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豆知识 2010-06-27&07-03 维基百科

时间:2011-09-01 03:45来源:互联网 提供网友:gmeng   字体: [ ]
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 You've probably seen encyclopedias2. Whether you're settling an argument or researching a school project, these books can hold the answers. These days though, the world moves so fast, it's hard for books that were written months or years ago to keep up. Thankfully we have a new kind of encyclopedia1 that's online, free, built by thousands of people and changes every day.

 
This is Wikipedia Explained by Common Craft.
 
The idea that thousands of volunteers could create an online encyclopedia doesn't sound possible, but thanks to new technology and specific policies, Wikipedia has become one of the top 5 sites on the Web. The site is run by a not-for-profit foundation with a goal to provide everyone on the planet access to the sum of all human knowledge. 
 
 
To see how it works, let's get started with the "wiki" in Wikipedia. A wiki is a kind of website that allows users to make changes to any page. They simply click edit, make the change and then save the page to share it with the world. This basic concept allows volunteers to contribute information on any subject in Wikipedia. And because Wikipedia is a website - there is no limit to the number of topics it can cover.
 
 
Being a wiki means that Wikipedia is always changing. When someone notable passes away, Wikipedia is updated. When news breaks, Wikipedia grows. It all works because tens of thousands of volunteers contribute, and also enforce rules to ensure Wikipedia remains3 a reliable source for factual information. These users, like any member, can see changes as they happen on each article. For example, if someone posts an advertisement on Wikipedia, which is forbidden - volunteers can easily reverse the change to maintain the article's integrity.
 
 
This means every change to Wikipedia is reviewed and must abide4 by two big rules:
 
 
The first is verifiability, which is necessary to ensure high quality. For this reason, Wikipedia articles must rely on information from published sources like books or newspapers - resources known for fact-checking.
 
Requiring contributors to cite these resources in articles and quotations5 ensures Wikipedia articles are factual and high quality.
 
If it's not verified, it can't be in Wikipedia. For example, you can write that the US unemployment rate in 1935 was 20.1%, but you must also cite its source for it to remain in Wikipedia. In this case, numerous history books could be verifiable resources.
 
 
The second rule requires a neutral point of view. All Wikipedia material must be presented fairly and without bias6, just like any other encyclopedia. This means Wikipedia is not a place for contributors to share their own opinions.
 
 
Let's say you're an advocate for vaccinations7 and you write “every parent should get their children vaccinated8.” Unfortunately, this is biased9 and certain to cause disagreement. However, published opinions of experts can be included. For example, writing that: “vaccinating all US children saves an estimated 33,000 lives,” and citing a reputable source is a statement of fact that can be verified. And if there is an opposing view, it should also be included to balance the article and keep it neutral. The article should present all the major opinions without endorsing10 one over the other. 
 
 
It's these two rules and the volunteers who uphold them that make Wikipedia a reliable resource that grows each day. And you can be involved. It's all part of the process of building a free encyclopedia - the largest encyclopedia in human history.

点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 encyclopedia ZpgxD     
n.百科全书
参考例句:
  • The encyclopedia fell to the floor with a thud.那本百科全书砰的一声掉到地上。
  • Geoff is a walking encyclopedia.He knows about everything.杰夫是个活百科全书,他什么都懂。
2 encyclopedias a88b1e8f5e10dbff92d83626a0e989f5     
n.百科全书, (某一学科的)专科全书( encyclopedia的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • However, some encyclopedias can be found on the Web. 同时,一些百科全书能也在网络上找到。 来自互联网
  • Few people think of encyclopedias as creative enterprises; but they are. 鲜少有人想到百科全书是创意的工作,但它确实是。 来自互联网
3 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,残留物;遗体,遗迹
参考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
4 abide UfVyk     
vi.遵守;坚持;vt.忍受
参考例句:
  • You must abide by the results of your mistakes.你必须承担你的错误所造成的后果。
  • If you join the club,you have to abide by its rules.如果你参加俱乐部,你就得遵守它的规章。
5 quotations c7bd2cdafc6bfb4ee820fb524009ec5b     
n.引用( quotation的名词复数 );[商业]行情(报告);(货物或股票的)市价;时价
参考例句:
  • The insurance company requires three quotations for repairs to the car. 保险公司要修理这辆汽车的三家修理厂的报价单。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • These quotations cannot readily be traced to their sources. 这些引语很难查出出自何处。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
6 bias 0QByQ     
n.偏见,偏心,偏袒;vt.使有偏见
参考例句:
  • They are accusing the teacher of political bias in his marking.他们在指控那名教师打分数有政治偏见。
  • He had a bias toward the plan.他对这项计划有偏见。
7 vaccinations ed61d339e2970fa63aee4b5ce757cc44     
n.种痘,接种( vaccination的名词复数 );牛痘疤
参考例句:
  • Vaccinations ensure one against diseases. 接种疫苗可以预防疾病。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • I read some publicity about vaccinations while waiting my turn at the doctor's. 在医生那儿候诊时,我读了一些关于接种疫苗的宣传。 来自《简明英汉词典》
8 vaccinated 8f16717462e6e6db3389d0f736409983     
[医]已接种的,种痘的,接种过疫菌的
参考例句:
  • I was vaccinated against tetanus. 我接种了破伤风疫苗。
  • Were you vaccinated against smallpox as a child? 你小时候打过天花疫苗吗?
9 biased vyGzSn     
a.有偏见的
参考例句:
  • a school biased towards music and art 一所偏重音乐和艺术的学校
  • The Methods: They employed were heavily biased in the gentry's favour. 他们采用的方法严重偏袒中上阶级。
10 endorsing a5b3f1341cd4294ff105734a1ff0bd61     
v.赞同( endorse的现在分词 );在(尤指支票的)背面签字;在(文件的)背面写评论;在广告上说本人使用并赞同某产品
参考例句:
  • Yet Communist leaders are also publicly endorsing religion in an unprecedented way. 不过,共产党领导层对宗教信仰的公开认可也是以前不曾有过的。 来自互联网
  • Connecticut Independent Senator Joseph Lieberman is endorsing Republican Senator John McCain. 康涅狄格州独立派参议员约瑟夫。列波曼将会票选共和议员约翰。麦凯恩。 来自互联网
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