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2006年VOA标准英语-Sectarian Violence in Iraq Prompts Calls for Ch

时间:2007-04-17 07:28来源:互联网 提供网友:枭神羊   字体: [ ]

By Bill Rodgers
Washington, DC
31 August 2006
watch US, Iraq Strategy

There are calls in the United States for a change in strategy to head off what some fear may become a full-blown civil war in Iraq.  President Bush has ruled out withdrawing U.S. troops. He says a pullout now would make the situation much worse and could turn the country into a safe haven1 for terrorists.  While some analysts2 agree, they also believe the United States must come up with new strategies if it wants to achieve its goal of turning Iraq into a stable, democratic country.


Participants of a religious procession run for cover
The violence seems to be never-ending.  A recent incident took place during a Shi'ite religious procession. More than 15 people were killed.

What was once a war against a Sunni Arab insurgency3 is evolving into a bloody4 sectarian conflict between Sunnis and Shi'ites, with U.S. troops caught in the middle.  

"I think it is what I would call a slow-motion civil war," says James Phillips, a Middle East expert at the Heritage Foundation.

James Phillips   
"It's not a full-fledged civil war by any means because the scale of the violence would be much greater.  But there's a danger it could trend in that direction."

Thousands of people have been killed in sectarian violence since a famed Shi'ite mosque5 was bombed in February.

U.S. military strategy has been focused on creating a national Iraqi army to replace U.S. troops in maintaining security.  But this may not be enough.  Stephen Biddle of the Council on Foreign Relations specializes in the study of military power.

Stephen Biddle   
"We think we are building up a national Iraqi military.  The Sunnis think what we're doing is we're arming their Shi'ite rivals.  The Sunnis look at the national military as a Shi'ite militia6 on steroids. The stronger that Shi'ite militia on steroids gets the more they dig in their heels and the harder they fight back in what they understand to be a war over potentially existential stakes -- the survival of the Sunni community," says Mr. Biddle.

And Sunnis have been fighting back, with car bombs and other attacks against Shi'ite civilians7.  Shi'ite militias8 have been retaliating9 with death-squad type murders of Sunnis. The escalating10 sectarian violence has led to urgent calls for a change in the U.S. strategy. 

Prominent Democratic Senator Joseph Biden has proposed a plan calling for decentralizing the Iraqi government and a firm timetable for U.S. troop withdrawals11

President Bush  
But President Bush rejects any proposals to withdraw. "Any sign that says we're going to leave before the job is done,” said the president, “simply emboldens12 terrorists and creates a certain amount of doubt for people so they won't take the risk necessary to help a civil society evolve."

However, some say Washington should use its military presence in Iraq to force a compromise between the rival groups to end the violence.  Stephen Biddle says, "If our military policy is going to promote, rather than retard13 the incentives14 to the parties to compromise, it is going to have to start to be made conditional15 on the parties' bargaining behavior.  If you make progress toward a deal we will stay and we will protect you.  If you do not, we won't."

The government of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki has been trying to forge political compromises with representatives of the various groups to stave off the violence. But so far he has made little visible progress. 

The government may need more time, says James Phillips of the Heritage Foundation.  "During the Algerian civil war in the early 90s most western governments had written off the Algerian government in its battle against Islamic radicals16.  But that government is still there, in part because it held elections and reached out to some opposition17 groups, brought in the moderates into a national consensus18 and I think that also can work in Iraq over time."

But time may not be an unlimited19 commodity.  With sectarian violence increasing steadily20, Iraq may reach a point of no return where the desire for vengeance21 overwhelms the prospects22 for peaceful coexistence -- despite the best efforts of the U.S. military mission.


1 haven 8dhzp     
  • It's a real haven at the end of a busy working day.忙碌了一整天后,这真是一个安乐窝。
  • The school library is a little haven of peace and quiet.学校的图书馆是一个和平且安静的小避风港。
2 analysts 167ff30c5034ca70abe2d60a6e760448     
分析家,化验员( analyst的名词复数 )
  • City analysts forecast huge profits this year. 伦敦金融分析家预测今年的利润非常丰厚。
  • I was impressed by the high calibre of the researchers and analysts. 研究人员和分析人员的高素质给我留下了深刻印象。
3 insurgency dqdzEb     
  • And as in China, unrest and even insurgency are widespread. 而在中国,动乱甚至暴乱都普遍存在。 来自互联网
  • Dr Zyphur is part an insurgency against this idea. 塞弗博士是这一观点逆流的一部分。 来自互联网
4 bloody kWHza     
  • He got a bloody nose in the fight.他在打斗中被打得鼻子流血。
  • He is a bloody fool.他是一个十足的笨蛋。
5 mosque U15y3     
  • The mosque is a activity site and culture center of Muslim religion.清真寺为穆斯林宗教活动场所和文化中心。
  • Some years ago the clock in the tower of the mosque got out of order.几年前,清真寺钟楼里的大钟失灵了。
6 militia 375zN     
  • First came the PLA men,then the people's militia.人民解放军走在前面,其次是民兵。
  • There's a building guarded by the local militia at the corner of the street.街道拐角处有一幢由当地民兵团守卫的大楼。
7 civilians 2a8bdc87d05da507ff4534c9c974b785     
平民,百姓( civilian的名词复数 ); 老百姓
  • the bloody massacre of innocent civilians 对无辜平民的血腥屠杀
  • At least 300 civilians are unaccounted for after the bombing raids. 遭轰炸袭击之后,至少有300名平民下落不明。
8 militias ab5f9b4a8cb720a6519aabca747f36e6     
n.民兵组织,民兵( militia的名词复数 )
  • The troops will not attempt to disarm the warring militias. 部队并不打算解除战斗中的民兵武装。 来自辞典例句
  • The neighborhood was a battleground for Shiite and Sunni militias. 那里曾是什叶派和逊尼派武装分子的战场。 来自互联网
9 retaliating c6cf6ecd71cb9abcbf0d6c8291aa3525     
v.报复,反击( retaliate的现在分词 )
  • The administration will begin retaliating in six weeks if EC policies remain unchanged. 凯特先生说,如果欧共体一意孤行,美国政府将于六周后开始报复。 来自互联网
10 escalating 1b4e810e65548c7656e9ea468e403ca1     
v.(使)逐步升级( escalate的现在分词 );(使)逐步扩大;(使)更高;(使)更大
  • The cost of living is escalating. 生活费用在迅速上涨。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The cost of living is escalating in the country. 这个国家的生活费用在上涨。 来自辞典例句
11 withdrawals e8b79ee63bd5060c582d7b93a43ec3dd     
n.收回,取回,撤回( withdrawal的名词复数 );撤退,撤走;收回[取回,撤回,撤退,撤走]的实例;推出(组织),提走(存款),戒除毒瘾,对说过的话收回,孤僻
  • He has made several withdrawals from his bank account. 他从银行账户上提了几次款。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • It is not the bank's policy to deduct interest on withdrawals. 提款需扣除利息这并非是本银行的政策。 来自辞典例句
12 emboldens 18e2a684db6f3df33806b7d66d33833b     
v.鼓励,使有胆量( embolden的第三人称单数 )
  • This condition emboldens employers and brokers to exploit more the migrant workers. 这样的情形使得雇主及仲介业者得以大胆地剥削移民劳工。 来自互联网
  • In turn, Kobe's growing confidence emboldens his teammates to play even better. 反过来,科比增加了对他们的信任也促使队友们打得更好。 来自互联网
13 retard 8WWxE     
  • Lack of sunlight will retard the growth of most plants.缺乏阳光会妨碍大多数植物的生长。
  • Continuing violence will retard negotiations over the country's future.持续不断的暴力活动会阻碍关系到国家未来的谈判的进行。
14 incentives 884481806a10ef3017726acf079e8fa7     
激励某人做某事的事物( incentive的名词复数 ); 刺激; 诱因; 动机
  • tax incentives to encourage savings 鼓励储蓄的税收措施
  • Furthermore, subsidies provide incentives only for investments in equipment. 更有甚者,提供津贴仅是为鼓励增添设备的投资。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
15 conditional BYvyn     
  • My agreement is conditional on your help.你肯帮助我才同意。
  • There are two forms of most-favored-nation treatment:conditional and unconditional.最惠国待遇有两种形式:有条件的和无条件的。
16 radicals 5c853925d2a610c29b107b916c89076e     
n.激进分子( radical的名词复数 );根基;基本原理;[数学]根数
  • Some militant leaders want to merge with white radicals. 一些好斗的领导人要和白人中的激进派联合。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The worry is that the radicals will grow more intransigent. 现在人们担忧激进分子会变得更加不妥协。 来自辞典例句
17 opposition eIUxU     
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
18 consensus epMzA     
  • Can we reach a consensus on this issue?我们能在这个问题上取得一致意见吗?
  • What is the consensus of opinion at the afternoon meeting?下午会议上一致的意见是什么?
19 unlimited MKbzB     
  • They flew over the unlimited reaches of the Arctic.他们飞过了茫茫无边的北极上空。
  • There is no safety in unlimited technological hubris.在技术方面自以为是会很危险。
20 steadily Qukw6     
  • The scope of man's use of natural resources will steadily grow.人类利用自然资源的广度将日益扩大。
  • Our educational reform was steadily led onto the correct path.我们的教学改革慢慢上轨道了。
21 vengeance wL6zs     
  • He swore vengeance against the men who murdered his father.他发誓要向那些杀害他父亲的人报仇。
  • For years he brooded vengeance.多年来他一直在盘算报仇。
22 prospects fkVzpY     
  • There is a mood of pessimism in the company about future job prospects. 公司中有一种对工作前景悲观的情绪。
  • They are less sanguine about the company's long-term prospects. 他们对公司的远景不那么乐观。
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