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新视野大学英语 读写教程第三册 unit8-a

时间:2005-12-13 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:1234567890   字体: [ ]

  Unit 8
Section (A)
Legal and Moral Implications of Cloning
At first it was just plain surprising. Word last week that a scientist named Ian Wilmut had succeededin cloning an adult mammal — an achievement long thought impossible — caught the imagination ofeveryone. The laboratory process that produced Dolly, an unremarkable-looking sheep, theoreticallywould work for humans as well. A world with human clones was suddenly within reach. It was sciencefiction coming to life.
In the wake of Wilmut's announcement, governments hurried to draft guidelines for the unknown, afuture filled with incredible possibilities. President Clinton ordered a national commission to study thelegal and moral implications of cloning. Leaders in Europe, where most nations already prohibit humancloning, began examining the moral implications of cloning other species.
Like the Theory of Relativity, the splitting of the atom, and the first space flight, Dolly's appearancehas generated a long list of difficult puzzles for scientists, politicians, and philosophers. And wildquestions on the topic of cloning continue to mount.
Why would anyone want to clone a human being in the first place?
The human cloning situations that experts consider most frequently fall into two broad categories: 1)parents who want to clone a child, either to provide transplants for a dying child or to replace that child,and 2) adults who for a variety of reasons might want to clone themselves.
Will it be possible to clone the dead?
Perhaps, if the body is fresh, says one expert. The cloning method used by Wilmut's lab requirescombining an egg cell with the nucleus2 of a cell containing the DNA3 of the person to be cloned. (DNA is avery long, ribbon -like molecule4 that contains our genetic5 information.) And that means that thenucleus must be intact. Cells die and the cell nucleus begins to break apart after death. But, yes, intheory at least it might be possible.
Would a cloned human be identical to the original?
Identical genes6 don't produce identical people, as anyone who knows a set of identical twins can tellyou. In fact, twins are more alike than clones would be, since they have at least shared the sameenvironment within the mother, are usually raised in the same family, and so forth7. Parents could clonea second child who resembled their first in appearance, but all the evidence suggests the two wouldhave very different personalities8. Twins separated at birth do sometimes share personalitycharacteristics, but such characteristics in a cloned son or daughter would only be reminders9 of thechild who was lost.
Even in terms of biology, a clone would not be identical to the "master copy". The clone's cells, forexample, would have energy-processing machinery10 that came from the egg, not from the person whowas cloned. But most of the physical differences between originals and copies are so minor11 thatdetection of them would require a sophisticated laboratory. The one possible exception is bearingchildren. Wilmut and his coworkers are not sure that Dolly will be able to have lambs. They will try tofind out once she's old enough to breed.
What if parents decided12 to clone a child in order to harvest organs?
Most experts agree that it would be psychologically harmful if a child sensed he had been broughtinto the world simply as an organ donor13. But some parents already produce second children withnonfatal transplants in mind, and many experts do not oppose this. Cloning would increase the chancesfor a tissue match from 25 percent to nearly 100 percent.
If cloned animals could be used as organ donors14, we wouldn't have to worry about cloning twins fortransplants. Pigs, for example, have organs similar in size to humans'. But the human body attacks anddestroys tissue from other species. To get around that, one company is trying to alter the pig's geneticcode to prevent pig organs from being attacked. If the company's technicians succeed, it may be moreefficient to produce such pigs by cloning than by current methods.
How would a human clone refer to the donor of its DNA?
"Mom" is not right, because the woman or women who supplied the egg and gave birth to the infantwould more appropriately be called Mother. "Dad" isn't right, either. A traditional father supplies onlyhalf the DNA in a child. Judith Martin, in her writings under the name of "Miss Manners";, suggests thephrase, "Most honored sir or madam". Why? "One should always respect one's ancestors," she says,"regardless of what they did to bring one into the world."That still leaves some confusion over vocabulary. The editorial director of one dictionary says thatthe noun "clonee" may sound like a good term, but it's not clear enough. Instead, he prefers "original"and "copy".
What are the other implications of cloning for society?
The gravest concern isn't really cloning itself, but genetic engineering — the deliberate altering ofgenes to create human beings according to certain requirements. Specifically, some experts areconcerned about the creation of a new (and disrespected) social class: "the clones". One expert believesthe situation could be comparable to what occurred in the 16th century, when Europeans puzzled overhow to classify the unfamiliar15 inhabitants of the Americas, and endlessly debated whether or not theywere humans.
The list of questions could go on; people are just beginning to wonder about the future of the worldafter cloning. 

  Words: 900
New Words
implication n. 1.含义,暗示 2.牵连,卷入
▲clone v. (使)无性繁殖;克隆
n. 无性繁殖系(个体);克隆
fiction n. 1.小说 2.虚构,想像
draft vt. 1.起草,草拟 2.征募,征召
n. 1.草稿,草案,草图 2.汇票
guideline n. 指导原则,指导方针,准则
prohibit vt. 禁止;阻止,使不可能
relativity n. 1.【物理】爱因斯坦的相对论(指出一切运动都是相对的,而且把时间看作是与空间有关
的第四维) 2.相关性,相对性
split v. 1.(使)裂开,(使)破裂 2.(使)分裂
n. 裂缝,分裂
atom n. 1.原子 2.微粒,极小之物
mount vi. 增加,上升
vt. 1.登上 2.准备并进行;组织,发动
category n. 种类,类型,范畴
▲transplant n. 1.移植的器官或植物 2.(组织或器官的)移植
vt. 1.移栽,移种(植物等) 2.移植(器官) 3.使迁移,使移居
nucleus n. 1.细胞核,核 2.原子核 3.中心,核心
■DNA n. 脱氧核糖核酸
ribbon n. 缎带,丝带
▲genetic a. 遗传的,遗传学的
▲intact a. 完整无缺的,未经触动的
gene1 n. 基因
twin n. 孪生儿,双胞胎
resemble vt. 像,类似
machinery n. (总称)机器,机械
minor a. 较小的,较少的;低级的,次要的
n. 未成年人
detection n. 察觉,发觉;探测
breed vi. (动物)繁殖,产仔
vt. 饲养,繁殖
n. 品种,种,属
organ n. 1.器官 2.风琴 3.机构
■donor n. 1.献血者;捐献器官的人 2.捐赠者
fatal a. 决定命运的 ;致命的
◆nonfatal n. 非致命的
tissue n. 1.组织 2.薄纸,纸巾
code n. 1.代码,密码 2.法典,法规,准则
vt. 译成电码
technician n. 技术人员,技师
infant n. 婴儿
phrase n. 短语,词组,用语
vt. 用言语表达,叙述
confusion n. 1.困惑,迷乱,分辨不清 2.混淆 3.混乱,骚乱
editorial a. 编辑的,主编的
n. 社论
deliberate a. 1.故意的,蓄意的 2.谨慎的,慎重的
v. 认真考虑,研讨
specifically ad. 1.明确地,具体地 2.特别地,特意
comparable a. 可比较的,类似的
classify vt. 分类,归类
debate v. 讨论,辩论
n. 讨论,辩论
Phrases and Expressions
succeed in doing sth. 成功,完成
work for 适用于 为... ...工作
as well (as ) 也,和,除... ...之外
within (one's) reach 在伸手能及的范围以内 近的;方便到达的
come to life 活跃起来,表现生动
in the wake of 随着,紧跟着
in the first place 首先,一开始
fall into 可分成;属于
provide for 为... ...提供(所需的某物)
break apart 自行裂开
in theory 理论上
identical to / with 与……一模一样
and (so on and) so forth 等等
What if … …要是……怎么办
bring into the world 生(孩子)
with sth. in mind 出于……目的
get around 成功地解决,克服
refer to 将……称为 提及,谈到 查阅,询问 转送至某人以便得到处理或帮助
give birth to sb. / sth. 生(孩子);产(仔)
under the name of 用别名
regardless of 不顾,不管
be concerned about / over 担心,担忧
comparable to / with 可与……相比
puzzle over 努力思考
wonder about 对……好奇;想知道;对……疑惑
Proper Names
Ian Wilmut 伊恩·威尔莫特
Dolly 多莉(羊)
Clinton 克林顿(美国前总统)
Judith Martin 朱迪斯·马丁
Miss Manners 礼仪小姐


1 gene WgKxx     
  • A single gene may have many effects.单一基因可能具有很多种效应。
  • The targeting of gene therapy has been paid close attention.其中基因治疗的靶向性是值得密切关注的问题之一。
2 nucleus avSyg     
  • These young people formed the nucleus of the club.这些年轻人成了俱乐部的核心。
  • These councils would form the nucleus of a future regime.这些委员会将成为一个未来政权的核心。
3 DNA 4u3z1l     
(缩)deoxyribonucleic acid 脱氧核糖核酸
  • DNA is stored in the nucleus of a cell.脱氧核糖核酸储存于细胞的细胞核里。
  • Gene mutations are alterations in the DNA code.基因突变是指DNA密码的改变。
4 molecule Y6Tzn     
  • A molecule of water is made up of two atoms of hygrogen and one atom of oxygen.一个水分子是由P妈̬f婘̬ 妈̬成的。
  • This gives us the structural formula of the molecule.这种方式给出了分子的结构式。
5 genetic PgIxp     
  • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
  • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
6 genes 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0     
n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
  • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
7 forth Hzdz2     
  • The wind moved the trees gently back and forth.风吹得树轻轻地来回摇晃。
  • He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession.他很快连续发表了一系列的作品。
8 personalities ylOzsg     
n. 诽谤,(对某人容貌、性格等所进行的)人身攻击; 人身攻击;人格, 个性, 名人( personality的名词复数 )
  • There seemed to be a degree of personalities in her remarks.她话里有些人身攻击的成分。
  • Personalities are not in good taste in general conversation.在一般的谈话中诽谤他人是不高尚的。
9 reminders aaaf99d0fb822f809193c02b8cf69fba     
n.令人回忆起…的东西( reminder的名词复数 );提醒…的东西;(告知该做某事的)通知单;提示信
  • The film evokes chilling reminders of the war. 这部电影使人们回忆起战争的可怕场景。
  • The strike has delayed the mailing of tax reminders. 罢工耽搁了催税单的投寄。
10 machinery CAdxb     
  • Has the machinery been put up ready for the broadcast?广播器材安装完毕了吗?
  • Machinery ought to be well maintained all the time.机器应该随时注意维护。
11 minor e7fzR     
  • The young actor was given a minor part in the new play.年轻的男演员在这出新戏里被分派担任一个小角色。
  • I gave him a minor share of my wealth.我把小部分财产给了他。
12 decided lvqzZd     
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
13 donor dstxI     
  • In these cases,the recipient usually takes care of the donor afterwards.在这类情况下,接受捐献者以后通常会照顾捐赠者。
  • The Doctor transplanted the donor's heart to Mike's chest cavity.医生将捐赠者的心脏移植进麦克的胸腔。
14 donors 89b49c2bd44d6d6906d17dca7315044b     
n.捐赠者( donor的名词复数 );献血者;捐血者;器官捐献者
  • Please email us to be removed from our active list of blood donors. 假如你想把自己的名字从献血联系人名单中删去,请给我们发电子邮件。
  • About half this amount comes from individual donors and bequests. 这笔钱大约有一半来自个人捐赠及遗赠。 来自《简明英汉词典》
15 unfamiliar uk6w4     
  • I am unfamiliar with the place and the people here.我在这儿人地生疏。
  • The man seemed unfamiliar to me.这人很面生。
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