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VOA慢速英语2009年-PEOPLE IN AMERICA - Louis Kahn, 1901-1

时间:2010-01-11 01:58来源:互联网 提供网友:斗破苍穹   字体: [ ]
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

VOICE ONE:

I’m Steve Ember.

VOICE TWO:

And I’m Barbara Klein with the VOA Special English program PEOPLE IN AMERICA. Today, we tell about Louis Kahn. He is considered one of the most important American building designers of the twentieth century.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Louis Kahn helped define1 modern architecture. Architecture is the art and science of designing and building structures such as houses, museums, and office buildings.Kahn’s architecture has several defining2 qualities.

For example, Kahn was very interested in the look and feel of the materials he used. He used brick3 and concrete in new and special ways. Kahn also paid careful attention to the use of sunlight. He liked natural light to enter his buildings through interesting kinds of windows and openings. Kahn’s work can also be identified by his creative use of geometric shapes. Many of his buildings use squares, circles and three sided shapes called triangles.

VOICE TWO:

Louis Kahn

Louis Kahn was born in Estonia in nineteen-oh-one. When he was five years old his family moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Even as a child, Louis Kahn showed excellence4 as an artist. When he was in school his pictures won several competitions organized by the city. In high school, Kahn studied architecture briefly5. He later went to the University of Pennsylvania and studied architecture full time. He graduated in nineteen twenty-four.

Louis Kahn’s buildings have many influences. Some experts say his trip to Rome, Italy in nineteen fifty-one influenced him the most. Kahn spent a few months as an architect with the American Academy6 in Rome. He also traveled through other parts of Italy, Greece and Egypt. There, he saw the ancient Greek and Roman ruins that also would influence his works7. He was very affected8 by the size and design of these ruins. They helped influence him to develop an architecture that combines both modern and ancient designs.

Other experts believe Kahn was also influenced by the part of Philadelphia where he grew up. There were many factory buildings with large windows. These brick structures were very solid. This industrial design is apparent9 in several of Kahn’s early works.

VOICE ONE:

Kahn’s first projects involved building housing10 in Philadelphia. He later received government jobs to design housing during World War Two. In nineteen forty-two, he became a head architect of the Public Building Administration12. Kahn’s first important project was the Yale Art Gallery in New Haven13, Connecticut in the early nineteen fifties. The outside of the building is very simple. The surface is made of brick and limestone14.

Staircase15 at Yale University Art Gallery

The inside of the gallery shows Kahn’s great artistic16 sense. For example, he created a triangle-shaped walkway of steps that sits inside a rounded concrete shell. This building was very popular. Its completion represented an important step in Kahn’s professional life. He was now a famous architect.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

One of Kahn’s other important buildings is the Salk Institute, a research center in La Jolla, California. It was built in the nineteen sixties. This structure further shows how Kahn was able to unite form and function. This means his buildings were beautiful and also useful.

The Salk Institute has two structures that surround a marble garden area or courtyard. This outdoor marble area is almost completely bare. The only detail is a small stream of water running through the middle of the square towards the Pacific Ocean. This simple design is very striking17. Inside the building are many rooms for laboratories18. Kahn was very careful to make sure they all received natural light and a view of the ocean. He linked the indoor and outdoor spaces in a very beautiful way.

VOICE ONE:

The Kimbell Art Museum in Fort11 Worth, Texas is another famous building by Louis Kahn. Some say it is his best. Kahn built this museum in the early nineteen seventies.This large museum has long rooms with curved19 or vaulted20 ceilings. Inside, all of the walls can be moved to best fit the art collection. Kahn was able to make the concrete material of the building look both solid and airy. He used sunlight and bodies of water to create a truly special building.

Kahn once said this about the Kimbell Art Museum: “The building feels…that I had nothing to do with it…that some other hand did it.” The architect seems to say that he was helped by some higher influence. Many people feel that his architecture has a very spiritual and timeless quality.

Kahn mostly created public buildings such as museums and libraries. However, he also designed a few houses. His most famous home is the Fisher house near Philadelphia. It is made of several box-shaped buildings. The house is made out of glass, wood and stone. Many windows provide a view of the nearby trees.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Dhaka government center

Louis Kahn also designed buildings in other countries, including India and Bangladesh. His largest project was a series of buildings that would become the government center of Dhaka, Bangladesh. This structure includes the parliament21, meeting rooms, offices, eating places and even a religious center.

This series of buildings looks like an ancient home for kings. Huge rounded and box-like buildings have windows in the shape of circles and triangles. The structure is surrounded by water. From a distance, it appears to float on a lake. Kahn spent the last twelve years of his life on the project. It was completed in nineteen eighty-three, nine years after his death. Because of Kahn, experts say, one of the poorest countries in the world has one of the most beautiful public buildings on Earth.

All of Kahn’s buildings share a common solidity and heaviness. Experts say they are very different from the works of other famous architects of the period. These architects preferred light and airy buildings. Their weightless-looking structures were mostly made of glass and metal. Kahn used stone and concrete to make monumental buildings. Many of his structures look more ancient than modern.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Louis Kahn was an artist who created beautiful works.But he was not a very good businessman. He would change his designs many times. This would make each project take a great deal of time and cost more money. The majority of the projects he designed were never built. Also, he did not like to compromise22 his design ideas to satisfy a buyer’s wishes. For this reason and others, Kahn did not make many buildings. His design company did not always have many jobs or much money. In fact, when Kahn died, he was in great debt. This is especially unusual since he was considered one of the most important architects in the world.

VOICE TWO:

In two thousand four, Mister23 Kahn’s son, Nathaniel Kahn, made a film about his father’s life. The film is called “My Architect.” It is interesting for many reasons. “My Architect” gives a history of Kahn’s life. The film presents the architect and his buildings. You can see Kahn working at his desk and talking with his builders. You can also see him teaching24 university students. You can tell that he had great energy.

The film also shows a great deal about Kahn’s private life. Kahn had a wife and daughter. But he also had two other families. Kahn had a child with each of two other women that he was not married to. In the film, Nathaniel Kahn describes visits from his father.

He says that as a child he did not understand why his father did not live with him and his mother all of the time.

NATHANIEL KAHN IN “MY ARCHITECT”: “I didn’t know my father very well. He never married my mother and he never lived with us. I needed to know him. I needed to find out who he really was. So I set out on a journey to see his buildings and to find whatever was left of him out there.”

VOICE ONE:

Many questions are left unanswered about Kahn. Yet, the film helps tell a very interesting story about a very important man. Louis Kahn died in nineteen seventy-four. Yet his influence lives on. While teaching at the University of Pennsylvania, he trained many future builders. Some students have become important architects. And Kahn’s architecture has remained fresh and timeless.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

This program was written by Dana Demange. It was produced by Dana Demange and Lawan Davis. I'm Barbara Klein.

VOICE ONE:

And I’m Steve Ember. Join us again next week for PEOPLE IN AMERICA in VOA Special English.

 


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 define 4x5xE     
vt.解释,下定义,阐述,限定,规定
参考例句:
  • Please define the words.请解释这些字的意义。
  • It's hard to define exactly what has changed.很难解释清楚到底发生了什么变化。
2 defining fea8924fc70227eebc49c74b1d1b51ff     
规定( define的现在分词 ); 使明确; 精确地解释; 画出…的线条
参考例句:
  • You can customise the behavior of the Asynchronous Server and hence re-brand it by defining your own command set for invoking services. 通过定义自己调用服务的命令集,您可以定制自定义异步服务器的行为,通过为调用服务定义自己的命令集从而对它重新标记。
  • This point can be put another way in defining poverty. 这一点还能从另一方面来加以说明以佐证贫困的涵义。 来自英汉非文学 - 新闻报道
3 brick 3sQzu     
n.砖;vt.用砖砌,用砖堵住
参考例句:
  • She stared blankly at the brick wall in front of her.她面无表情地瞪着面前的砖墙。
  • I bought a brick of ice cream for my daughter.我给女儿买了块冰砖。
4 excellence ZnhxM     
n.优秀,杰出,(pl.)优点,美德
参考例句:
  • His art has reached a high degree of excellence.他的艺术已达到炉火纯青的地步。
  • My performance is far below excellence.我的表演离优秀还差得远呢。
5 briefly 9Styo     
adv.简单地,简短地
参考例句:
  • I want to touch briefly on another aspect of the problem.我想简单地谈一下这个问题的另一方面。
  • He was kidnapped and briefly detained by a terrorist group.他被一个恐怖组织绑架并短暂拘禁。
6 academy FIxyW     
n.(高等)专科院校;学术社团,协会,研究院
参考例句:
  • This is an academy of music.这是一所音乐专科学院。
  • I visited Chinese Academy of Sciences yesterday.我昨天去访问了中国科学院。
7 works ieuzIh     
n.作品,著作;工厂,活动部件,机件
参考例句:
  • We expect writers to produce more and better works.我们期望作家们写出更多更好的作品。
  • The novel is regarded as one of the classic works.这篇小说被公认为是最优秀的作品之一。
8 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假装的
参考例句:
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
9 apparent FMsyP     
adj.表面上的,貌似真实的,显然的,明明白白的
参考例句:
  • The apparent truth was really a lie.表面上看似实话,实际上是个谎言。
  • His guilt is apparent to all.他的罪恶尽人皆知。
10 housing YqzzxS     
n.房屋,住宅;住房建筑;外壳,外罩
参考例句:
  • Do you think our housing sales will turn around during this year?你认为今年我们的住宅销路会好转吗?
  • The housing sales have been turning down since the summer.入夏以来,房屋的销售量日趋减少。
11 fort pi3x4     
n.要塞,堡垒,碉堡
参考例句:
  • The fort can not be defended against an air attack.这座要塞遭到空袭时无法防御。
  • No one can get into the fort without a pass.没有通行证,任何人不得进入要塞。
12 administration mJLyZ     
n.经营,管理;行政,行政机关,管理部门
参考例句:
  • Who is in charge of the administration of your company?你们公司的行政工作由谁负责?
  • The teachers are responsible to the school administration.教师向学校行政负责。
13 haven 8dhzp     
n.安全的地方,避难所,庇护所
参考例句:
  • It's a real haven at the end of a busy working day.忙碌了一整天后,这真是一个安乐窝。
  • The school library is a little haven of peace and quiet.学校的图书馆是一个和平且安静的小避风港。
14 limestone w3XyJ     
n.石灰石
参考例句:
  • Limestone is often used in building construction.石灰岩常用于建筑。
  • Cement is made from limestone.水泥是由石灰石制成的。
15 staircase ju5wq     
n.楼梯,楼梯间
参考例句:
  • Footsteps on the staircase interrupted his train of thought.楼梯上传来脚步声,打断了他的思路。
  • I crossed the staircase landing,and entered the room she indicated.我经过一个楼梯平台,走进她说的那个房间。
16 artistic IeWyG     
adj.艺术(家)的,美术(家)的;善于艺术创作的
参考例句:
  • The picture on this screen is a good artistic work.这屏风上的画是件很好的艺术品。
  • These artistic handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends.外国朋友很喜欢这些美术工艺品。
17 striking PhbzAL     
adj.显著的,惹人注目的,容貌出众的
参考例句:
  • There is a striking difference between Jane and Mary.简和玛丽之间有显著的差异。
  • What is immediately striking is how resourceful the children are.最令人注目的是孩子们的机智聪明。
18 laboratories 117aaa088b36e1cc81393b6d3c2087b2     
n.实验室( laboratory的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • For, eight years, Marie Curie worked in cold laboratories with poor equipment. 整整八年,居里夫人在设备简陋、冰冷的实验室里做着实验。 来自英汉非文学 - 科学史
  • Some commercial laboratories use periodic nitrate tests as guides. 许多商业性的试验室已应用定期的硝态氮分析作为指导。 来自辞典例句
19 curved CvNzJL     
a.弯曲的
参考例句:
  • His lips curved in a barely perceptible smile. 他的嘴角弯了弯,露出一丝几乎察觉不到的笑容。
  • The missile curved gracefully towards its target. 导弹呈优美的曲线状飞向目标。
20 vaulted MfjzTA     
adj.拱状的
参考例句:
  • She vaulted over the gate and ran up the path. 她用手一撑跃过栅栏门沿着小路跑去。
  • The formal living room has a fireplace and vaulted ceilings. 正式的客厅有一个壁炉和拱形天花板。
21 Parliament sLkxt     
n.议会,国会
参考例句:
  • She won a seat in Parliament at the election.她在选举中赢得了议会中的席位。
  • The drug was banned by an act of parliament.议会的法案明令禁止该药品。
22 compromise jO0z2     
n.妥协;妥协方案;vt.损害;vi.妥协,让步
参考例句:
  • The spokesman made it clear that no compromise was yet in sight.发言人表明,目前还不会妥协。
  • The probable outcome of the talks is a compromise.会谈的结果很可能是妥协。
23 mister rnQzwB     
n.(略作Mr.全称很少用于书面)先生
参考例句:
  • Mister Smith is my good friend.史密斯先生是我的好朋友。
  • He styled himself " Mister Clean ".他自称是“清廉先生”。
24 teaching ngEziT     
n.教学,执教,任教,讲授;(复数)教诲
参考例句:
  • We all agree in adopting the new teaching method. 我们一致同意采取新的教学方法。
  • He created a new system of teaching foreign languages.他创造了一种新的外语教学体系。
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TAG标签:   VOA慢速英语  PEOPLE
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