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豆知识 2009-04-26&05-02 美国人如何选总统?

时间:2011-08-30 03:13来源:互联网 提供网友:gmeng   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

 Every four years, Americans who are 18 or older have a big responsibility. Our votes decide who becomes the president of the United States. Unfortunately, the US election1 system isn't that simple. This is Electing a US President in Plain English.

 
It's easy to imagine every US citizen's vote being counted together on Election Day. But this is not the case. US elections2 are not decided3 by the total or popular vote, but individual states. Let me explain.
 
It starts with your vote. On Election Day, you'll vote for president and their vice4 president. You get one choice. Then, all the votes in your state are counted. The candidate5 with the most state-wide votes becomes the candidate your state supports for president. This happens across the country until each state has selected their candidate.
 
We end up with most of the 50 states and the District of Columbia voting to support one candidate each. But there is a problem. We can't elect a president by just counting up the choices of these states - US states are different.
 
Consider this: California has about 36 million people, Kansas has less than three million. We need a way for California's choice to have more influence on the election because the state has more people. The question becomes - how do we make sure each state has the right amount of influence on the election?
 
Well, we need a way to account for the population of each state.
 
As an example, let's consider my home state of North Carolina. Like every state, it is divided up into congressional districts that are based on population. North Carolina has 13 districts, California has 53 and Kansas has four. When it comes to a state's influence on the election, the number of districts matters most. More population equals more districts equals more influence.
 
The influence a state has in the election is measured by the number of "electors". This number comes from the number of districts in a state plus the number of US senators6 which is always two. North Carolina has 15 electors while California has 55.
 
When a candidate wins the voting in a state they win that state's number of electors. That's why big, populous7 states can be so important to candidates8 - their electors add up quickly. And the number of electors is what really matters. Here's why.
 
If you add up the electors of all 50 states and the District of Columbia, there are 538 in total. The candidates' goal on Election Day is to win the majority of 538, or 270 electors. Once a candidate wins enough states to reach the 270 majority, they have won the election and become the president-elect. Yay!!
 
So, let's recap. Your vote helps your state choose a single candidate. That candidate receives all the electors from your state. The candidate who can win enough states to reach 270 total electors wins the national election and becomes the president-elect.
 
Then, on the following January 20th, the president-elect is sworn in as the next president of the United States.
 
And it all starts with your vote, make it count.  

点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 election ujezm     
n.选举,选择权;当选
参考例句:
  • There is no doubt but that he will win the election.毫无疑问,他将在竞选中获胜。
  • The government will probably fall at the coming election.在即将到来的大选中,该政府很可能要垮台。
2 elections b9dd4e28c0fe5673909bb6c0615f5f22     
n.选举,当选,推举( election的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The Republicans got shellacked in the elections. 共和党在选举中一败涂地。
  • He emerged victorious in the elections. 他在竞选中脱颖而出获得胜利。
3 decided lvqzZd     
adj.决定了的,坚决的;明显的,明确的
参考例句:
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
4 vice NU0zQ     
n.坏事;恶习;[pl.]台钳,老虎钳;adj.副的
参考例句:
  • He guarded himself against vice.他避免染上坏习惯。
  • They are sunk in the depth of vice.他们堕入了罪恶的深渊。
5 candidate csfzT     
n.候选人;候补者;投考者,申请求职者
参考例句:
  • Voters like a candidate who has the common touch. 投票者喜欢那些平易近人的候选人。
  • The local newspapers dressed up the candidate as a boxer.当地报纸把那个候选人描绘成一个拳击手。
6 senators 1181a181f18e7836f23146bc18668881     
n.参议员( senator的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • When the senators vote, the ayes will have it. 参议员投票时,投赞成票的人将占多数。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The committee concluded that the senators had engaged in improper conduct. 委员会断定议员们从事了不正当活动。 来自《简明英汉词典》
7 populous 4ORxV     
adj.人口稠密的,人口众多的
参考例句:
  • London is the most populous area of Britain.伦敦是英国人口最稠密的地区。
  • China is the most populous developing country in the world.中国是世界上人口最多的发展中国家。
8 candidates bef2e239e46f69022be77d801342fa6d     
n.报考者( candidate的名词复数 );申请求职者;攻读学位者;最后命运或结局如何已显然可见者
参考例句:
  • Employers must consider all candidates impartially and without bias. 雇主必须公平而毫无成见地考虑所有求职者。
  • one of the leading candidates for the presidency 总统职位的主要候选人之一
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TAG标签:   豆知识  美国人  如何选总统
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