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VOA常速英语2018--鸣禽或可助人类攻克语言障碍

时间:2018-05-26 19:58来源:互联网 提供网友:nan   字体: [ ]
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

The tiny brain of this zebra finch1 may help scientists answer questions on how people form words to talk. Like humans songbirds learn to vocalize by imitation. We’re able to not only just study the mechanisms3 of how vocal2 learning works in these songbirds, but translate those findings to humans. And the reason why is because we discovered that songbirds and humans have what we called convergent4 brain pathways and genes5. That are specialized6 in them that you don’t find in things like chicken.

这只斑胸草雀的小脑袋瓜或许能助力科学家了解人类是如何组织并表达语言的。跟人类一样,鸣禽也是通过模仿来说话的。我们不仅能研究这些鸣禽的发声机制,还能将其为人类所用。原因是:我们发现,鸣禽和人类的脑回路和基因都是聚敛型的。这是鸣禽类特有的,鸡类就没有这个特点。

Researchers from Rockefeller University in New York are using laser capture microscopy,a method of isolating7 cells from microscopic8 regions of tissues and cells, to get an in-depth look at the songbirds brains. Those images are helping9 them understand how signals from the birds brains are similar to the process humans use when learning to talk. We find stuttering in songbirds, we can induce a Parkinson like conditioning then that causes stuttering. And then we can use that to figure out how to repair and then try to induce that in a brain like a human to see if we can repair those circuits.

来自纽约洛克菲勒大学的研究人员使用了激光捕获显微镜,这样就可以从显微镜下才能看见的组织和细胞中分离出细胞,从而深入研究鸣禽的大脑。这些图像帮助研究人员发现鸟类大脑的信号跟人类学习走路时发出的信号在哪些方面十分相似。我们发现鸣禽有结巴的现象后,就可以总结出一种类似于帕金森的情况,正是这种情况引发了口吃。接着,我们借此研究如何修复口吃问题,并试图在类似人脑的模型中找到修复脑回路的方法。

We’re also trying to figure out ways to engineer brain circuits in a species that doesn’t have that ability, to see if we can induce it or even enhance it. And if that works we can actually try to translate that to humans as well. Jarvis says it will take years before the findings may be used to treat human speech impediments. I’ve had this hypothesis for the last ten years of how to engineer these brain circuits and predict what kind of genes, we would find that has specialized in the brain of humans and songbirds. It took us, let’s say five to seven years, so I actually identified those genes. And I think it’s gonna take us another five to seven years to actually figure out how to manipulate them.

我们也在努力探索方法,以求在不具备这种能力的物种身上实现这种脑回路,看看能否找到办法,甚至加强这种脑回路。如果能成功的话,我们也可以将成功的模式套用在人类身上。贾维斯认为,要想将发现成功用于治疗人类语言障碍上,可能需要数年之久。过去十年来,我一直秉持着这种假说,试图找到构造脑回路并预测基因类型的方法,我们发现这种脑回路确实是人类和鸣禽特有的。我们花了大概5-7年左右的时间才确定这些基因的类型。我觉得还需要5-7年的时间才能真正搞清楚怎样控制这些基因。

Songbirds could provide a window to the origins of speech disorders10 caused by autism strokes and Parkinson’s disease.

鸣禽可以作为借鉴,让我们弄清楚语言障碍的原因,中风和帕金森症都可以引发语言障碍。


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1 finch TkRxS     
n.雀科鸣禽(如燕雀,金丝雀等)
参考例句:
  • This behaviour is commonly observed among several species of finch.这种行为常常可以在几种雀科鸣禽中看到。
  • In Australia,it is predominantly called the Gouldian Finch.在澳大利亚,它主要还是被称之为胡锦雀。
2 vocal vhOwA     
adj.直言不讳的;嗓音的;n.[pl.]声乐节目
参考例句:
  • The tongue is a vocal organ.舌头是一个发音器官。
  • Public opinion at last became vocal.终于舆论哗然。
3 mechanisms d0db71d70348ef1c49f05f59097917b8     
n.机械( mechanism的名词复数 );机械装置;[生物学] 机制;机械作用
参考例句:
  • The research will provide direct insight into molecular mechanisms. 这项研究将使人能够直接地了解分子的机理。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He explained how the two mechanisms worked. 他解释这两台机械装置是如何工作的。 来自《简明英汉词典》
4 convergent PZDyF     
adj.会聚的
参考例句:
  • A curved-inwards wall has a convergent effect on wall spray.凹型壁面对碰壁喷雾有聚集作用。
  • If a sequence is not convergent,it is divergent.如果一个序列不收敛,我们称它发散。
5 genes 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0     
n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
6 specialized Chuzwe     
adj.专门的,专业化的
参考例句:
  • There are many specialized agencies in the United Nations.联合国有许多专门机构。
  • These tools are very specialized.这些是专用工具。
7 isolating 44778bf8913bd1ed228a8571456b945b     
adj.孤立的,绝缘的v.使隔离( isolate的现在分词 );将…剔出(以便看清和单独处理);使(某物质、细胞等)分离;使离析
参考例句:
  • Colour filters are not very effective in isolating narrow spectral bands. 一些滤色片不能很有效地分离狭窄的光谱带。 来自辞典例句
  • This became known as the streak method for isolating bacteria. 这个方法以后就称为分离细菌的划线法。 来自辞典例句
8 microscopic nDrxq     
adj.微小的,细微的,极小的,显微的
参考例句:
  • It's impossible to read his microscopic handwriting.不可能看清他那极小的书写字迹。
  • A plant's lungs are the microscopic pores in its leaves.植物的肺就是其叶片上微细的气孔。
9 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
10 disorders 6e49dcafe3638183c823d3aa5b12b010     
n.混乱( disorder的名词复数 );凌乱;骚乱;(身心、机能)失调
参考例句:
  • Reports of anorexia and other eating disorders are on the increase. 据报告,厌食症和其他饮食方面的功能紊乱发生率正在不断增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The announcement led to violent civil disorders. 这项宣布引起剧烈的骚乱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
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TAG标签:   VOA英语  常速英语
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