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VOA慢速英语2010年-In Study, Aspirin Reduces Deaths From

时间:2011-01-03 03:48来源:互联网 提供网友:hp2786   字体: [ ]
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BOB DOUGHTY1: This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. I'm Bob Doughty.

FAITH LAPIDUS: And I’m Faith Lapidus. This week, we will tell the story of aspirin2.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: People have known since ancient times that aspirin lessens3 pain and lowers high body temperature. But that is not all the drug can do. It has gained important new uses in recent years. Small amounts may help prevent a stroke or heart attack. Some researchers say aspirin may help patients with colon4 cancer live longer, or may even prevent some cancers.

But doctors also warn that the acid in aspirin can cause problems like bleeding in the stomach and intestines6.

FAITH LAPIDUS: So, how did aspirin become so important? The story begins with a willow7 tree. Two thousand years ago, the Greek doctor Hippocrates advised his patients to chew on the bark and leaves of the willow.

The tree contains a chemical called salicin. In the eighteen hundreds, researchers discovered how to make salicylic acid from the chemical. In eighteen ninety-seven, a chemist named Felix Hoffmann at Friedrich Bayer and Company in Germany created acetyl salicylic acid.

Later, it became the active substance in a medicine that Bayer called aspirin. The "a" came from acetyl. The "spir" came from the spirea plant, which also produces salicin. And the "in"? That is a common way to end medicine names.

BOB DOUGHTY: In nineteen eighty-two, a British scientist shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine in part for discovering how aspirin works. Sir John Vane found that aspirin blocks the body from making natural substances called prostaglandins.

Prostaglandins have several effects on the body. Some cause pain and the expansion, or swelling8, of damaged tissue. Others protect the lining9 of the stomach and small intestine5.

Prostaglandins also make the heart, kidneys and blood vessels11 work well. But there is a problem. Aspirin works against all prostaglandins, good and bad.

(MUSIC)

FAITH LAPIDUS: Scientists have also learned how aspirin interferes13 with an enzyme14. One form of this enzyme makes the prostaglandin that causes pain and swelling. Another form of the enzyme creates a protective effect. So aspirin can reduce pain and swelling in damaged tissues. But it can also harm the inside of the stomach and small intestine. And sometimes it can cause bleeding.

But a British study released in two thousand nine suggests that taking another drug with a small amount of aspirin may help reduce the risk of bleeding. If that proves true, it would help thousands of people who are seeking to prevent life-threatening conditions.

BOB DOUGHTY: Many people take aspirin to reduce the risk of a heart attack or stroke from blood clots15. Clots can block the flow of blood to the heart or brain and cause a heart attack or stroke. Scientists say aspirin prevents blood cells called platelets from sticking together to form clots.

A California doctor named Lawrence Craven first noted16 this effect sixty years ago. He observed unusual bleeding in children who chewed on an aspirin product to ease the pain after a common operation.

Doctor Craven believed that the bleeding took place because aspirin prevented blood from thickening. He thought this effect might help prevent heart attacks caused by blood clots.

He examined the medical records of eight thousand aspirin users and found no heart attacks in this group. He invited other scientists to test his ideas. But it was years before large studies took place.

FAITH LAPIDUS: Charles Hennekens of Harvard Medical School led one of the studies. In nineteen eighty-three, he began to study more than twenty-two thousand healthy male doctors over forty years of age. Half took an aspirin every other day. The others took what they thought was aspirin. But it was only a placebo17, a harmless substance.

Five years later, Doctor Hennekens reported that people who took aspirin reduced their risk of a heart attack. But they had a higher risk of bleeding in the brain than the other doctors.

BOB DOUGHTY: Last year, a group of experts examined studies of aspirin at the request of federal health officials in the United States. The experts said people with an increased risk of a heart attack should take a low-strength aspirin every day.

Aspirin may help someone who is having a heart attack caused by a blockage18 in a blood vessel10. Aspirin thins the blood, so it may be able to flow past the blockage. But heart experts say people should seek emergency help immediately. And they say an aspirin is no substitute treatment, only for temporary help.

FAITH LAPIDUS: But what about reducing pain? Aspirin competes with many other medicines for reducing pain and high body temperature. The competition includes acetaminophen, the active substance in products like Tylenol. Like the medicine ibuprofen, aspirin is an NSAID -- a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Several studies have found that men who take aspirin and other NSAIDS have a decreased risk of prostate cancer. The prostate is part of the male reproductive system.

BOB DOUGHTY: Researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota wanted to see how NSAIDs might affect prostates that are enlarged but not cancerous. They followed the health of two thousand, five hundred men for twelve years.

The researchers said these drugs may delay or stop development of an enlarged prostate. They said the risk of an enlarged prostate was fifty percent lower in the NSAID users than the other men. The risk of bladder problems was thirty-five percent lower.

(MUSIC)

FAITH LAPIDUS: Other studies have suggested that aspirin can help with cancer prevention and survival. They showed that aspirin may help prevent cancers of the stomach, intestines and colon.

Researchers reported in two thousand nine about people who had colorectal cancer. They found that aspirin users had an almost thirty percent lower risk of dying from their cancer. That was during an average of eleven years after the cancer was discovered.

BOB DOUGHTY: Two years ago, European researchers reported that aspirin may have what they called a “long-term protective effect against colorectal cancer.” Peter Rothwell of the University of Oxford19 led the researchers. They examined twenty years of results from four large studies.

The studies involved fourteen thousand people. Some of them took a seventy-five milligram baby aspirin once a day. Others took a three hundred milligram, adult-sized aspirin.

The researchers found that people who took one aspirin a day for about six years reduced their risk of colon cancer by twenty-four percent. And deaths from the disease dropped by thirty-five percent. That was in comparison to those who took a harmless substance or nothing at all.

FAITH LAPIDUS: Last week, the Lancet published the combined results of a larger observational study, also led by Professor Rothwell. This time, he and researchers examined eight studies that involved more than twenty-five thousand individuals.

They found that taking a small aspirin once a day reduced death rates from a number of common cancers. Taking seventy-five milligrams of aspirin daily for five years reduced the risk of bowel20 cancer by one-fourth. Deaths from the disease fell by one-third.

BOB DOUGHTY: Aspirin does not help everything, however. It can cause problems. For example, it can interfere12 with other medicines, although this is true of many drugs. Also, some people should not take aspirin. People who take other blood thinners or have bleeding disorders21 are among this group. Pregnant women are usually told to avoid aspirin.

And research has shown a link between aspirin use and the disease Reye's syndrome22. Children’s doctors say patients up to age nineteen should not take anything containing salicylatic products when sick with high temperatures.

FAITH LAPIDUS: Experts say most people should not take aspirin for disease prevention without first talking to a doctor because there are risks to taking aspirin. Some researchers have even said that some people get little or no protection from aspirin. So research continues on one of the oldest and most widely used drugs in the world.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written by Jerilyn Watson and Christopher Cruise. Our producer was June Simms. I’m Bob Doughty.

FAITH LAPIDUS: And I'm Faith Lapidus. Join us again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 doughty Jk5zg     
adj.勇猛的,坚强的
参考例句:
  • Most of successful men have the characteristics of contumacy and doughty.绝大多数成功人士都有共同的特质:脾气倔强,性格刚强。
  • The doughty old man battled his illness with fierce determination.坚强的老人用巨大毅力与疾病作斗争。
2 aspirin 4yszpM     
n.阿司匹林
参考例句:
  • The aspirin seems to quiet the headache.阿司匹林似乎使头痛减轻了。
  • She went into a chemist's and bought some aspirin.她进了一家药店,买了些阿司匹林。
3 lessens 77e6709415979411b220a451af0eb9d3     
变少( lessen的第三人称单数 ); 减少(某事物)
参考例句:
  • Eating a good diet significantly lessens the risk of heart disease. 良好的饮食习惯能大大减少患心脏病的机率。
  • Alcohol lessens resistance to diseases. 含有酒精的饮料会减弱对疾病的抵抗力。
4 colon jqfzJ     
n.冒号,结肠,直肠
参考例句:
  • Here,too,the colon must be followed by a dash.这里也是一样,应当在冒号后加破折号。
  • The colon is the locus of a large concentration of bacteria.结肠是大浓度的细菌所在地。
5 intestine rbpzY     
adj.内部的;国内的;n.肠
参考例句:
  • This vitamin is absorbed through the walls of the small intestine.这种维生素通过小肠壁被吸收。
  • The service productivity is the function,including external efficiency,intestine efficiency and capacity efficiency.服务业的生产率是一个包含有外部效率、内部效率和能力效率的函数。
6 intestines e809cc608db249eaf1b13d564503dbca     
n.肠( intestine的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Perhaps the most serious problems occur in the stomach and intestines. 最严重的问题或许出现在胃和肠里。 来自辞典例句
  • The traps of carnivorous plants function a little like the stomachs and small intestines of animals. 食肉植物的捕蝇器起着动物的胃和小肠的作用。 来自辞典例句
7 willow bMFz6     
n.柳树
参考例句:
  • The river was sparsely lined with willow trees.河边疏疏落落有几棵柳树。
  • The willow's shadow falls on the lake.垂柳的影子倒映在湖面上。
8 swelling OUzzd     
n.肿胀
参考例句:
  • Use ice to reduce the swelling. 用冰敷消肿。
  • There is a marked swelling of the lymph nodes. 淋巴结处有明显的肿块。
9 lining kpgzTO     
n.衬里,衬料
参考例句:
  • The lining of my coat is torn.我的外套衬里破了。
  • Moss makes an attractive lining to wire baskets.用苔藓垫在铁丝篮里很漂亮。
10 vessel 4L1zi     
n.船舶;容器,器皿;管,导管,血管
参考例句:
  • The vessel is fully loaded with cargo for Shanghai.这艘船满载货物驶往上海。
  • You should put the water into a vessel.你应该把水装入容器中。
11 vessels fc9307c2593b522954eadb3ee6c57480     
n.血管( vessel的名词复数 );船;容器;(具有特殊品质或接受特殊品质的)人
参考例句:
  • The river is navigable by vessels of up to 90 tons. 90 吨以下的船只可以从这条河通过。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • All modern vessels of any size are fitted with radar installations. 所有现代化船只都有雷达装置。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
12 interfere b5lx0     
v.(in)干涉,干预;(with)妨碍,打扰
参考例句:
  • If we interfere, it may do more harm than good.如果我们干预的话,可能弊多利少。
  • When others interfere in the affair,it always makes troubles. 别人一卷入这一事件,棘手的事情就来了。
13 interferes ab8163b252fe52454ada963fa857f890     
vi. 妨碍,冲突,干涉
参考例句:
  • The noise interferes with my work. 这噪音妨碍我的工作。
  • That interferes with my plan. 那干扰了我的计划。
14 enzyme cPozF     
n.酵素,酶
参考例句:
  • Above a certain temperature,the enzyme molecule will become unfolded.超过一定温度,酶分子将会展开。
  • An enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots.能溶解血凝块中的纤维的酶。
15 clots fc228b79d0fbd8618ecc4cda442af0dd     
n.凝块( clot的名词复数 );血块;蠢人;傻瓜v.凝固( clot的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • When you cut yourself, blood clots and forms a scab. 你割破了,血会凝固、结痂。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Milk clots when it turns sour. 奶变酸就凝块。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
16 noted 5n4zXc     
adj.著名的,知名的
参考例句:
  • The local hotel is noted for its good table.当地的那家酒店以餐食精美而著称。
  • Jim is noted for arriving late for work.吉姆上班迟到出了名。
17 placebo placebo     
n.安慰剂;宽慰话
参考例句:
  • The placebo has been found to work with a lot of different cases.人们已发现安慰剂能在很多不同的病例中发挥作用。
  • The placebo effect refers to all the observable behaviors caused by placebo.安慰剂效应是指由安慰剂所引起的可观察的行为。
18 blockage XRxyc     
n.障碍物;封锁
参考例句:
  • The logical treatment is to remove this blockage.合理的治疗方法就是清除堵塞物。
  • If the blockage worked,they could retreat with dignity.如果封锁发生作用,他们可以体面地撤退。
19 Oxford Wmmz0a     
n.牛津(英国城市)
参考例句:
  • At present he has become a Professor of Chemistry at Oxford.他现在已是牛津大学的化学教授了。
  • This is where the road to Oxford joins the road to London.这是去牛津的路与去伦敦的路的汇合处。
20 bowel Bszzy     
n.肠(尤指人肠);内部,深处
参考例句:
  • Irritable bowel syndrome seems to affect more women than men.女性比男性更易患肠易激综合征。
  • Have you had a bowel movement today?你今天有排便吗?
21 disorders 6e49dcafe3638183c823d3aa5b12b010     
n.混乱( disorder的名词复数 );凌乱;骚乱;(身心、机能)失调
参考例句:
  • Reports of anorexia and other eating disorders are on the increase. 据报告,厌食症和其他饮食方面的功能紊乱发生率正在不断增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The announcement led to violent civil disorders. 这项宣布引起剧烈的骚乱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
22 syndrome uqBwu     
n.综合病症;并存特性
参考例句:
  • The Institute says that an unidentified virus is to blame for the syndrome. 该研究所表示,引起这种综合症的是一种尚未确认的病毒。
  • Results indicated that 11 fetuses had Down syndrome. 结果表明有11个胎儿患有唐氏综合征。
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TAG标签:   VOA慢速英语  syndrome
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