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EXPLORATIONS - Outlaws and Lawmen of the Wild West, Part 1

时间:2006-03-06 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:qwe   字体: [ ]
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EXPLORATIONS - Outlaws1 and Lawmen of the Wild West, Part 1
By Paul Thompson

Broadcast: Wednesday, January 14, 2004

(THEME)

VOICE ONE:

This is Faith Lapidus.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Steve Ember with EXPLORATIONS from VOA Special English. Today we present the first of two programs about some of the most famous people who lived in the American West many years ago. We tell about lawmen, criminals and gunfighters. And we will try to tell as much truth as possible about this interesting time in American history.

(WESTERN MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

 
A picture including Wyatt Earp (top right), Luke Short (bottom left) and Bat Masterson (second form right bottom.
Our story begins in eighteen-eighty-three in Dodge2 City, Kansas. Dodge City was a railroad3 town. Huge herds4 of cattle were brought there from western states to be transported by railroad to markets in the eastern United States.

A man named Luke Short owned a small store where he sold alcohol5. People also took part in gambling6 -- games of chance -- in his store. Several people who owned similar businesses wanted Luke Short to leave Dodge City. They did not like the business competition. Luke Short was threatened several times. He knew his life was in danger. So he left Dodge City.

VOICE TWO:

Several weeks later, the people in Dodge City began to see something that frightened them. Strangers were entering the town. All of these men carried guns. The men said they were friends of Luke Short. They caused no trouble. A newspaper in Dodge City printed a story that identified the men.

One of the first of these men to arrive was a former Dodge City lawman. His name was William Masterson. The newspaper said he was well known as an expert with guns and had killed several men. His friends called him "Bat."

Two other men arrived together. One was Wyatt Earp. He was a famous gunfighter from Tombstone, in the Arizona territory. He also was a former lawman who had killed men in gunfights. With him was his friend, a dentist, John Holliday, who also survived several shooting incidents. His friends called him "Doc."

About twelve other men also arrived in Dodge City to help Luke Short. They were not as famous as the three named in the newspaper. But they were also considered to be very dangerous.

VOICE ONE:

Luke Short returned to Dodge City wearing his guns. The chief lawman of the town quickly sent a telegram to the governor7 of the state asking for help. He was afraid a major civil war would begin in his town. The men who had forced Luke Short out of town decided8 to negotiate9 a settlement. They did not want to face his many dangerous friends.

A few days after the settlement, Bat Masterson, Wyatt Earp, Doc Holliday and the other dangerous friends of Luke Short left Dodge City. No one ever fired a shot. No one was even threatened. All it took to force a negotiated10 settlement was for these dangerous men to show their faces in Dodge City. Just the fear of them settled the argument in favor of Luke Short. No one wanted to deal with men who were not afraid of a gunfight.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Who were these dangerous men? Why did people fear them so much? Why did they become so famous? The story of these famous men began a little before the American Civil War of the eighteen-sixties.

This wild and lawless period in the West has been shown in hundreds of movies, television programs and books. It only lasted for about seventy years. The first shooting incident by a person who could be considered a professional gunman took place in Texas in eighteen-fifty-four.

Most of the shooting incidents between professional lawmen and outlaws took place during the eighteen-seventies in Texas.

VOICE ONE:

The real movement into the American West began after the Civil War. Many families moved west to build new lives after the war. Land was almost free. Some people wanted to find gold or silver and become rich. Other families wanted to raise cows or horses or begin a farm and start a new life.

But living in the American West was not easy. There were no laws, no courts and little or no government. There were few lawmen to keep order. The people who arrived in the West included many criminals. Many were escaping punishment from their crimes. They knew that an area with no law would provide them with safety. These professional criminals often used force to take what they wanted -- cows, horses or money. Often, there was little to stop them.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

 
Settlers seeking land.
Honest people who moved to the West carried weapons to protect themselves and their property. These settlers began to build small towns when they found areas they liked. They tried to improve their towns with churches, schools and the rule of law. But it was often difficult.

To protect their towns, the settlers often had to employ people who were expert in the use of firearms. Several lawmen in the Old West had learned11 to use their weapons when they were criminals.

Both the outlaws and the lawmen in the Old West had something else in common. They could do something many other people could not. They were willing to risk their lives to enforce12 the law or to commit a crime. And they were willing to do this with a gun.

VOICE ONE:

A good example was a man named William Matthew Tilghman (TILL-man). He was arrested two times and charged with stealing when he was a young man. However, he later became a deputy13 United States marshal14, a law officer.

On July fourth, eighteen-eighty-eight, a man named Ed Prather began shooting his gun in the street in Farmer City, Kansas. People ran away in fear. Tilghman made him stop. Prather left the street angry and went into a drinking place. He began drinking alcohol and making threats.

Later, Tilghman went into the drinking place looking for Prather. Prather put his hand on the gun he was carrying. Tilghman told him to move his hand away from the gun. When he did not obey, Bill Tilghman pulled out his gun and shot Ed Prather two times. He died immediately.

VOICE TWO:

That was only one of the many times Bill Tilghman used his gun as a law officer. He served in many other towns. Often, all he had to do was walk into a room to stop a fight. Outlaws feared and obeyed him. Most criminals stayed away from a town where Bill Tilghman was the marshal.

Bill Tilghman was shot to death on November first, nineteen-twenty-four. He was trying to arrest a man who had been drinking too much alcohol. He was seventy years old and still working as the marshal of Cromwell, Oklahoma. His life had lasted exactly the seventy years of the American Wild West.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

The famous American gunman named Wyatt Earp has been the subject of at least four major motion15 pictures, one television series and many books. He served as a marshal in Tombstone, Arizona. He took part in one of the most famous gunfights in American history -- the gunfight at the O-K Corral.

Wyatt Earp was once asked how to win a gunfight. He said a good gunfighter took his time. He said he had to go into action as quickly as possible -- as fast as he could move. But then he should take his time with the shooting. He said a successful gunfighter could not let fear or anything else force him to shoot too soon and miss the target. Missing16 the target could get him killed.

Wyatt Earp was very successful. He was only wounded once in a gunfight. He is one of the few successful gunfighters who lived to old age. He died in nineteen-twenty-nine. He was eighty-one years old.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Experts on the American West often disagree about who were the most dangerous gunmen in that period of American history. Was it one of the famous lawmen? Was it Bill Tilghman, or perhaps Wyatt Earp?

Or was it one of the outlaws? Maybe it was the famous bank robber17 Jesse James or an extremely dangerous gunman named John Wesley Hardin.

Those questions will never truly be answered. However, join us next week when we tell about two of the most dangerous gunfighters of the Old West.

(THEME)

VOICE ONE:

This program was written by Paul Thompson. It was produced by Mario Ritter. This is Faith Lapidus.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Steve Ember. Join us again next week for EXPLORATIONS in Special English on the Voice of America.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 outlaws 7eb8a8faa85063e1e8425968c2a222fe     
歹徒,亡命之徒( outlaw的名词复数 ); 逃犯
参考例句:
  • During his year in the forest, Robin met many other outlaws. 在森林里的一年,罗宾遇见其他许多绿林大盗。
  • I didn't have to leave the country or fight outlaws. 我不必离开自己的国家,也不必与不法分子斗争。
2 dodge q83yo     
v.闪开,躲开,避开;n.妙计,诡计
参考例句:
  • A dodge behind a tree kept her from being run over.她向树后一闪,才没被车从身上辗过。
  • The dodge was coopered by the police.诡计被警察粉碎了。
3 railroad ATIxl     
n.铁路;vi.由铁路运输
参考例句:
  • The railroad connects two cities,namely,New York and Chicago.这条铁路连接两个城市,即纽约与芝加哥。
  • My brother is working on the railroad.我兄弟在铁路系统工作。
4 herds 0a162615f6eafc3312659a54a8cdac0f     
兽群( herd的名词复数 ); 牧群; 人群; 群众
参考例句:
  • Regularly at daybreak they drive their herds to the pasture. 每天天一亮他们就把牲畜赶到草场上去。
  • There we saw herds of cows grazing on the pasture. 我们在那里看到一群群的牛在草地上吃草。
5 alcohol AxCzB     
n.酒精,乙醇;含酒精的饮料
参考例句:
  • The law forbids shops to sell alcohol to minors.法律禁止商店向未成年者出售含酒精的饮料。
  • The alcohol is industrial.这些酒精是供工业用的。
6 gambling ch4xH     
n.赌博;投机
参考例句:
  • They have won a lot of money through gambling.他们赌博赢了很多钱。
  • The men have been gambling away all night.那些人赌了整整一夜。
7 governor 1f8xe     
n.统治者,地方长官(如省长,州长,总督等)
参考例句:
  • The governor was an expert at fencing with reporters.这位州长是搪塞新闻记者的能手。
  • He was elected governor of the state of California.他当选为加州州长。
8 decided lvqzZd     
adj.决定了的,坚决的;明显的,明确的
参考例句:
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
9 negotiate rGtxc     
v.洽谈,协商,谈判,顺利通过,成功越过
参考例句:
  • I'll negotiate with their coach on the date of the match.我将与他们的教练磋商比赛的日期问题。
  • I managed to negotiate successfully with the authorities.我设法同当局进行了成功的协商。
10 negotiated feb94d7f6645e2d1563a11dc68b7ea2f     
谈判,协商,议定( negotiate的过去式和过去分词 ); 兑现(支票等); 通过,越过(险要路段)
参考例句:
  • The government negotiated with the opposition party over the new law. 政府就新法与反对党进行了协商。
  • By careful strategy she negotiated a substantial pay rise. 她精心策划后,谈妥了大幅增加工资的事。
11 learned m1oxn     
adj.有学问的,博学的;learn的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • He went into a rage when he learned about it.他听到这事后勃然大怒。
  • In this little village,he passed for a learned man.在这个小村子里,他被视为有学问的人。
12 enforce Fp0xP     
vt.实施,执行;强制,强迫;加强,坚持
参考例句:
  • You have no right to enforce your own views on me.你无权把你自己的观点强加给我。
  • They tried to enforce agreement with their plans.他们企图迫使人们同意他们的计划。
13 deputy fw0xE     
n.代理人,代表,副职;adj.代理的,副的
参考例句:
  • John will act as a deputy for me during my absence.我离开期间,约翰将代理我的职务。
  • She is the deputy headmistress of the school.她是那所学校的代理校长。
14 marshal qjJyy     
n.元帅,总指挥,(美)执法官;vt.整理,集结
参考例句:
  • The oldest general was appointed marshal of the armies.资格最老的将军被任命为军队的元帅。
  • Marshal your arguments before debating.辩论前整理一下你的论点。
15 motion nEzxY     
n.打手势,示意,移动,动作,提议,大便;v.运动,向...打手势,示意
参考例句:
  • She could feel the rolling motion of the ship under her feet.她能感觉到脚下船在晃动。
  • Don't open the door while the train is in motion.列车运行时,请勿打开车门。
16 missing 3nTzx7     
adj.遗失的,缺少的,失踪的
参考例句:
  • Check the tools and see if anything is missing.检点一下工具,看有无丢失。
  • All the others are here;he's the only one missing.别人都来了,就短他一个。
17 robber 1jhzmX     
n.抢劫者,强盗,盗贼
参考例句:
  • The robber told the woman to come across with her purse.拦路抢劫者勒令那个女人把钱包交出来。
  • The robber tried to run away but a man tackled him.强盗企图逃跑,但一个人把他抓住了。
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TAG标签:   exploration  outlaws  lawmen
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