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VOA标准英语2010年-Growing World Population Stresses Gove

时间:2010-08-11 07:15来源:互联网 提供网友:ql8545   字体: [ ]

According to the 2010 World Population Data Sheet, there will be fewer workers to support an aging population in the coming decades.

The booming population growth of the past century has slowed, but improving health conditions and stubbornly high birth rates in many developing countries continue to swell1 the world's population by some 80 million people every year.

Yet, according to the 2010 World Population Data Sheet, richer nations face a dwindling2 workforce3 that will be less able to support their growing elderly populations. Meantime, in many poorer countries, populations are younger and growing rapidly - exacerbating4 poverty and threatening the environment. 

Eventual5 decline

In 2010, the global population reached 6.9 billion, with nearly all the growth in the world's developing countries. According to the report, the world's poorest developing countries account for 20 million of the 80 million people being added to the global population every year.

Carl Haub, senior demographer6 with the Population Reference Bureau and lead author of the Data Sheet, says by 2050, population growth in Africa alone will boost world numbers by one billion, assuming that birth rates today are declining on that continent and continue to do so.

Asia is expected to add the most people, about 1.3 billion, by 2050.

"In many cases now, it's becoming more and more evident that simply is not happening."

Demographers7 predict that birth rates in developing countries will eventually decline following the trend in industrialized nations. 

Yet, as the Data Sheet documents, Asia is expected to add the most people, about 1.3 billion, by 2050. That is likely to impose greater burdens on governments to meet the health, education and economic needs of large and young populations.    

Shrinking pool

In the developed world, the numbers tell a very different story.  Chronically8 low birthrates have created a shrinking pool of work-age people to support the wealthier countries' elderly populations.

Haub gives a stark9 example, comparing Ethiopia and Germany.

Both have roughly the same number of citizens, but the similarity ends there. Ethiopia is expected to double its population from 85 million to 174 million by 2050. The population in Germany will likely decline from 82 million to 72 million over the same period.

Getty Images/Stockbyte Platinum/Photos.com
Europe is the first region of the world to see a long-term decline in fertility.

Haub says, with its much lower birth rate, Germany faces escalating10 problems resulting from a smaller adult workforce.

"And you can see that Germany already has only three people of working age for one person of the retirement11 ages. So they have an immediate12 and growing crisis in their pension and health care system and they know it, for sure."

Implications for retirement and health care

According to the report, Europe is the first region of the world to see this long-term decline in fertility.

Currently, there are about four working age people for each person over 65. That number is expected to drop to 2-to-1 by 2050.

Japan and South Korea are facing similar problems, says James Gribble, vice13 president of International Programs for the Population Reference Bureau. "[That] has implications for retirement and health care for the elderly and the need to have a sufficient number of children moving into the labor14 force as they become adults."

In the United States, the number of people 65 and older is expected to more than double from 40 million today to 89 million by 2050.

Getty Images/Photos.com
Passengers wait for trains in the United States, where immigrants can help bolster15 the working age population.

Role of immigrants

And the total U.S. population could grow from today's 310 million to more than 420 million, depending on migration16 trends, says Linda Jacobsen, vice president of Domestic Programs for the Population Reference Bureau.

"Immigrants can help to offset17 the decline in the elderly support ratio. They can help bolster the working age population and improve the potential solvency18 of Social Security, just as an example," says Jacobsen. "I don't know that I would suggest that it is the solution. It's not the solution, but it certainly has played an important role in keeping the U.S. population not looking like those in Japan and some of the countries in Western Europe."

The 2010 World Population Data Sheet presents detailed19 information on more than 200 countries. It's based on country sources, demographic surveys and studies from state and international agencies. Population Reference

Bureau President Bill Butz hopes the findings provide the public and policy makers20 with a clearer picture of the challenges population growth continues to pose to global health, the economy and the environment.


1 swell IHnzB     
  • The waves had taken on a deep swell.海浪汹涌。
  • His injured wrist began to swell.他那受伤的手腕开始肿了。
2 dwindling f139f57690cdca2d2214f172b39dc0b9     
adj.逐渐减少的v.逐渐变少或变小( dwindle的现在分词 )
  • The number of wild animals on the earth is dwindling. 地球上野生动物的数量正日渐减少。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He is struggling to come to terms with his dwindling authority. 他正努力适应自己权力被削弱这一局面。 来自辞典例句
3 workforce workforce     
  • A large part of the workforce is employed in agriculture.劳动人口中一大部分受雇于农业。
  • A quarter of the local workforce is unemployed.本地劳动力中有四分之一失业。
4 exacerbating ff803ca871efdf0c67b248b5a1095f6e     
v.使恶化,使加重( exacerbate的现在分词 )
  • This pedagogical understretch is exacerbating social inequalities. 这种教学张力不足加重了社会不平等。 来自互联网
  • High fertilizer prices are exacerbating the problem. 高涨的肥料价格更加加剧了问题的恶化。 来自互联网
5 eventual AnLx8     
  • Several schools face eventual closure.几所学校面临最终关闭。
  • Both parties expressed optimism about an eventual solution.双方对问题的最终解决都表示乐观。
6 demographer rwpxt     
  • Professor Antonio Golini is a demographer at the University of Rome. 罗马大学安东尼奥教授是位人口统计学家。 来自互联网
  • Demographer William Frey says immigrants with young families will help keep the United States competitive. 人口统计学家佛瑞表示这些年轻的家庭会帮助美国保持竞争力。 来自互联网
7 demographers 63067156764153b68f6a11b70c0139d8     
n.人口统计学( demography的名词复数 )
  • Demographers, however, point out that the'single" trend will have a profound effect on American institutions. 不过,人口学家们指出,“单身”趋势将对美国的公共机构产生深远的影响。 来自时文部分
  • Selectivity of human migration long been the focus of demographers and economists. 人口迁移的选择性一直以来都是人口学家和经济学家关注的焦点。 来自互联网
8 chronically yVsyi     
  • Similarly, any pigment nevus that is chronically irritated should be excised. 同样,凡是经常受慢性刺激的各种色素痣切勿予以切除。
  • People chronically exposed to chlorine develop some degree of tolerance. 人长期接触氯气可以产生某种程度的耐受性。
9 stark lGszd     
  • The young man is faced with a stark choice.这位年轻人面临严峻的抉择。
  • He gave a stark denial to the rumor.他对谣言加以完全的否认。
10 escalating 1b4e810e65548c7656e9ea468e403ca1     
v.(使)逐步升级( escalate的现在分词 );(使)逐步扩大;(使)更高;(使)更大
  • The cost of living is escalating. 生活费用在迅速上涨。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The cost of living is escalating in the country. 这个国家的生活费用在上涨。 来自辞典例句
11 retirement TWoxH     
  • She wanted to enjoy her retirement without being beset by financial worries.她想享受退休生活而不必为金钱担忧。
  • I have to put everything away for my retirement.我必须把一切都积蓄起来以便退休后用。
12 immediate aapxh     
  • His immediate neighbours felt it their duty to call.他的近邻认为他们有责任去拜访。
  • We declared ourselves for the immediate convocation of the meeting.我们主张立即召开这个会议。
13 vice NU0zQ     
  • He guarded himself against vice.他避免染上坏习惯。
  • They are sunk in the depth of vice.他们堕入了罪恶的深渊。
14 labor P9Tzs     
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
15 bolster ltOzK     
  • The high interest rates helped to bolster up the economy.高利率使经济更稳健。
  • He tried to bolster up their morale.他尽力鼓舞他们的士气。
16 migration mDpxj     
  • Swallows begin their migration south in autumn.燕子在秋季开始向南方迁移。
  • He described the vernal migration of birds in detail.他详细地描述了鸟的春季移居。
17 offset mIZx8     
  • Their wage increases would be offset by higher prices.他们增加的工资会被物价上涨所抵消。
  • He put up his prices to offset the increased cost of materials.他提高了售价以补偿材料成本的增加。
18 solvency twcw5     
  • Fears about the solvency of the banks precipitated the great economic crash.对银行偿付能力出现恐慌更加速了经济的崩溃。
  • Their targets,including profitability ratios,solvency ratios,asset management ratios.其指标包括盈利比率、偿债能力比率、资产管理比率。
19 detailed xuNzms     
  • He had made a detailed study of the terrain.他对地形作了缜密的研究。
  • A detailed list of our publications is available on request.我们的出版物有一份详细的目录备索。
20 makers 22a4efff03ac42c1785d09a48313d352     
  • The makers of the product assured us that there had been no sacrifice of quality. 这一产品的制造商向我们保证说他们没有牺牲质量。
  • The makers are about to launch out a new product. 制造商们马上要生产一种新产品。 来自《简明英汉词典》
TAG标签:   Population  Population
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