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西方会计英语Unit two Cost and management accounti

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[00:04.28]Text 2.1   Overheads and their recove
[00:08.67]The costs of a business are of two types--direct and indirec
[00:13.43]The direct costs vary directly productio
[00:16.82]If one additional unit of production is made ,there will be a measurable increase in direct cos
[00:22.70]When one unit less in made,there will be similar measurable decrease in direct cost.
[00:28.19]Direct- or raw - material is normally the largest component1 of direct cos
[00:34.06]It includes all items of material that are of sufficient size to warrant the effort of charging directly to the jo
[00:40.91]Small item, such as glue ,paint and small quantities of nails,screws and rivets,do not merit the clerical effort involved in charging directly to the job,and would be recovered as an overhea
[00:53.32]Direct wages will vary directly with production where remuneration is based upon piecework onl
[00:59.72]This means that a specific amount is paid when a production operation is successfully finishe
[01:04.60]If it is not finished, no payment is made
[01:07.74]In this book it is assumed that direct labour is of this natur
[01:11.63]Many organisations remunerate labour on the basis of a large basic wage,topped up with a productivity bonu
[01:18.99]The basic element is paid regardless of the level of productio
[01:22.65]In such cases wages will not vary directly with production,and fall into the category of an indirect cost or overhea
[01:31.14]Overhead is a general term applied3 to all the costs involved in running a business,other than direct cost
[01:37.70]It covers the costs of running the works organisation2; product research and development; the administration of the busines
[01:45.17]selling and distributing the product;and the cost of raising finan
[01:49.82]Overheads are diverse, covering the whole of the business organisation
[01:54.29]The management accountant has the problem of allocating4 these costs to the individual product lines being manufacture
[02:00.48]Cost centr
[02:01.78]To help in this task, the organisation is split up into cost centre
[02:07.03]These are areas of activity to which are gathered all costs of a like natur
[02:11.81]A maintenance department, canteen and stores are examples cost centre
[02:17.06]Normally centres will identify with physical areas of the organisatio
[02:21.45]A stores cost centre is a physical area in which materials are kept,while awaiting issue to productio
[02:28.45]A centre may also not be identifiable with a physical are
[02:32.40]The finance cost centre will gather together all the costs of raising finance for the business,other than from owners or shareholder5
[02:40.37]It is a function of the administration department ,and cannot be identified with a physical area of the busines
[02:47.13]Where a cost centre has a product which is being manufactured, it is known as a product centr
[02:53.51]Examples are a machine shop which is machining parts for assembly into the saleable product in an assembly sho
[03:01.26]Where a centre has a product that is saleable,thus giving rise to an income,it is also known as a profit centr
[03:08.34]It is capable of showing a profit or loss its overall activitie
[03:13.15]Cost allocati
[03:15.13]The management accountant's task is to allocate6 the many ,diverse overheads, onto the cost of each product manufacture
[03:23.13]It is a major task requiring the use of many different bases of allocatio
[03:28.04]The allocation of direct cost to a product can be precis
[03:32.51]In the case of overhead allocation an element of logical guesstimatin enter
[03:38.04]There is a two-fold process, firstly to collect all overhead costs onto the product or profit centres
[03:44.84]and secondly7 to load the overheads onto each product passing through the centr
[03:50.19]Text 2.2  Costs in their proper pla
[03:55.08]The peanut butter approach to accounting8 is not a technique widely familiar to the UK's financial executive
[04:01.74]And yet, according to Professor Robert Kaplan of Harvard University ,if businesses do not become aware of the dangers of this strangely named type of accountin
[04:11.12]they risk making the wrong decisions and losing out to the competitio
[04:15.29]Kaplan is the co-author of a seminal9 work on management accountancy
[04:19.58]Unlike most tracts10 on this subject,Kaplan's book ,Relevance11 Lost,is surprisingly readable and makes a compelling case that conventional accounting techniques are ill-equipped to deal with modern manufacturin
[04:32.85]Kaplan pointed12 out, both in the book and in many articles before and after its 1987 publicatio
[04:38.91]that the modern factory environment was different from its equivalent only a decade ag
[04:44.81]Automation had replaced labour in the move to so-called world-class manufacturing,CAD-CAM and just-in-time production
[04:53.33]But the way of accounting for a manufacturing business had moved on in a centur
[04:58.87]Thus managers made important decisions about pricing and product mix with reference to figures which bore no resemblance to the true economics of making a batch13 of widgets or a custom-built moto
[05:10.60]Costs were apportioned14 to the products on the traditional basis of labour hours -an inappropriate approach given the automated15 environmen
[05:18.35]and Kaplan argued, equivalent to a random16 spreading of costs across the portfolio17 of products -the peanut -butter approac
[05:27.37]In the last chapter of his book, Kaplan and his co-author offered some solution
[05:32.41]Managers should pay more attention to non-financial criteria18 when making their decisions, they argue
[05:37.95]And they should scrutinise the precise make-up of the costs involved in opting19 to manufacture one product rather than another,abandoning the traditional accoutant's distinctions between fixed20 costs and variable costs,between direct and indirect cost
[05:53.93]Kaplan was one of the early exponents21 of so-called activity-based costing (ABC)
[05:59.71]Under this approach, managers strive to spot'cost-drivers',i.e the factors influencing the costs of the produc
[06:08.30]The philosophy of ABC proved alluring22 especially to the consultancy firms alert to a good marketing23 opportunit
[06:16.11]But although most of the big accountancy firms have in recent years taken on squads24 of ABC consultant25
[06:22.59]it has always been very difficult to tease out any example of ABC being used in practice
[06:28.41]The argument against identifying clients is usually that they are doing so well out of ABC that competitors should not be allowed to find ou


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1 component epSzv     
n.组成部分,成分,元件;adj.组成的,合成的
参考例句:
  • Each component is carefully checked before assembly.每个零件在装配前都经过仔细检查。
  • Blade and handle are the component parts of a knife.刀身和刀柄是一把刀的组成部分。
2 organisation organisation     
n.组织,安排,团体,有机休
参考例句:
  • The method of his organisation work is worth commending.他的组织工作的方法值得称道。
  • His application for membership of the organisation was rejected.他想要加入该组织的申请遭到了拒绝。
3 applied Tz2zXA     
adj.应用的;v.应用,适用
参考例句:
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算学习应用语言学课程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.这种乳霜最好晚上擦脸用。
4 allocating c2a5f190c01a38681c9217191537b1ac     
分配,分派( allocate的现在分词 ); 把…拨给
参考例句:
  • Administrative practice generally follows the judicial model in allocating burdens of proof. 在分配举证责任方面,行政实践通常遵循司法模式。
  • A cyclical multiplexing technique, allocating resources in fixed-time slices. 以固定的时间片分配资源的循环复用技术。
5 shareholder VzPwU     
n.股东,股票持有人
参考例句:
  • The account department have prepare a financial statement for the shareholder.财务部为股东准备了一份财务报表。
  • A shareholder may transfer his shares in accordance with the law.股东持有的股份可以依法转让。
6 allocate ILnys     
vt.分配,分派;把…拨给;把…划归
参考例句:
  • You must allocate the money carefully.你们必须谨慎地分配钱。
  • They will allocate fund for housing.他们将拨出经费建房。
7 secondly cjazXx     
adv.第二,其次
参考例句:
  • Secondly,use your own head and present your point of view.第二,动脑筋提出自己的见解。
  • Secondly it is necessary to define the applied load.其次,需要确定所作用的载荷。
8 accounting nzSzsY     
n.会计,会计学,借贷对照表
参考例句:
  • A job fell vacant in the accounting department.财会部出现了一个空缺。
  • There's an accounting error in this entry.这笔账目里有差错。
9 seminal Qzrwo     
adj.影响深远的;种子的
参考例句:
  • The reforms have been a seminal event in the history of the NHS.这些改革已成为英国国民保健制度史上影响深远的一件大事。
  • The emperor's importance as a seminal figure of history won't be diminished.做为一个开创性历史人物的重要性是不会减弱的。
10 tracts fcea36d422dccf9d9420a7dd83bea091     
大片土地( tract的名词复数 ); 地带; (体内的)道; (尤指宣扬宗教、伦理或政治的)短文
参考例句:
  • vast tracts of forest 大片大片的森林
  • There are tracts of desert in Australia. 澳大利亚有大片沙漠。
11 relevance gVAxg     
n.中肯,适当,关联,相关性
参考例句:
  • Politicians' private lives have no relevance to their public roles.政治家的私生活与他们的公众角色不相关。
  • Her ideas have lost all relevance to the modern world.她的想法与现代社会完全脱节。
12 pointed Il8zB4     
adj.尖的,直截了当的
参考例句:
  • He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他给我一支削得非常尖的铅笔。
  • She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想通过对达茨伍德夫人提出直截了当的邀请向她的哥哥表示出来。
13 batch HQgyz     
n.一批(组,群);一批生产量
参考例句:
  • The first batch of cakes was burnt.第一炉蛋糕烤焦了。
  • I have a batch of letters to answer.我有一批信要回复。
14 apportioned b2f6717e4052e4c37470b1e123cb4961     
vt.分摊,分配(apportion的过去式与过去分词形式)
参考例句:
  • They apportioned the land among members of the family. 他们把土地分给了家中各人。
  • The group leader apportioned them the duties for the week. 组长给他们分派了这星期的任务。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
15 automated fybzf9     
a.自动化的
参考例句:
  • The entire manufacturing process has been automated. 整个生产过程已自动化。
  • Automated Highway System (AHS) is recently regarded as one subsystem of Intelligent Transport System (ITS). 近年来自动公路系统(Automated Highway System,AHS),作为智能运输系统的子系统之一越来越受到重视。
16 random HT9xd     
adj.随机的;任意的;n.偶然的(或随便的)行动
参考例句:
  • The list is arranged in a random order.名单排列不分先后。
  • On random inspection the meat was found to be bad.经抽查,发现肉变质了。
17 portfolio 9OzxZ     
n.公事包;文件夹;大臣及部长职位
参考例句:
  • He remembered her because she was carrying a large portfolio.他因为她带着一个大公文包而记住了她。
  • He resigned his portfolio.他辞去了大臣职务。
18 criteria vafyC     
n.标准
参考例句:
  • The main criterion is value for money.主要的标准是钱要用得划算。
  • There are strict criteria for inclusion in the competition.参赛的标准很严格。
19 opting e6a09ce5b5c8079c1654586c4e1dc5b3     
v.选择,挑选( opt的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • What courses are most students opting for? 多数学生选什么课程? 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Wells doesn't rule out opting out and then re-signing with Houston. 威尔斯没有排除跳出合同再与火箭重签的可能。 来自互联网
20 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不变的,准备好的;(计算机)固定的
参考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
21 exponents 2f711bc1acfc4fcc18827d8a2655a05f     
n.倡导者( exponent的名词复数 );说明者;指数;能手
参考例句:
  • Its tendency to archaic language was tempered by the indolence of its exponents. 它的应用古语的趋势却被用语者的懒散所冲淡。 来自辞典例句
  • The exponents of this trend are trying to lead us towards capitalism. 这股思潮的代表人物是要把我们引导到资本主义方向上去。 来自互联网
22 alluring zzUz1U     
adj.吸引人的,迷人的
参考例句:
  • The life in a big city is alluring for the young people. 大都市的生活对年轻人颇具诱惑力。
  • Lisette's large red mouth broke into a most alluring smile. 莉莎特的鲜红的大嘴露出了一副极为诱人的微笑。
23 marketing Boez7e     
n.行销,在市场的买卖,买东西
参考例句:
  • They are developing marketing network.他们正在发展销售网络。
  • He often goes marketing.他经常去市场做生意。
24 squads 8619d441bfe4eb21115575957da0ba3e     
n.(军队中的)班( squad的名词复数 );(暗杀)小组;体育运动的运动(代表)队;(对付某类犯罪活动的)警察队伍
参考例句:
  • Anti-riot squads were called out to deal with the situation. 防暴队奉命出动以对付这一局势。 来自辞典例句
  • Three squads constitute a platoon. 三个班组成一个排。 来自辞典例句
25 consultant 2v0zp3     
n.顾问;会诊医师,专科医生
参考例句:
  • He is a consultant on law affairs to the mayor.他是市长的一个法律顾问。
  • Originally,Gar had agreed to come up as a consultant.原来,加尔只答应来充当我们的顾问。
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TAG标签:   会计英语
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