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新视野大学英语 读写教程第二册 unit1-a

时间:2005-12-13 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:1234567890   字体: [ ]
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Unit 1

Section A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening
Please listen to a short passage carefully and prepare to answer some questions.

Second Listening
Listen to the tape again. Then answer the following questions with your own experiences.
1) What precious resource do Americans value and save?
2) What are the three kinds of behaviors that Americans consider to be a waste of time?
3) In what different ways do Americans approach time in business relations?

Time-Conscious Americans

Americans believe no one stands still. If you are not moving ahead, you are falling behind. This attitude results in a nation of people committed to researching, experimenting and exploring. Time is one of the two elements that Americans save carefully, the other being labor1.
"We are slaves to nothing but the clock," it has been said. Time is treated as if it were something almost real. We budget it, save it, waste it, steal it, kill it, cut it, account for it; we also charge for it. It is a precious resource. Many people have a rather acute sense of the shortness of each lifetime. Once the sands have run out of a person's hourglass, they cannot be replaced. We want every minute to count.
A foreigner's first impression of the U.S. is likely to be that everyone is in a rush — often under pressure. City people always appear to be hurrying to get where they are going, restlessly seeking attention in a store, or elbowing others as they try to complete their shopping. Racing2 through daytime meals is part of the pace of life in this country. Working time is considered precious. Others in public eating-places are waiting for you to finish so they, too, can be served and get back to work within the time allowed. You also find drivers will be abrupt3 and people will push past you. You will miss smiles, brief conversations, and small exchanges with strangers. Don't take it personally. This is because people value time highly, and they resent someone else "wasting" it beyond a certain appropriate point.
Many new arrivals to the States will miss the opening exchanges of a business call, for example. They will miss the ritual interaction that goes with a welcoming cup of tea or coffee that may be a convention in their own country. They may miss leisurely4 business chats in a restaurant or coffee house. Normally, Americans do not assess their visitors in such relaxed surroundings over extended small talk; much less do they take them out for dinner, or around on the golf course while they develop a sense of trust. Since we generally assess and probe professionally rather than socially, we start talking business very quickly. Time is, therefore, always ticking in our inner ear.
Consequently, we work hard at the task of saving time. We produce a steady flow of labor-saving devices; we communicate rapidly through faxes, phone calls or emails rather than through personal contacts, which though pleasant, take longer — especially given our traffic-filled streets. We, therefore, save most personal visiting for after-work hours or for social weekend gatherings5.
To us the impersonality6 of electronic communication has little or no relation to the significance of the matter at hand. In some countries no major business is conducted without eye contact, requiring face-to-face conversation. In America, too, a final agreement will normally be signed in person. However, people are meeting increasingly on television screens, conducting "teleconferences" to settle problems not only in this country but also — by satellite — internationally.
The U. S. is definitely a telephone country. Almost everyone uses the telephone to conduct business, to chat with friends, to make or break social appointments, to say "Thank you", to shop and to obtain all kinds of information. Telephones save the feet and endless amounts of time. This is due partly to the fact that the telephone service is superb here, whereas the postal7 service is less efficient.
Some new arrivals will come from cultures where it is considered impolite to work too quickly. Unless a certain amount of time is allowed to elapse, it seems in their eyes as if the task being considered were insignificant8, not worthy9 of proper respect. Assignments are, consequently, felt to be given added weight by the passage of time. In the U. S., however, it is taken as a sign of skillfulness or being competent to solve a problem, or fulfill10 a job successfully, with speed. Usually, the more important a task is, the more capital, energy, and attention will be poured into it in order to "get it moving".
Words: 689

NEW WORDS

budget
vt. plan the spending of or provide (money) in a plan 为……做预算,编制预算
vi. save or spend money (for a particular purpose)(为特定的目的)节省或用钱
n. [C, U] a plan to show how much money a person or organization will make and how much they will need or be able to spend 预算
a. inexpensive; cheap 便宜的,廉价的

acute
a. 1. (of feelings or the senses) fine; sharp(指感觉或感官)深刻的,敏感的,尖锐的
2. severe, very great 严重的

replace
vt. 1. put (sth.) back in its place 把……放回原处
2. take the place of (sb./sth.) 代替,取代

foreigner
n. [C] a person from a country other than one's own 外国人

restless
a. 1. unable to be still or quiet, esp. because of lack of interest, impatience11, anxiety, etc.(尤指因厌烦、烦躁和焦虑而引起的)不安定的或不安静的
2. always moving 动作不停的,好动的

restlessly
ad. 不安定地,不安静地

elbow
vt. push sb. to one side with the elbows 用肘把人推到一旁
n. [C] (outside part of the) joint12 where the arm bends 肘

▲abrupt
a. 1. (of behavior) rough; offensive(指行为)粗鲁的,无礼的
2. sudden and unexpected 突然的,意外的

brief
a. 1. lasting13 only a short time; short 短暂的
2. (of speech or writing) using few words (指说话或写作)用字简练的,简洁的
vt. give sb. necessary information or instructions, esp. in order to prepare sb. for an activity 预先向……提供必要信息或指示

opening
a. first 初始的
n. 1. [C] (esp. sing.) beginning; start 开始
2. [C] a position (in a business or firm) which is open or not occupied(商号或公司的)职位空缺

▲ritual
a. of or done regularly followed in exactly the same way each time 例行的,老规矩的,惯常的
n. [C, U] method followed repeatedly in the same way every time 固定的程序

interaction
n. [C, U] communication; working together 交流;相互作用,相互影响,合作

convention
n. 1. [C, U] (an example of) generally accepted practice, esp. with regard to social behavior 惯例,习俗,常规
2. [C] a meeting of members of a profession, political party, etc. (专业人员、政党的)会议,大会

leisure
n. 1. [U] time free from work or other duties; spare time 空闲,闲暇
2. [U] ease 悠闲,安逸

leisurely
a. without hurrying 从容的,不匆忙的

assess
vt. judge or decide the amount, value, quality or importance of 估价,评价

surroundings
n. (pl.) all the objects, conditions, etc. that are around (and may affect) sb./sth.; environment 周围的事物;环境

golf
n. 高尔夫球(户外运动,打高尔夫球的人设法以最少击球数把小硬球打入场内9或18个洞中)

generally
ad. 1. usually, in a general sense 一般地, 通常地
2. by most people; widely 广泛地;普遍地

▲probe
v. 1. examine (sth.) closely 刺探,查究,探究,彻底调查
2. explore or examine (sth.) with or as if with a probe (用探针或探测器)检查,探查
n. 1. [C] 探针,探子(医生用来检查伤口的一种钝头细长工具)
2. [C] (esp. in news) complete and careful enquiry into sth. (尤为新闻用语) 刺探,查究,彻底调查

▲tick
vi. (of a clock, etc.) make a sequence of quiet short regularly repeated sounds (指钟表等)滴答滴答地响
vt. put a (√) beside (a point, etc.) 在(项目旁)打上勾号
n. 1. [C] light and regularly repeated sound, esp. that of a clock or watch (尤指钟表等)滴答声
2. [C] a mark (√) 勾号(√)

consequently
ad. as a result; so 因此,所以

saving
n. 1. [C] amount saved 节省,贮存
2. (pl.) money saved up 储蓄金

labor-saving
a. designed to reduce the amount of work or effort needed to do sth. 省工的,节省劳力的,减轻劳动的

device
n. 1. [C] a thing made or altered for a special purpose 器械,装置
2. [C] a plan, esp. for a rather dishonest purpose 计划,策略,诡计

fax
n. 1. [C, U] 传真通信,电传真
2. [C] 传真机

email
n. 电子邮件(electronic mail 的缩略)

electronic
a. 1. produced or operated by a flow of electrons 电子的,电子操作的
2. concerned with electronic devices 和电子设备(如计算机)有关的

significance
n. 1. [U] meaning 意义
2. [U] importance 重要性

conduct
vt. 1.carry out, direct, manage 进行, 指导, 管理
2. act as the path for (electricity, heat, etc.) 传导(电、热等)
n. [U] person's behavior (esp. its moral element) 行为,品行

increasingly
ad. more and more 逐渐地,日益地,逐渐增加地

■teleconference
n. (通过电话、电视等的)电信会议

satellite
n. 1. [C] 人造卫星
2. [C] 卫星

obtain
vt. get (sth.); come to own or control (sth.) (by buying, borrowing, taking, etc.)取得,获得;买到;借到

superb
a. excellent; outstanding; wonderful 极好的;壮丽的,华美的

whereas
conj.but in contrast; while 反之;却,而

▲elapse
vi. (of time) pass (指时间)过去,逝去

skillful
a. having or showing ability to do sth. well 熟练的,有技巧的,灵巧的

skillfulness
n. 熟练,有技巧,灵巧

competent
a. (of people) having the necessary ability, skill, knowledge, etc. (指人)有能力(技术、知识)的,能干的,胜任的

fulfill
vt. 1. perform (sth.) or bring (sth.) to a completion 履行,执行,完成
2. satisfy (sth.); answer 满足;与……相符

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS

result in
have as a result, cause 致使,导致,造成……的结果

nothing but
only 只有,除……以外什么也不

account for
explain the cause of (sth.) 解释,说明

sand in the hourglass
沙漏中的沙(沙漏上端所盛细沙用一小时从窄缝中漏到下端)

in a rush
in a hurry 匆忙的

under pressure
being influenced; being forced 在压力下,在强力下

go with
exist or take place at the same time; be found together 同时发生;伴随

work at
put effort into (sth. or doing sth.); engage in (some activity) 工作,从事于,钻研

save for
keep (sth.) for future use; not use up (sth.) 储存,储蓄

at hand
1. being considered 正考虑的
2. near in time or position 在附近,在手边,临近的

in person
physically14 present 亲身,亲自

due to
as a result of, caused by, because of 由于,因为

be worthy of
(should) be given (sth.) 值得的,配得上的


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 labor P9Tzs     
n.劳动,努力,工作,劳工;分娩;vi.劳动,努力,苦干;vt.详细分析;麻烦
参考例句:
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
2 racing 1ksz3w     
n.竞赛,赛马;adj.竞赛用的,赛马用的
参考例句:
  • I was watching the racing on television last night.昨晚我在电视上看赛马。
  • The two racing drivers fenced for a chance to gain the lead.两个赛车手伺机竞相领先。
3 abrupt 2fdyh     
adj.突然的,意外的;唐突的,鲁莽的
参考例句:
  • The river takes an abrupt bend to the west.这河突然向西转弯。
  • His abrupt reply hurt our feelings.他粗鲁的回答伤了我们的感情。
4 leisurely 51Txb     
adj.悠闲的;从容的,慢慢的
参考例句:
  • We walked in a leisurely manner,looking in all the windows.我们慢悠悠地走着,看遍所有的橱窗。
  • He had a leisurely breakfast and drove cheerfully to work.他从容的吃了早餐,高兴的开车去工作。
5 gatherings 400b026348cc2270e0046708acff2352     
聚集( gathering的名词复数 ); 收集; 采集; 搜集
参考例句:
  • His conduct at social gatherings created a lot of comment. 他在社交聚会上的表现引起许多闲话。
  • During one of these gatherings a pupil caught stealing. 有一次,其中一名弟子偷窃被抓住。
6 impersonality uaTxP     
n.无人情味
参考例句:
  • He searched for a topic which would warm her office impersonality into friendliness. 他想找一个话题,使她一本正经的态度变得友好一点。
  • The method features speediness, exactness, impersonality, and non-invasion to the sample. 该法具有快速、准确、客观和不损坏样品等特点。
7 postal EP0xt     
adj.邮政的,邮局的
参考例句:
  • A postal network now covers the whole country.邮路遍及全国。
  • Remember to use postal code.勿忘使用邮政编码。
8 insignificant k6Mx1     
adj.无关紧要的,可忽略的,无意义的
参考例句:
  • In winter the effect was found to be insignificant.在冬季,这种作用是不明显的。
  • This problem was insignificant compared to others she faced.这一问题与她面临的其他问题比较起来算不得什么。
9 worthy vftwB     
adj.(of)值得的,配得上的;有价值的
参考例句:
  • I did not esteem him to be worthy of trust.我认为他不值得信赖。
  • There occurred nothing that was worthy to be mentioned.没有值得一提的事发生。
10 fulfill Qhbxg     
vt.履行,实现,完成;满足,使满意
参考例句:
  • If you make a promise you should fulfill it.如果你许诺了,你就要履行你的诺言。
  • This company should be able to fulfill our requirements.这家公司应该能够满足我们的要求。
11 impatience OaOxC     
n.不耐烦,急躁
参考例句:
  • He expressed impatience at the slow rate of progress.进展缓慢,他显得不耐烦。
  • He gave a stamp of impatience.他不耐烦地跺脚。
12 joint m3lx4     
adj.联合的,共同的;n.关节,接合处;v.连接,贴合
参考例句:
  • I had a bad fall,which put my shoulder out of joint.我重重地摔了一跤,肩膀脫臼了。
  • We wrote a letter in joint names.我们联名写了封信。
13 lasting IpCz02     
adj.永久的,永恒的;vbl.持续,维持
参考例句:
  • The lasting war debased the value of the dollar.持久的战争使美元贬值。
  • We hope for a lasting settlement of all these troubles.我们希望这些纠纷能获得永久的解决。
14 physically iNix5     
adj.物质上,体格上,身体上,按自然规律
参考例句:
  • He was out of sorts physically,as well as disordered mentally.他浑身不舒服,心绪也很乱。
  • Every time I think about it I feel physically sick.一想起那件事我就感到极恶心。
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