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新东方优美背诵短文50篇 unit24 Piano

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24 Piano
The ancestry1 of the piano can be traced to the early keyboard instruments of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries -- the spinet2, the dulcimer, and the virginal. In the seventeenth century the organ, the clavichord3, and the harpsichord4 became the chief instruments of the keyboard group, a supremacy5 they maintained until the piano supplanted6 them at the end of the eighteenth century. The clavichord's tone was metallic7 and never powerful; nevertheless, because of the variety of tone possible to it, many composers found the clavichord a sympathetic instrument for intimate chamber8 music. The harpsichord with its bright, vigorous tone was the favorite instrument for supporting the bass9 of the small orchestra of the period and for concert use, but the character of the tone could not be varied10 save by mechanical or structural11 devices.
The piano was perfected in the early eighteenth century by a harpsichord maker12 in Italy(though musicologists point out several previous instances of the instrument). This instrument was called a piano e forte13 (soft and loud), to indicate its dynamic versatility14; its strings15 were struck by a recoiling16 hammer with a felt-padded head. The wires were much heavier in the earlier instruments. A series of mechanical improvements continuing well into the nineteenth century, including the introduction of pedals to sustain tone or to soften17 it, the perfection of a metal frame, and steel wire of the finest quality, finally produced an instrument capable of myriad18 tonal effects from the most delicate harmonies to an almost orchestral fullness of sound, from a liquid, singing tone to a sharp, percussive19 brilliance20.
钢琴
钢琴的家系可以追溯至15至16世纪早期的键盘乐器,包括小型拨弦琴、洋琴和维金娜琴。 17世纪时风琴、敲弦琴和拨弦琴成为键盘乐器类的主要成员。 这种至高无上的地位一直为它们所保持,直到18世纪末期钢琴将它们取代。 敲弦古钢琴的音调有金属的音质,缺乏雄劲。 然而由于它的音调变化多,许多作曲家发现对于亲切的室内乐是一种得体的乐器。 人们最喜欢用具备明快有力音调的拨弦古钢琴来配合当时小型管弦乐团的低音乐器以及在演奏会上演奏。 但它的音调难以变化,除非使用机械或构件装置。18世纪早期的意大利,钢琴在一位拨琴钢琴制造者手中得到完善(尽管音乐理论家们指出有更早的例子)。 这种乐器被称为piano eforte (意大利语,柔和而响亮的),以显示它有力的多样性。 演奏者用一个头部带皮毡的弹击乐锤敲击琴弦。 更早的这种乐器之上的金属丝要重得多。 从此,持续到19世纪的一系列机械上的改进,包括引入踏板以维持音调或使其柔和,改善金属框架,以及使用最佳性能的钢丝,最终产生了一种具备无数音调效果的乐器。 这些效果涵盖了从最精致的和声到几乎全部的管弦乐音响,从明快流畅的吟唱的音调到尖锐的打击乐器的清晰动人的恢宏气势。

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1 ancestry BNvzf     
n.祖先,家世
参考例句:
  • Their ancestry settled the land in 1856.他们的祖辈1856年在这块土地上定居下来。
  • He is an American of French ancestry.他是法国血统的美国人。
2 spinet 3vbwA     
n.小型立式钢琴
参考例句:
  • One afternoon,when I was better,I played the spinet.有天下午,我好了一点时,便弹奏钢琴。
  • The spinet was too big for me to play.钢琴太大了不适合我弹。
3 clavichord bV2yQ     
n.(敲弦)古钢琴
参考例句:
  • Our clavichord is kept in the living room.我们的击弦古钢琴是放在起居室里的。
  • The clavichord which my grandfather bought years ago was damaged.我祖父多年前买的古钢琴被损坏了。
4 harpsichord KepxQ     
n.键琴(钢琴前身)
参考例句:
  • I can tune the harpsichord as well as play it.我会弹奏大键琴,同样地,我也会给大键琴调音。
  • Harpsichord music is readily playable.古钢琴音乐可以随时演奏。
5 supremacy 3Hzzd     
n.至上;至高权力
参考例句:
  • No one could challenge her supremacy in gymnastics.她是最优秀的体操运动员,无人能胜过她。
  • Theoretically,she holds supremacy as the head of the state.从理论上说,她作为国家的最高元首拥有至高无上的权力。
6 supplanted 1f49b5af2ffca79ca495527c840dffca     
把…排挤掉,取代( supplant的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • In most offices, the typewriter has now been supplanted by the computer. 当今许多办公室里,打字机已被电脑取代。
  • The prime minister was supplanted by his rival. 首相被他的政敌赶下台了。
7 metallic LCuxO     
adj.金属的;金属制的;含金属的;产金属的;像金属的
参考例句:
  • A sharp metallic note coming from the outside frightened me.外面传来尖锐铿锵的声音吓了我一跳。
  • He picked up a metallic ring last night.昨夜他捡了一个金属戒指。
8 chamber wnky9     
n.房间,寝室;会议厅;议院;会所
参考例句:
  • For many,the dentist's surgery remains a torture chamber.对许多人来说,牙医的治疗室一直是间受刑室。
  • The chamber was ablaze with light.会议厅里灯火辉煌。
9 bass APUyY     
n.男低音(歌手);低音乐器;低音大提琴
参考例句:
  • He answered my question in a surprisingly deep bass.他用一种低得出奇的声音回答我的问题。
  • The bass was to give a concert in the park.那位男低音歌唱家将在公园中举行音乐会。
10 varied giIw9     
adj.多样的,多变化的
参考例句:
  • The forms of art are many and varied.艺术的形式是多种多样的。
  • The hotel has a varied programme of nightly entertainment.宾馆有各种晚间娱乐活动。
11 structural itXw5     
adj.构造的,组织的,建筑(用)的
参考例句:
  • The storm caused no structural damage.风暴没有造成建筑结构方面的破坏。
  • The North American continent is made up of three great structural entities.北美大陆是由三个构造单元组成的。
12 maker DALxN     
n.制造者,制造商
参考例句:
  • He is a trouble maker,You must be distant with him.他是个捣蛋鬼,你不要跟他在一起。
  • A cabinet maker must be a master craftsman.家具木工必须是技艺高超的手艺人。
13 forte 8zbyB     
n.长处,擅长;adj.(音乐)强音的
参考例句:
  • Her forte is playing the piano.她擅长弹钢琴。
  • His forte is to show people around in the company.他最拿手的就是向大家介绍公司。
14 versatility xiQwT     
n.多才多艺,多样性,多功能
参考例句:
  • Versatility is another of your strong points,but don't overdo it by having too many irons in the fire.你还有一个长处是多才多艺,但不要揽事太多而太露锋芒。
  • This versatility comes from a dual weather influence.这种多样性是由于双重的气候影响而形成的。
15 strings nh0zBe     
n.弦
参考例句:
  • He sat on the bed,idly plucking the strings of his guitar.他坐在床上,随意地拨着吉他的弦。
  • She swept her fingers over the strings of the harp.她用手指划过竖琴的琴弦。
16 recoiling 6efc6419f5752ebc2e0d555d78bafc15     
v.畏缩( recoil的现在分词 );退缩;报应;返回
参考例句:
  • Some of the energy intended for the photon is drained off by the recoiling atom. 原来给予光子的能量有一部分为反冲原子所消耗。 来自辞典例句
  • A second method watches for another effect of the recoiling nucleus: ionization. 探测器使用的第二种方法,是观察反冲原子核的另一种效应:游离。 来自互联网
17 soften 6w0wk     
v.(使)变柔软;(使)变柔和
参考例句:
  • Plastics will soften when exposed to heat.塑料适当加热就可以软化。
  • This special cream will help to soften up our skin.这种特殊的护肤霜有助于使皮肤变得柔软。
18 myriad M67zU     
adj.无数的;n.无数,极大数量
参考例句:
  • They offered no solution for all our myriad problems.对于我们数不清的问题他们束手无策。
  • I had three weeks to make a myriad of arrangements.我花了三个星期做大量准备工作。
19 percussive M3gz9     
adj.敲击的
参考例句:
  • When it is dragged over pliant areas, an additional percussive tap could indicate this collision. 当它被拖到受范区域时,一个附加的敲击声提示这种碰触。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
  • Pneumatic DTH (Down-The-Hole) hammer is one of main pneumatic percussive-rotary drilling equipments. 风动冲击器是气动冲击回转钻进的主要设备之一。 来自互联网
20 brilliance 1svzs     
n.光辉,辉煌,壮丽,(卓越的)才华,才智
参考例句:
  • I was totally amazed by the brilliance of her paintings.她的绘画才能令我惊歎不已。
  • The gorgeous costume added to the brilliance of the dance.华丽的服装使舞蹈更加光彩夺目。
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