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‘Deepfake’ Videos: a New Weapon in Disinformation Wars

时间:2018-07-04 23:12来源:互联网 提供网友:nan   字体: [ ]


New technology is making it possible for people to make realistic videos of people appearing to say things they never actually said.

The videos are known as “deepfakes.”

The name comes from the process of deep learning, a form of artificial intelligence, or AI. They can be created with computer programs available for sale or on the internet. The technology uses face mapping and AI to produce false videos that look almost real.

Lawmakers, intelligence officials and media experts have expressed concern about deepfakes. They warn the false videos could be used to threaten America’s national security or interfere1 in elections.

The videos are created by loading a complex set of instructions into a computer, along with lots of images and audio recordings2. The computer program then learns how to copy the person’s facial expressions, movements, voice and speaking patterns.

Technical experts say, with enough video and audio of a person, the system can produce fake video of the person saying anything.

Florida Senator Marco Rubio is one of several U.S. lawmakers warning of the dangers of such technology. He says that, so far, deepfakes have mainly been used against famous people or to create humorous videos. But he says he can imagine foreign nations finding ways to use them to harm American democracy and society.

Rubio told the Associated Press that a foreign intelligence service could use the technology. Such an actor could produce a fake video of a politician using racist3 language or doing something illegal. Or they could produce fake video of a U.S. soldier killing4 civilians5 overseas or a foreign leader threatening nuclear war.

“It’s a weapon that could be used - timed appropriately and placed appropriately - in the same way fake news is used,” Rubio said. But in video form, such news could create distrust and chaos6 before an election or any other major U.S. decision, he added.

“We know there are people out there that are trying to divide society, influence elections, and we know this capacity exists. So it's only logical that at some point someone's going to take the next step and sort of weaponize it.”

The issue got attention earlier this year when the website BuzzFeed published a deepfake political video. The false video appeared to show former President Barack Obama giving an address that criticized President Donald Trump7.

You see, I would never say these things, at least not in a public address. But, someone else would.

It was created using a combination of professional and free video editing programs using machine learning.

Hany Farid is a digital forensics expert at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. He agrees there is a great possibility that deepfakes will be used to try to influence America’s politics. “I expect that here in the United States we will start to see this content in the upcoming midterms and national election, two years from now.”

The problem, Farid says, is that it will be very easy for almost anybody to create a realistic-looking fake video of world leaders. “We have entered a new world where it is going to be difficult to know how to believe what we see,” he told the Associated Press.

He added that the opposite result is also worrying. People will become so used to seeing false videos that they will be more likely to doubt a real video. Farid expects the problem to spread worldwide.

The U.S. Defense9 Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is already working to develop technologies to identify fake images and videos. But Senator Rubio says, currently, the identification process is complex and takes a very long time.

“It takes some real forensic8 capability10, technical capabilities11, to be able to show that it's not real. And by the time that's done, it's been widely disseminated13.”

Rubio and other lawmakers say people will need to take more responsibility to identify fakes.

I’m Bryan Lynn.

Words in This Story

artificial intelligence – n. ability of a machine to reproduce human behavior

fake – adj. not real, false

appropriately – adv. suitable or right for a particular situation or person

chaos – n. a situation where there is no order at all and everyone is confused

logical – adj. using reasoning

forensics – n. scientific methods for examining objects or substances related to a crime

disseminate12 – v. to spread or give out news, information, ideas, etc. to many people


1 interfere b5lx0     
  • If we interfere, it may do more harm than good.如果我们干预的话,可能弊多利少。
  • When others interfere in the affair,it always makes troubles. 别人一卷入这一事件,棘手的事情就来了。
2 recordings 22f9946cd05973582e73e4e3c0239bb7     
n.记录( recording的名词复数 );录音;录像;唱片
  • a boxed set of original recordings 一套盒装原声录音带
  • old jazz recordings reissued on CD 以激光唱片重新发行的老爵士乐
3 racist GSRxZ     
  • a series of racist attacks 一连串的种族袭击行为
  • His speech presented racist ideas under the guise of nationalism. 他的讲话以民族主义为幌子宣扬种族主义思想。
4 killing kpBziQ     
  • Investors are set to make a killing from the sell-off.投资者准备清仓以便大赚一笔。
  • Last week my brother made a killing on Wall Street.上个周我兄弟在华尔街赚了一大笔。
5 civilians 2a8bdc87d05da507ff4534c9c974b785     
平民,百姓( civilian的名词复数 ); 老百姓
  • the bloody massacre of innocent civilians 对无辜平民的血腥屠杀
  • At least 300 civilians are unaccounted for after the bombing raids. 遭轰炸袭击之后,至少有300名平民下落不明。
6 chaos 7bZyz     
  • After the failure of electricity supply the city was in chaos.停电后,城市一片混乱。
  • The typhoon left chaos behind it.台风后一片混乱。
7 trump LU1zK     
  • He was never able to trump up the courage to have a showdown.他始终鼓不起勇气摊牌。
  • The coach saved his star player for a trump card.教练保留他的明星选手,作为他的王牌。
8 forensic 96zyv     
  • The report included his interpretation of the forensic evidence.该报告包括他对法庭证据的诠释。
  • The judge concluded the proceeding on 10:30 Am after one hour of forensic debate.经过近一个小时的法庭辩论后,法官于10时30分宣布休庭。
9 defense AxbxB     
  • The accused has the right to defense.被告人有权获得辩护。
  • The war has impacted the area with military and defense workers.战争使那个地区挤满了军队和防御工程人员。
10 capability JsGzZ     
  • She has the capability to become a very fine actress.她有潜力成为杰出演员。
  • Organizing a whole department is beyond his capability.组织整个部门是他能力以外的事。
11 capabilities f7b11037f2050959293aafb493b7653c     
n.能力( capability的名词复数 );可能;容量;[复数]潜在能力
  • He was somewhat pompous and had a high opinion of his own capabilities. 他有点自大,自视甚高。 来自辞典例句
  • Some programmers use tabs to break complex product capabilities into smaller chunks. 一些程序员认为,标签可以将复杂的功能分为每个窗格一组简单的功能。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
12 disseminate VtKxS     
  • We should disseminate science and promote the scientific spirit.普及科学知识,弘扬科学精神。
  • We sincerely welcome all countries to disseminate their languages in China.我们真诚地欢迎世界各国来华推广本国语言。
13 disseminated c76621f548f3088ff302305f50de1f16     
散布,传播( disseminate的过去式和过去分词 )
  • Their findings have been widely disseminated . 他们的研究成果已经广为传播。
  • Berkovitz had contracted polio after ingesting a vaccine disseminated under federal supervision. 伯考维茨在接种了在联邦监督下分发的牛痘疫苗后传染上脊髓灰质炎。
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