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VOA慢速英语--教育提示:管理大型语言课程

时间:2017-12-31 23:38来源:互联网 提供网友:nan   字体: [ ]
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Education Tips: Managing Large Language Classes

Many English language teachers around the world face a common problem: large class sizes. A large number of students in a classroom can lead to difficulties for both the instructor1 and the learners.

In today’s Education Tips, we discuss what teachers can do to help manage large classes. We will also look at ways to increase student participation2.

How large is too large?

People have different ideas about what makes a class “too big.” Some studies consider a classroom with more than 30 or 35 students a large class. Other studies say that a class with more than 60 students is considered large.

Education professor Penny Ur says she considers a class to be “too large” if the teacher is unable to help the students make the progress they should be making.

The positives and negatives to large classes

Teaching3 a large class can bring both positive and negative experiences.

Some teachers report that students misbehave more often in big classes. The teachers may also find it hard to provide feedback4 on every student’s work.

It can also be hard for the students. Larger classes often include students with different ability levels. Stronger students, then, may feel bored. Weaker students may feel left behind.

But large classes can present positive opportunities, as well. Natalie Hess, an education researcher, says that large classes offer a chance for interactive5 activities. They also provide students with a chance to help other students in class as well as learn independently.

Tips for managing a large class

Here are some tips to help students manage a large class:

Establish rules

Researchers suggest creating a list of classroom rules – with feedback from the students themselves. If students are part of such a process, they are more likely to follow rules for class.

Darpak Sabankili is a high school English language teacher in Togo. He told VOA that he makes agreements with his students about the rules and what should happen when students break the rules. He then puts the list of rules on a wall in the classroom for everyone to see.

Organization and routine6

Organization is extremely important with large groups of students, and keeping them focused.

Start each class with an agenda7 for the day. When students know the plan for each class, they may be less likely to misbehave.

It also helps to have a method for getting students’ attention if the class starts to get noisy. This may include a “quiet signal” (such as raising your hand) or a word or phrase that you say with your class.

Plan a variety of activities

Students may lose interest if class activities last for too long. This is especially true with large classes. Therefore, teachers should plan to have many different activities, with different levels of difficulty. This helps keep the class moving at a quick speed and helps prevent students from feeling bored.

Increasing student participation with pair and group work

In large classes, there is simply not enough time for a teacher to work with each and every student. In order to give students enough of a chance to practice English in class, teachers should consider organizing the class in pairs or groups.

Pair and group work can help make a large class feel smaller for students. Such work also gives them more opportunities to participate in class.

Form groups and assign8 roles

When forming groups for group work, it helps to give each student a role. These roles may include note-taker, timekeeper, leader, or presenter9. Roles help students stay focused. They also give the students a sense of responsibility.

Teachers can give one assignment or project for the group to turn in -- for a group grade.

One useful group activity is called a “jigsaw.” This is where each member of a group works10 on a certain part of an assignment. After finishing the task, each student shares his or her work with the group.

For example, each member in a group reads a different part of an English story or article. After finishing their part, each student explains or summarizes11 for the group the section that he or she read.

With large classes, teachers must spend a lot of time correcting all the students’ assignments. One effective tool is to have students exchange papers and correct each other’s work while the teacher calls out the answers. Teachers can also have students discuss answers with each other before answering questions, or work on assignments in pairs.

Darpak says that he does a “Think-Pair-Share” activity with his classes. First, the teacher asks the class a question or gives out an assignment. The students first have time to think about the question themselves. Then, the students discuss their own ideas with a partner. Finally, the students share their answers with the class or with the teacher.

Training students for pair and group work

In many classrooms around the world, teachers often do most of the talking during class, while the students listen and take notes. Students may not be familiar with pair or group work. They may feel uncomfortable or not understand the purpose of such work.

If this is the case, students must be slowly trained to do interactive activities.

Teachers can begin by having students work in pairs for very simple class activities. As they become more comfortable with the work, teachers can slowly increase the difficulty of the activities that students work on together.

Teachers should take the time to discuss with their class the importance of pair and group work in large classes. Kwan Warapatsu, an English teacher in Thailand, says she spends time before activities discussing with her students why it is good for them to work together in class, and how it can help them improve their English.

If students better understand the importance of working together, they will be more willing to do it and likely have fewer behavioral problems during class.

Managing large language classes is not easy. But with a little extra preparation, teachers and students can have a successful, meaningful experience.

I’m Phil Dierking.

Words in This Story

assignment - n. a job or duty that is given to someone?

chant - n. a word or phrase that is repeated in a rhythmic12 way usually loudly and by a group of people?

interactive - adj. an amount of time or a situation in which something can be done?

manage - v. to have control of (something, such as a business, department, sports team, etc.)?

opportunities - n. an amount of time or a situation in which something can be done?

participation - n. to be involved with others in doing something?

routine - n. a regular way of doing things in a particular order


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 instructor D6GxY     
n.指导者,教员,教练
参考例句:
  • The college jumped him from instructor to full professor.大学突然把他从讲师提升为正教授。
  • The skiing instructor was a tall,sunburnt man.滑雪教练是一个高高个子晒得黑黑的男子。
2 participation KS9zu     
n.参与,参加,分享
参考例句:
  • Some of the magic tricks called for audience participation.有些魔术要求有观众的参与。
  • The scheme aims to encourage increased participation in sporting activities.这个方案旨在鼓励大众更多地参与体育活动。
3 teaching ngEziT     
n.教学,执教,任教,讲授;(复数)教诲
参考例句:
  • We all agree in adopting the new teaching method. 我们一致同意采取新的教学方法。
  • He created a new system of teaching foreign languages.他创造了一种新的外语教学体系。
4 feedback Wk7xk     
n.回授,反馈,反应
参考例句:
  • I was getting great feedback from my boss.老板对我的评价很高。
  • You need feedback to monitor progress.你需要利用反馈信息来监控进展。
5 interactive KqZzFY     
adj.相互作用的,互相影响的,(电脑)交互的
参考例句:
  • The psychotherapy is carried out in small interactive groups.这种心理治疗是在互动的小组之间进行的。
  • This will make videogames more interactive than ever.这将使电子游戏的互动性更胜以往。
6 routine ssoyf     
n.例行公事,惯例;adj.例行的,常规的
参考例句:
  • It is everyday routine.这是每天的例行公事。
  • She found the hospital routine slightly dull.她感到医院的工作有点枯燥乏味。
7 agenda KKqy0     
n.议事日程,记事册
参考例句:
  • We now proceed to the next item on the agenda.我们现在着手讨论下一项议题。
  • If there is no objection,the agenda is adopted.如果没有意见,议程就通过了。
8 assign uvOzN     
vt.派,指派;分配,分派;指定或选定
参考例句:
  • It is possible to assign an exact date to this building.这座建筑物的确切年代是可以确定的。
  • It's difficult to assign any reason for the failure.失败的原因很难确定。
9 presenter llRzYi     
n.(电视、广播的)主持人,赠与者
参考例句:
  • Most people think being a television presenter is exciting.很多人认为当电视节目主持人是一件刺激的事情。
  • The programme dispensed with its most popular presenter.这个节目最受欢迎的主持人被换掉了。
10 works ieuzIh     
n.作品,著作;工厂,活动部件,机件
参考例句:
  • We expect writers to produce more and better works.我们期望作家们写出更多更好的作品。
  • The novel is regarded as one of the classic works.这篇小说被公认为是最优秀的作品之一。
11 summarizes bc45988429e68600175585ade55e3353     
v.总结,概述( summarize的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • Milton summarizes the people's case in many such succinct passages. 弥尔顿在许多简洁的段落中概括了人民的处境。 来自辞典例句
  • Table 15-1 summarizes some of the important applications of these devices. 表15-1摘录了这种装置的一些重要用途。 来自辞典例句
12 rhythmic rXexv     
adj.有节奏的,有韵律的
参考例句:
  • Her breathing became more rhythmic.她的呼吸变得更有规律了。
  • Good breathing is slow,rhythmic and deep.健康的呼吸方式缓慢深沉而有节奏。
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