两个人。This is the identical hotel we stayed at last year. 这就是我们去年住过的旅馆。Your appearance is identical to hers. 你的相貌和她的一模一样。
identify [ai'dentifai] vt. 1.认出, 鉴定2.(with)把...等同于 vi. (with)认同 【同】classify; analyze; catalogue 【例】Any man over thirty identifies his youth with the worst fault he thinks he is capable of. 一过三十,人都把自己的青年时代视为自认能够犯下的最大错误时代。Can you identify your umbrella among this lot? 你能在这些伞中认出你自己的伞吗? She identified that the man was her attacker. 她认出那个男人就是袭击过她的人。One cannot identify happiness with wealth. 幸福和财富不能混为一谈。
idiom ['idiKm] n. 1.习语, 成语2.(在艺术等方面所表现的)风格, 特色
ignite [ig'nait] vt. 点燃, 引发 vi. 着火 【同】kindle; light; burn 【例】He struck a match and ignited the fuse. 他划了根火柴,点着了导火索。
ignorance ['ignKrKns] n. 无知, 愚昧 【同】unawareness; unconsciousness 【例】Not ignorance, but the ignorance of ignorance, is the death of knowledge. 不是无知,而是对无知的不知,才是知识的死亡。I regret my ignorance on the subject. 我对自己对这个课题的无知感到遗憾。Ignorance of the law is no excuse. 不懂法律不是藉口。
ignore [ig'nO:] vt. 不顾, 不理, 忽视
illiterate [i'litKrKt] a.文盲的 n.文盲 【同】uneducated; unenlightened; ignorant 【例】The boy is a computer illiterate. 那个孩子是个计算机盲。You must be an illiterate if you've never heard of Marx. 要是连马克思也没听说过,那你一定是个文盲。
illuminate [i'lu:mineit] vt. 1.照明, 照亮2.阐明, 启发 【同】light; inform; interpret; enlighten 【例】The man of science, like the artist, may easily have more facts than he can use. Both seek the one fact out of a million that will illuminate their idea. Both find that it is rarely to be had without research. 与艺术家一样,科学家可以轻易得到用不过来的事实。他们都在上百万的事实中寻求能说明自己想法的那一个,都发现想未经研究而得到它几不可能。A sudden smile illuminated her face. 突然的微笑使她容光焕发。
illustrate ['ilKstreit] vt. 1.说明, 阐明2.给...作插图说明 【例】Our textbook is very well illustrated. 我们的课本插图丰富。
imaginary [i'mimagination [i,mimaginative [i'mimitation [,imi'teiSn] n. 1.模仿2.仿制, 仿制品3.赝品 【同】simulation; reproduction; duplication 【例】Imitation is the sincerest of flattery. 模仿是最真诚的奉承。That's not an original Rembrandt, it's an imitation. 这不是伦勃朗的真品,是赝品。The house was built in imitation of a Roman villa. 这所房子是仿造古罗马别墅式的建筑。
immense [i'mens] a. 广大的, 巨大的 【同】extensive; large; limitless; infinite 【例】What we know is nothing, what we do not know is immense. 我们所了解的事物徽不足道,而不了解的却是浩瀚无垠。The performance was immense. 演出极为成功。
immerse [i'mK:s] vt. 1.使浸没2.(in)使沉浸在, 使专心于 【同】submerge; soak; sink 【例】I was completely immersed in the program when the door bell rang. 铃响的时候,我正在专心致志地研究计划。Please immerse the plant in water for a few minutes. 把那棵植物在水里浸泡几分钟。He immersed himself totally in his work. 他埋头于工作。
immigrant ['imigrKnt] n. 移民, 侨民 【例】California has many immigrants from other states. 加利福尼亚有许多来自其他州的移民。This country has assimilated immigrants from most of the countries of Europe. 这个国家同化了从欧洲大多数国家迁来的移民。
immune [i'mju:n] a. 1.免疫的, 有免疫力的2.(to)不受影响的3.(from)免除的, 豁免的 【同】free; secure (from a disease) 【例】I’m immune to smallpox as a result of vaccination. 我种了牛痘,对天花有免疫力。He seems to be immune to criticism. 他似乎不受批评的影响。The criminal was told he would be immune if he helped the police. 这个罪犯被告知,如果他协助警方就可以免 于被起诉。
impact ['impimpair [im'pEK] vt. 损害, 损伤, 削弱 【同】weaken; lessen; enfeeble 【例】Loud noise can impair your hearing. 巨大的噪音有损听觉。His illness has impaired his efficiency. 生病降低了他的效率。
impartial [im'pA:Sl] a.公正的,无偏见的 【同】fair; unbiased; disinterested 【例】I cannot undertake to be impartial as between the fire brigade and the fire. 在消防队和火灾之间,我不能同意不偏不倚。People in the city held the impartial judge in high regard. 这个城市的人们都很尊敬这位公正的法官。
impatient [im'peiSnt] a. 1.不耐烦的, 急躁的2.热切的, 急切的 【例】He was impatient of any interruption. 他对任何打扰都感到不耐烦。I am impatient for his arrival. 我渴盼着他的到来。
imperialism [im'piKriKlizKm] n.帝国主义
impetus ['impitKs] n. 1.推动, 促进, 刺激2.推动力 【同】impulse; rashness; abruptly 【例】His participation gave an impetus to the movement. 他的参与促进了这次运动。
implement ['implimKnt] vt. 使生效, 履行, 实施 n. 工具, 器具, 用具 【同】device; fulfill; realize 【例】Our prompt reaction facilitates the implementation of the policy. 我们及时的反应使得政策得以落实。What implements are needed for gardening? 园艺需要些什么工具? The government is implementing a new policy to help the unemployed. 政府正在实施一项新的帮助失业者的政策。
implication [,impli'keiSn] n. 1.含意, 暗示, 暗指2.卷入, 牵连 【同】hypothesis; link; assumption
implicit [im'plisit] a. 1.不言明的, 含蓄的2.(in)内含的, 固有的3.无疑问的, 无保留的 【同】certain; definite; exposed 【例】I have implicit faith in your abilities. 我完全相信你的能力。
imply [im'plai] vt. 暗示, 含有...的意思 【例】His silence implied agreement. 他沉默不语意味着同意了。I don't wish to imply that you are wrong. 我无意暗示你错了。I think freedom does imply responsibility. 我认为自由一定包含着责任。
impose [im'pKuz] vt. 1.(on)把...强加于2.征(税等), 处以(罚款、监禁等) 【同】compel; force upon 【例】When one has had to work so hard to get money, why should he impose on himself the further hardship of trying to save it? 已经作了赚钱而不得不这般辛苦的劳作,为什么还要把极力省钱这更苦的差事强加给自己? The judge imposed a fine of ten dollars on him. 法官判他罚款10 美元。Don't try to impose your wishes on us. 不要试图把你的愿望强加给我们。Don't impose yourself on people who don't want you. 不要缠着不愿和你在一起的人。
impress ['impres] vt. 1.给...以深刻的印象, 使铭记2.印, 压印 【例】She impressed me as a scholar. 她给我留下了学者的印象。
impression [im'preSn] n. 1.印象, 感觉2.印记, 压痕 【例】What were your first impressions of Beijing? 你对北京的最初印象如何? I am surprised you got an unfavorable impression of him. 我很惊讶你对他印象不佳。Every scene on the screen keeps me up-to-date and some of them will leave an enduring impression on my life. 屏幕上的每一个画面都让我拥有最新的信息,其中的一些将在我的生活中留下不可磨灭的印象。
impressive [im'presiv] a. 给人印象深刻的 【同】moving; inspiring; striking 【例】There is no dignity quite so impressive, and independence quite so important, as living within your means. 量入为出,没有什么尊严比得上它可敬,也没有什么独立比得上它重要。It's an impressive ceremony. 那是个难忘的仪式。His collection of paintings is the most impressive. 他的绘画收藏令人叹为观止。
improper [im'prOpK] a.不适当的;不合理的 【例】Laughing and joking are considered improper behaviors at a funeral. 在葬礼上发笑或开玩笑是失礼的行为。You will make a mistake by using the improper tool. 你用那种不恰当的工具会犯错误。
impulse ['impVls] n. 1.冲动, 一时的念头2.推动, 驱使3.脉冲 【同】urge; motive; desire 【例】There is one thing more important than knowing self; it is governing self. There is one thing better than crushing impulse, it is using impulse. 有一件事比自知更重要,即自制。有一件事比压制冲动更可取,即利用冲动。He bought the house on an impulse. 他凭一时冲动买下了这所房子。
impurity [im'pjuKrKti] n.不纯;杂质;不道德 【例】There are some impurities in food. 食物中有一些杂质。Workers are removing impurities from silver. 工人们正去除银中的杂质。
inaccessible [,ininadequate [in'incapable [in'keipKbl] a.无能力的;无资格的 【例】The children seem to be totally incapable of working quietly by themselves. 这些孩子似乎完全不能安静地自己做功课。As a lawyer she's totally incapable. 她当律师完全不合格。
incidence ['insidKns] n. 发生率
incident ['insidKnt] n. 1.发生的事2.事件, 事变 【同】episode; occurrence; event 【例】If only we could realize that the better the marriage is, the worse we will sometimes feel, then we might prevent incidents that occur in any marriage from leading to separation and divorce. 但愿我们能认识到这一点:婚姻越美满,我们有时会感觉越糟糕。这样,我们就能防止任何婚姻都会出现的小事导致分居或离婚。The serious incident along the border increased our fears of the war. 边境上的紧张局势加重了我们对战争的忧虑。
incidentally [,insi'dentKli] ad. 顺便说及地, 顺便提一句 【同】by the way; accidentally 【例】Some people, and incidentally that includes Arthur, just won’t look after themselves properly. 有些人,比如说阿瑟吧,就不能好好自理。
incline ['inklain] v. 1.(使)倾斜2.(使)倾向于, 赞同 n. 斜坡, 斜面 【同】tend; bend; slant; slope 【例】Universities incline wits to sophistry and affection. 大学使才智偏于诡辩和矫情。I'm inclined to tiredness in winter. 我在冬天易于疲劳。
inclusive [in'klu:siv] a. 1.包括一切的, 包括一切费用在内的2.所有数目(或首末日期)包括在内的 【同】comprehensive; full; general 【例】The price is $800, inclusive of tax. 价格800英镑, 连税在内。
incorporate [in'kO:pKrKt] vt. 1.包含, 加上, 吸收2.把...合并, 使并入 【同】include; combine; add to 【例】Many of your suggestions have been incorporated in the new plan. 你的建议多已纳入新计划中。Many of your suggestions have been incorporated in the new plan. 你的很多建议已经被纳入新计划中。We had to incorporate for a company for tax reasons. 鉴于税务原因,我们得组成公司。The new car design incorporates all the latest safety features. 新的汽车设计具备最新安全措施的一切特点。
incredible [in'kredKbl] a. 1.不能想念的, 不可信的2.难以置信的, 不可思议的, 惊人的 【同】unbelievable; ridiculous; impossible 【例】Most quarrels are inevitable at the time; incredible afterwards. 大多数争吵在当时都是不可避免的而事后却是不可思议的。That's the most incredible coincidence I've ever heard of! 那是我听说过的最难以置信的巧合!  He has an incredible house! 他有一所极美的房子!
incur [in'kK:] vt. 招致遭受, 引起 【同】induce; subject; contract 【例】There are occasions when it is undoubtedly better to incur loss than to make gain. 有些时候蒙受损失无疑胜过取得收益。The hunter incurred great danger in killing the wolf. 猎人打狼时承受着巨大的危险。
independent [,indi'pendKnt] a. 1.独立的, 自主的, 自立的2.无偏见的, 中立的3.不相关连的, 无关的 【例】She is so independent that she refused all pecuniary aid. 她很独立,所以拒绝一切金钱上的资助。
index ['indeks] n. (复数indices ['indisi:z]) 1.索引2.标志, 表征3.指数, 指标 vt. 为...编索引, 把...编入索引 【例】The index is arranged in alphabetical order. 这索引是按字母顺序排列的。Do you know the price index in the city? 你知道这个城市的物价指数吗? The book will be indexed in the next edition so as to make it more useful. 为了使它更实用,这本书在下一版本中将编有索引。
indicative [in'dikKtiv] a. 1.(of)标示的, 指示的, 象征的2.陈述的, 直陈的 n. 陈述语气 【同】characteristic; symbolic; suggestive 【例】Is a large head indicative of high intelligence? 头大是不是表示智慧高? Their failure to act is indicative of their lack of interest in the problem. 他们没有采取行动,表明他们对这个问题不感兴趣。
indifferent [in'difrKnt] a. 1.冷漠的, 不关心的, 不积极的2.一般的, (表现)平平的 【同】mediocre; disinterested; detached 【例】The worst sin towards our fellow creatures is not to hate them, but to be indifferent to them; that’s the essence of inhumanity. 我们对作为同类的其他人所犯下的最大罪过不是憎恨,而是冷漠,那是不近人情的本质。I was so excited to see snow that I was indifferent to the cold. 我看到雪激动得连寒冷都不在乎了。His manner was cold and indifferent. 他的态度既冷淡又无动于衷。I'm an indifferent cook. 我是个手艺平平的厨师。
indignant [in'dignKnt] a. 愤怒的, 愤慨的, 义愤 【同】upset; angry; furious 【例】No one is such a liar as the indignant man. 气愤的人是最大的说谎者。He is indignant at the false accusation. 他对被诬告愤愤不平。
indignation [,indig'neiSn] n. 愤怒, 愤慨, 义愤 【例】They felt strong indignation against their teacher. 他们对他们的老师感到强烈愤慨。I expressed my indignation at being unfairly dismissed. 我对不公平地被解雇表示愤慨。
indispensable [,indi'spensKbl] a. (to, for)必不可少的, 必需的 【同】necessary; imperative; vital; required 【例】To be without some of the things you want is an indispensable part of happiness. 有些东西想要而没有,这是幸福不可缺少的一部分。Air, food and water are indispensable to life. 空气,食物,水皆为生命不可缺者。A good dictionary is indispensable for learning a foreign language. 学习外语离不开好的词典。Although it is indispensable to human beings, it also brings a lot of inconvenience to us. 虽然它对人类必不可少,但是它也给我们带来了很多不便。
individual [,indi'vidZuKl] a. 1.个别的, 单独的, 个人的2.独特的 n. 个人, 个体 【例】A teacher can't give individual attention to each pupil if his class is large. 如果班上的人数多,老师就不能给予个别辅导了。She has her own individual way of walking. 她有自己独特的走路姿势。
indoors [,in'dO:z] ad.在屋里;进入室内
induce [in'dju:s] vt. 1.引诱, 劝2.引起, 导致 【同】convince; influence; urge 【例】Nothing induces me to read a novel except when I have to make money by writing about it. I detest them. 除了不得不以写书评赚钱的时候,任何东西都无法促使我读一本小说。我非常讨论它们。We couldn't induce the old lady to travel by air. 我们无法劝服那老太太乘飞机旅行。Too much food induces sleepiness. 吃得太饱会引起睡意。
induction [in'dVkSn] n.就职;归纳推理
industrious [in'dVstriKs] a.勤劳的,勤奋的 【同】intent; involved; active 【例】It is enough to be industrious. So are the ants. What are you industrious about? 工作勤奋还不够。蚂蚁也很勤奋。你为什么勤奋呢? The Chinese are industrious people. 中国人民是一个勤劳的民族。
inertia [i'nK:SK] n. 1.不行动, 惰性2.惯性
inevitable [in'evitKbl] a. 不可避免的, 必然(发生)的 【例】An argument was inevitable because they disliked each other so much. 争论是不可避免的,因为他们彼此非常厌恶。It is inevitable for urbanization to bring us some sacrifice like the alienation of ourselves from nature. 城市化使我们不可避免地要做出一些牺牲,如远离大自然。
infant ['infKnt] n. 婴儿, 幼儿 a. 婴儿的, 幼稚的, 初期的 【例】My sister's infant is very lovely. 我姐姐的小婴儿非常可爱。
infectious [in'fekSKs] a. 1.传染的, 有传染性的2.有感染力的 【同】transferable; diseased; catching 【例】The flu is highly infectious. 流感的传染性很强。He expressed infectious enthusiasm to his voters. 他对他的选民表现出很有感染力的热情。
infer [in'fK:] vt. 推论, 推断 【例】It is possible to infer two completely opposite conclusions from this set of facts. 从这些事实中可能推断出两种截然相反的结论。Can I infer that you think I'm not telling the truth? 看来你认为我没说实话?
inferior [in'fiKriK] a. 1.劣等的, 次的2.下级的 n. 下级, 下属 【同】secondary; minor; subordinate 【例】Inferiors revolt in order that they may be equal, and equals that they may be superior. Such is the state of mind which creates revolutions. 地位低下的造反以求平等,地位不差的造反以求高人一等。这就是促成革命的心态。They regarded their servants as their inferiors in every way. 他们认为他们的佣人在各方面都低他们一等。These people occupy an inferior position in local society. 这些人在当地社会居于下等地位。He's so clever, he makes me feel inferior. 他那么聪明,让我自愧不如。
infinite ['infinKt] a. 无限的, 无穷的, 无边无际的 【例】Teaching little children takes infinite patience. 教幼儿需有极大的耐心。The number of positive numbers is infinite. 正数的数目是无穷的。
infinity [in'finiti] n.大量,大宗;无穷大
inflation [in'fleiSn] n. 1.通货膨胀2.(充气而引起的)膨胀 【同】expansion; extension; boom 【例】Inflation: when nobody has enough money because everybody has too much. 通货膨胀:由于人人钱太多而谁的钱都不够的时候。The government is determined to bring down inflation. 政府决心把通货膨胀率降低。
influential [,influ'enSKl] a. 有影响的, 有权势的 【例】Our newspaper is an influential newspaper in this city. 我们的报纸在本市有很大影响力。
infrared [infrK'red] a. 红外线的
ingenious [in'dZi:niKs] a. 1.(物件等)设计独特的, (方法等)别致的, 巧妙和2.(人、头脑)灵巧的, 关于创造发明的 【同】original; intelligent; skillful 【例】This book shows that he is an ingenious author. 这本书表明他是一个有创造力的作家。
ingredient [in'gri:diKnt] n. 1.(混合物的)组成部分, 成分, (烹调的)原料2.(构成)要素, 因素 【同】constituent; component; integral 【例】Success can be only one ingredient in happiness, and is too dearly purchased if all the other ingredients have been sacrificed. 成功只能是幸福的一个组成部分。如果为了获得成功而牺牲所有其他的成分,就太得不偿失了。There is a list of ingredients on the side of the packet. 包装袋的边上印有所含配料表。
inhabit [in'hinhabitant [in'hinherent [in'hiKrKnt] a. (in)内在的, 固有的, 生来就有的 【同】innate; internal; implicit 【例】I am not in the least disturbed when people regard my legs intently. I know they are doing so in pursuance of their inherent artistic instinct. 当人们目不转睛地盯着我的双腿时,我丝毫不觉得不安。我明白他们这样做是出于天生的艺术直觉。He has an inherent distrust of foreigners. 他天生对外国人不信任。There is an inherent weakness in the design. 这设计本身存在弱点。
inherit [in'herit] vt. 继承 【同】succeed to; acquire; receive; obtain 【例】Blessed are the young, for they shall inherit the national debt. 年轻人有福人,因为他们将继承国债。The oldest son will inherit the title. 长子将继承爵位。She inherited all her mother's beauty. 她秉承了她母亲的全部美貌。
initial [i'niSl] a. 开始的, 最初的 n. [常pl.] (姓名等的)首字母 【例】After she'd overcome her initial shyness, she became very friendly. 她克服了开始时的羞涩之后,就变得非常友善。Please write down your initials on each page of the paper. 请在每页考卷上写下名字的首字母。
initiate [i'niSiKt] vt. 1.开始, 创始, 发起2.使初步了解3.接纳(新成员), 让...加入 n. 新加入组织的人 【同】open; start; begin 【例】He initiated a plan to build a bridge over the river. 他着手一项在这条河上修建一座大桥的计划。
initiative [i'niSKtiv] n. 1.主动性, 首创精神2.主动的行为, 倡议3.主动权 【同】originality; creativity 【例】Initiative is doing the right thing without being told. 主动性主是不用人告诉就做适当的事情。It's only the initiative of the investigation. 这仅仅是调查的开始。It is hoped that the government's initiative will bring the strike to an end. 希望政府采取的主动措施可以结束罢工。The child displayed great initiative in going to fetch the police. 那孩子极为主动地把警察找来。
inject [in'dZekt] vt. 1.注射(药液等), 给...注射2.注入, 引入, 投入 【例】His medicine is a drug that can be injected or taken by mouth. 他的药可以注射或口服。The nurse injected penicillin into her arm. 护士给她的胳膊注射了青霉素。
injure ['indZK] vt. 伤害, 损害, 损伤 【例】She was injured badly in the accident. 她在事故中受重伤。He injured his left hand in a fire. 他在火灾中伤了左手。
injury ['indZKri] n. 1.损害, 伤害2.受伤处 【例】He suffered serious injuries to the arms and legs. 他的双臂和双腿严重受伤。
inland ['inlKnd] a. 内地的, 内陆的 ad. 在内地(或内陆), 向内地(或内陆) 【例】Beijing is an inland city. 北京是一个内陆城市。
inlet ['inlet] n. 1.水湾, 小湾2.进口, 入口 【例】Here is just the fuel inlet. 这儿正是燃料入口。
inn [in] n. 小旅馆, 客栈, 小酒馆 【例】It was raining; they had to stay in the inn the whole day. 下雨了,他们不得不在旅馆里待了一整天。
inner ['inK] a. 1.内部的, 里面的2.内心的 【例】She went into the inner room to change her dress. 她走进内室去换衣服。
innocent ['inKsnt] a. 1.(of)清白的, 无罪的, 无辜的2.无害的, 没有恶意的3.天真的, 幼稚的, 无知的 【同】blameless; natural; virtuous 【例】The passions should be purged; all may become innocent if they are well directed and moderated. 对激情应当的加以净化。如果指导和节制得当,它们都可以变得无害。I'm inclined to believe him innocent. 我倾向于相信他的无辜。He was charged with murder but found innocent later. 他被控杀人,但后来发现他是无罪的。Don't be so innocent as to believe everything you hear. 不要头脑太简单而相信你所听到的每一件事。However, the only son or daughter from broken families, though innocent, will suffer the unhappiness and misfortune their parents have left. 然而解体家庭无辜的独生子女,却要遭受他们父母亲所造成的不幸。
innovation [,inK'veiSn] n. 1.新方法, 新事物2.革新, 创新 【同】making changes; modification; reforms 【例】Given this optimistic approach to technological innovation, the American worker took readily to that special kind of nonverbal thinking required in mechanical technology. 在技术创造受到的这种鼓励下,美国工人很容易就掌握了机械技术中所要求的那种独特的非语言式的思维方式。It was a period of innovation. 这是革新时期。After being led by him, one innovation after another are showing. 从他领导后,一个又一个革新项目出现了。
innumerable [i'nju:mKrKbl] a. 无数的, 数不清的 【例】The stars in the night sky are innumerable. 夜空中的星星数不清。
inquire [in'kwaiK] v. 打听, 询问 【例】I inquired of him about their work. 我向他了解他们的工作情况。We inquired the way of a boy. 我们向一个男孩问路。
insert ['insK:t] vt. 插入, 嵌入 【同】imbed; include; include 【例】Insert your fingers between the layers and press them apart. 把手指插入两层之间,用力将之分开。She inserted the key into the lock. 她把钥匙插入锁中。
insight ['insait] n. 洞察力, 洞悉, 深刻的见解 【同】penetration; shrewdness 【例】Human brings insight and tolerance. Irony brings a deeper and less friendly understanding. 幽默带来洞察与宽容。讽刺带来愈发深刻而不甚友好的理解。The book is filled with remarkable insights. 这本书很有真知卓见。I've got an insight into the problem. 我对问题豁然开朗。
inspect [in'spekt] vt. 检查, 视察 【例】It was strange that nobody inspected my ticket before I got on the train. 很奇怪,我上火车前,竟然没有人查看我的车票。
inspector [in'spektK] n.检查员;巡官 【例】A ticket inspector got on the train. 查票员上了火车。
inspiration [,inspK'reiSn] n. 1.灵感2.鼓舞人心的人(或事物) 【同】motivation; stimulus; incentive 【例】Inspiration is a trick that poets have invented to give themselves importance. 灵感是诗人们为了使自己显要而发明的花招。Many poets and artists have drawn their inspiration from nature. 许多诗人和艺术家从大自然中获得他们的灵感。His wife was a constant inspiration to him. 他的妻子经常鼓励他。
inspire [in'spaiK] vt. 1.鼓舞, 激起2.给...以灵感 【例】His best music was inspired by the memory of his mother. 他最好的乐曲创作灵感来自怀念他的母亲。The sight inspired him with nostalgia. 这景象激起了他的怀旧之情。
instability [,instK'biliti] n.不稳定性;不坚决
install [in'stO:l] vt. 1.安装, 设置, 安置2.使就职, 任命 【同】place; put into; equip; furnish 【例】There is no stigma attached to recognizing a bad decision in time to install a better one. 及时承认糟糕的决定以及安排较好的一个,这样做并不带来任何耻辱。The workers are installing a heating system. 工人们正在安装供暖系统。She installed her air-conditioner without help. 没请别人帮助,她自己安装了空调。
installation [,instK'leiSn] n. 1.装置, 设备, 设施2.安装, 安置, 设置3.就任, 就职
instance ['instKns] n. 例子, 实例, 事例 【例】This is only one instance out of many. 这不过是许多例子中的一个。He came at our instance. 他应我们的请求而来。
instantaneous [,instKn'teiniKs] a. 瞬间, 时刻 【同】momentary; spontaneous 【例】Death was instantaneous. 当即死去。
instantly ['instKntli] ad.立即,即刻 【例】It's an instantly recognizable face. 那是我一眼就能认得出的面孔。Please tell me instantly he arrives. 他一到就请告诉我。
instinct ['instiNkt] n. 1.本能, 直觉2.生性, 天性 【同】intuition; inborn ability 【例】Birds learn to fly by instinct. 鸟类学习飞翔是出于本能。
institute ['institju:t] n. 学会, 研究所, 学院 vt. 建立, 设立 【例】He graduated from a famous foreign language institute. 他毕业于一所知名的外语学院。The police instituted an inquiry into the cause of the accident. 警方开始调查事故的原因。
institution [,insti'tju:Sn] n. 1.(教育、慈善等)社会公共机构2.制度, 习俗3.设立, 创立, 制定 【同】system; convention; organization; association 【例】Individualities may form communities, but it is institutions alone that can create a nation. 无须学院和大学的协助,生活本身正在变成一所高等学府。Marriage is an institution in most societies. 婚姻是大多数社会早已确立的制度。
instruct [in'strVkt] vt. 1.指示, 命令, 通知2.教育, 指导 【例】I have been instructed by my agent that you still owe me 100 pounds. 我的代理人通知我,你还欠我100磅。His uncle instructed him in French. 他的叔叔教他法语。
instructor [in'strVktK] n.指导者,教员 【例】Our instructor told us to keep the room locked. 我们的教导员告诉我们把那间房锁上。Our driving instructor is very kind. 我们的驾驶教练非常和善。
insufficient [,insK'fiSnt] a.不足的,不适当的
insulate ['insjuleit] vt. 1.使绝缘, 使隔热, 使隔音2.隔离, 使隔绝(以免受到影响) 【同】isolate; shield 【例】Automobiles insulate man not only from the environment but from human contact as well. 汽车不仅将人与环境隔离,还隔绝了人际交往。
insulator ['insjuleitK] n.隔离者;绝缘体
intact [in'tintegral ['intigrKl] a. 构成整体所必需的, 基本的 【同】complete; indivisible; unbroken 【例】The arms and legs are integral parts of human body; they are integral to human body. 手臂和腿是人体的组成部分,是构成完整人体不可缺少的。
integrate ['intigreit] v. (into, with)(使)成为一体, (使)合并 【同】unify; combine; ally 【例】The building is well integrated with the landscape. 这座建筑物与周围的自然景物相融,浑然一体。
integrity [in'tegriti] n. 1.正直, 诚实, 诚恳2.完整, 完全, 完善 【同】uprightness; honor; sincerity 【例】Integrity of word and deed ought to be the very corner stone of all human dealings. 言行诚实应是人们一切交往的基础。You can trust him; he is a man of complete integrity. 你可以相信他,他是一个刚正不阿的人。Our integrity as a nation is threatened by these separatist forces. 我们国家的完整受到了这些分裂主义势力的威胁。
intellectual [,intK'lektSuKl] a. 智力的, 善于思维的 n. 知识分子 【同】scholar; mental; learned 【例】These views were common among intellectuals. 这些观点在知识分子中很普遍。The argument was too intellectual for me; I couldn't follow a word of it. 这场争论对我来说太深奥了,我一点都搞不明白。
intelligence [in'telidZKns] n. 1.智力, 智慧, 理解力2.情报, 消息 【例】His intelligence quotient is very high. 他的智商很高。You should use your intelligence. 你应该发挥你的聪明才智。
intense [in'tens] a. 1.强烈的, 剧烈的, 紧张的2.认真的, 专注的3.热情的, 热切的 【例】I did not go to the cinema because of the intense cold. 我因为严寒没出去看电影。My work is so intense that I even have no time to take a rest. 我的工作非常紧张,以致于我没有时间休息。
intensity [in'tensiti] n. 1.强烈, 剧烈2.强度 【同】strain; pressure; excitement 【例】Love’s highest intensity doesn’t necessarily mean its highest quality. 最强烈的爱情并不一定意味着最高质量的爱。The poem showed great intensity of feeling. 这首诗表现出强烈的激情。The pain increased in intensity. 疼痛越来越剧烈。
intensive [in'tensiv] a. 1.加强的, 集中的, 密集的2.精工细作的【例】Do you have an intensive reading of English this term? 这个学期你们有英语精读课程吗? Intensive efforts are being made to resolve the dispute. 现正全力以赴来解决这场纠纷。
intention [in'tenSn] n. 意图, 意向, 目的 【同】deliberation; purpose; aim 【例】When a man speaks or acts with good intention, then happiness follows him like his shadow that never leaves him. 当一个怀着善意说话或做事时,快乐会像从不离开她的影子一般追随着他。They have no intention of getting married at present. 他们目前没有结婚的打算。Have you heard of her intention to resign? 你听到她打算辞职的传闻了吗?
interact [,intK'rintercourse ['intKkO:s] n. 1.性交2.交流, 交往, 交际 【例】A friendly intercourse has been opened between the two countries. 两国已开始了亲密的往来。
interfere [,intK'fiK] vi. (with, in)1.干涉, 介入2.妨碍, 干扰 【同】intervene; oppose; get in the way 【例】I have never let my schooling interfere with my education. 我从未上学校里教的东西干扰我的教育。Don't interfere with my business. 不要干涉我的事情。I'll go tomorrow if nothing interferes. 如果没有其他的事,我明天去。
interference [,intK'fiKrKns] n. 1.干涉, 介入2.阻碍, 干扰 【例】I resented his interference in my affairs. 我很不满他干预我的私事。The television station apologized for the interference, which was due to bad weather conditions. 电视台为出现的干扰表示歉意,那是由于恶劣的天气状况造成的。
interior [in'tiKriK] n. 1.内部2.[the~] 内地 a. 1.内部的2.内地的, 国内的 【同】inner; inside; center 【例】Laughter. An interior convulsion, producing a distortion of the features and accompanied by inarticulate. 笑,名词。一种体内痉挛,造成面容的变形并伴有说不出话的阵阵难听声音。The interior of the building is magnificent and luxurious. 大楼内部装饰得富丽堂皇。Xi'an is a city in the interior of China. 西安是一个内陆城市。They are engaged in interior trade. 他们从事国内贸易。
intermediate [,intK'mi:diKt] a. 1.中间的2.中级的 【同】mean; medium; neutral 【例】The pupa is an intermediate stage of development; it is intermediate between the egg and the butterfly. 蛹是蝴蝶发育的中间阶段,介于卵和成虫之间。I've passed the intermediate level exam of Japanese. 我已经通过了日语的中级水平考试。
intermittent [,intK'mitnt] adj. 断断续续的,间歇的 【同】rhythmical; periodic 【例】This is an intermittent recorder. 这是个间歇式记录器。They saw the intermittent flashes from a lighthouse. 他们看见了灯塔发出一闪一灭的光。He has intermittent bursts of interest. 他的兴趣是一阵阵的。
internal [in'tK:nl] a. 1.内的, 内部的2.国内的, 内政的3.内心的 【同】inside; inward; interior 【例】Intelligent endowments, internal drive, diligent working attitude and indomitable spirit all are prerequisites of success of scientific research. 聪明的天资、内在的动力、勤奋的工作态度和不屈不挠的精神,这些都是科学研究成功的前提。He worked in internal trade. 他的工作是做国内贸易。
interpret [in'tK:prit] vi. 口译, 翻译 vt. 解释, 说明, 诠释 【例】Poetry helps to interpret life. 诗有助于阐释人生的意义。Would you please interpret for me? 请你为我翻译一下好吗? We interpreted his silence as a refusal. 我们认为他的沉默是拒绝的表示。
interpreter [in'tK:pritK] n.译员,口译者 【例】I will be your interpreter in this month. 这个月,我将作你的译员。
interrupt [,intK'rVpt] vt. 1.打断, 打扰2.中止, 阻碍 vi. 打断, 打扰 【例】Don't interrupt me, children. 孩子们,别打断我的话。Traffic was interrupted by a dense fog. 交通因浓雾而受阻。
interval ['intKvl] n. 1.间隔, 间距2.幕间(或工间)休息 【例】The proper intervals should be maintained between vehicles. 车辆之间应保持适当的间距。There is an hour's interval to the next train. 下一火班车还要过一小时才开。
intervene [,intK'vi:n] vi. 1.干涉, 干预2.干扰, 阻挠 【同】interrupt; intrude; step in 【例】He was very happy in the years which intervened between his retirement and death. 从退休后到去世期间,他过得非常快乐。I was alone during intervening years. 这期间的若干年里,我一直一个人。I will come if nothing intervenes. 假若没有别的事,我一定来。I intervened on her behalf to try to get the decision changed. 我为她力争,以求改变决定。
intimate ['intimKt] a. 1.亲密的, 密切的2.私人的, 个人的 vt. 暗示, 提示 n. 至交, 密友 【同】private; secret; close 【例】Those who love reading have received one of the greatest gifts God can offer. They can become acquainted with, friends of and even intimate with all the great minds the world has created and will create through the written word. 爱读书的人得到了上帝所能给予的最不寻常的礼品中的一种。他们可以通过的文字,与世界业已及将要造就的所有伟人相识、结交,甚至成为密友。She is my intimate friend. 她是我的密友。He should listen to his intimate feelings. 人应当倾听自己的内心感觉。They intimated us that an agreement would be worked out soon. 他们通知我们说,很快就会达成协议。
intricate ['intrikKt] a. 错综复杂的, 复杂精细的 【同】complex; twisted; sophisticated 【例】The situation seems to be intricate. 局势似乎错综复杂。This is a novel with an intricate plot. 这是一本情节错综复杂的小说。I was unable to find out the intricate windings of the labyrinth. 我无法找出迷宫中扑朔迷离的路线。
introduction [,intrK'dVkSn] n. 1.介绍2.引进, 传入3.引言, 导论 【同】beginning; preface 【例】One change always leaves the way open for the introduction of others. 一项变革总是为其他变革的引进开辟道路。He gave us a brief introduction about his company. 他向我们简要地介绍了一下他的公司。The government saw the introduction of new technology as vital. 政府认为引进新技术至关重要。
intuition [,intju:'iSn] n. 直觉 【同】instinct; perception 【例】Nobody tells me where to find you. It was sheer intuition. 没有人告诉我你在哪,我纯粹是凭直觉找到的。
invade [in'veid] v. 侵入, 侵略, 侵袭 【例】I object to our privacy being invaded. 我反对我们的隐私权受到侵害。The town was invaded by reporters. 这个城市涌进了大批记者。
invalid ['invKlid] a. 1.(指法律上)无效的, 作废的2.无可靠根据的, 站不住脚的 n. (需要有人照顾的)病弱者, 残疾者 【同】disabled; patient; wrong 【例】The contract was declared invalid. 合同被宣布无效。He never fully recovered, and had to spend the rest of his life as an invalid. 他没能完全康复,于是不得不成了一名残疾者度过余生。The girl spent all her spare time to take after her invalid mother. 这个女孩把她所有的业余时间都用来照顾长期生病的母亲。This ticket has passed its expiration date, and so it is now invalid. 这张票已过了有效期,现在作废了。
invasion [in'veiZn] n. 入侵, 侵略, 侵犯 【同】attack; aggression 【例】An invasion of armies can be resisted; an invasion of ideas cannot be resisted. 军队的入侵可以抵抗,思想的入侵防不胜防。Reading my diary is an inexcusable invasion of privacy. 看我的日记是一种不可原谅的侵犯个人隐私的行为。
invest [in'vest] vt. 1.投资2.投入(时间、精力等)3.授予, 赋予 vi. (in)投资 【同】capital; risk; at stake; venture 【例】It is very much easier for a rich man to invest and grow richer than for the poor man to begin investing at all. 富人投资并变得更加富有,要比穷人能够开始投资要大大容易得多。I won't invest my money in his company. 我不会把我的钱投资到他的公司。Everyone should invest some time in community service. 每个人都应该花些时间在社区服务上。I've decided to invest in a new car. 我已决定买一辆新汽车。
investigate [in'vestigeit] v. 调查, 调查研究 【例】The police are investigating the murder. 警察正在调查这件谋杀案。
involve [in'vOlv] vt. 1.包含, 含有2.使卷入, 使参于3.牵涉 【例】Painting the room involved moving out the piano. 粉刷房间就要把钢琴搬出去。How should we involve ourselves in school life? 我们应该怎样投入学校生活?
ion ['aiKn] n.[物]离子
irregularity [i,regju'lirrespective [,iri'spektiv] a. (of)不考虑的, 不顾及的 【同】regardless; separated; distinct 【例】Anybody can take part in the competition, irrespective of age. 无论年龄大小都可以参加比赛。
irritate ['iriteit] vt. 1.使恼怒, 使烦躁2.使(身体某部分)不适, 使疼痛 【同】provoke; bother; disturb 【例】An epigram is a half-truth so stated as to irritate the person who believes the other half. 警句是一半的真理,讲一半以便相信另一半的人。His letter irritated me a little. 他的信使我有点恼怒。Wool irritates my skin. 毛织物会使我的皮肤过敏。
isolate ['aisKleit] vt. 使隔离, 使孤立 【同】close off; separate; insulate 【例】Speech is civilization itself. The word, even the most contradictious word, preserves contact —— it is silence which isolates. 言语即文明本身。话语,甚至最矛盾的话语也维持着人们的联系──是沉默使人们隔离。
isotope ['aisKtKup] n. 同位素

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