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词性--副词

时间:2011-09-15 06:34来源:互联网 提供网友:nan   字体: [ ]
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副词:用来说明事情发生的时间、地点、原因、方式等含义或说明其它形容词或副词程度的词叫做副词。

1副词的分类(见下表)

频度副词

地点/方位副词

程度副词

方式副词

疑问/连接副词

其他副词

today, tomorrow,

once,

here, there,

very, too,

well,

how,

too, also,

yesterday, now,

twice,

home, below,

enough,

hard,

where,

nor, so, 

then, early, late,

always,

anywhere,

rather, quite,

alone,

when,

as, on,off,

once, soon, just,

usually,

above, outside,

how, so,

fast,

why,

either,

tonight, long,

often,

in, inside, out,

much, just,

together,

whether

yes, no,

already, yet, before,

sometimes,

back, up, down,

nearly, only

suddenly,

however, etc.

not, neither

ago, later, ever since

never,

away, off, far,

almost, hardly,

-ly结尾

关系副词

maybe,

after, whenever

(seldom),

near, nearby,

as long as,

的副词

where,

perhaps,

first, someday,

ever,

wherever

even, all,

 

why, how

certainly,

sometime, last,

 

everywhere,

a little, a bit

 

when,

 

2副词在句子中的位置以及作用

时间副词:一般放在句首或句尾,注意,earlylatebeforelateryet等一般放在句尾,alreadyjust一般放在动词的前面。如:We will visit the Great Wall tomorrow.(我们明天要去参观长城) / They have already been to the UK twice.(他们去过英王国两次) / Soon the lost boy found his way back home.(不久迷路的孩子找到了回家的路)

频度副词:一般放在be动词之后或者助动词与主要动词之间,sometimesoften等还可以放在句首或句尾,usually可放在句首,once可放在句尾,twicethree times等一般放在句尾。如:Sometimes I get up early.(我有时起得早)/ The workers usually have lunch at the factory.(工人们通常在厂里吃午饭) / Take this medicine twice a day.(这种药一天吃两次)

方式副词:一般放在行为动之后,suddenly可以放在句首、句尾或动词之前。如:Old people can hardly walk as quickly as young people.(老年人几乎不可能走得和年轻人一样快) / Suddenly he saw a light in the dark cave(山洞).(突然,在黑黢黢的山洞里,他看见了一丝亮光)

地点副词:一般放在句尾,herethere还可放在句首。如:There you can see thousands of bikes running in all directions(方向).(在那里,你可以看到成千上万的自行车朝各个方向流动) / The frightened wolf ran away.(受到惊吓的狼逃开了)/ He walked out quietly and turned back soon.(他悄悄地走了出去,很快又返回)

程度副词:修饰动词时,放在动词之前;修饰形容词或副词时,放在形容词或副词之前。但注意,enough总是放在被修饰的形容词或动词的后面;only位置比较灵活,总是放在被修饰的词的前面。如:I nearly forgot all about it if he did not tell me again.(如果他不再次告诉我,我几乎把那事全忘了) / It was so strange that I could hardly believe my ears.(它那么奇怪一直我都不能相信我的耳朵) / She got to the station early enough to catch the first bus.(她早早地赶到车站赶上了首班车)

疑问副词:用于对句子的状语进行提问,位置总是在句首。如:When and where were you born?(你何时何地出生?)/ Why did little Edison sit on some eggs?(小爱迪生为什么要坐在鸡蛋上?)/ How do you do?(你好!)

连接副词:用来引导主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句,在从句中作状语。How I am going to kill the cat is still a question.(我打算怎样杀死那只猫还是个问题)/ That is why everyone is afraid of the tiger.(那就是人人都害怕老虎的原因) / He wondered how he could do it the next day.(他不知道第二天怎样做那事)

关系副词:用来引导定语从句,在从句中作状语。如:This is the place where Mr Zhang once lived.(这就是先生曾经住过的地方)/ Please tell me the way how you have learned English so well.(请告诉我你的英语是怎样学得这么好的方法)

其它副词too“也”,用在句尾;also放在动词前;either也不”,放在句尾;nor“也不”,放在句首;so“如此,这样”,放在形容词、副词前;on/off“开/关”放在动词之后;not放在be之后、助动词之后、不定式或动名词之前;maybe/perhaps放在句首;certainly放在句首或动词之前。如:He went to the Palace Museum and I went there,too.(他去了故宫博物院,我也去了) / Maybe your ticket is in your inside pocket.(也许你的票就在你的里边衣袋里) / --Tom doesn’t have a computer. –Nor do I.(汤姆没有计算机,我也没有。) 

(2)作表语:地点副词一般可以作表语,放在be等连系动词之后,说明人物所处的位置。如:I’m very sorry he isn’t in at the moment.(很抱歉,他此刻不在家)/ I have been away from my hometown for nearly 20 years.(我离开家乡有将近20年了) / Jim is over there.(吉姆就在那边)

(3)作定语:时间副词(nowthen)以及许多地点副词都可以作名词的定语,放在名词的后面。如:People now often have their festival dinners at restaurants.(现在的人们经常在餐馆里吃节日晚宴) / Women there were living a terrible life in the 1920s.(在二十世纪20年代那儿的女人过着可怕的日子)

(4)作宾语补足语:地点副词一般可以作宾语补足语。如:Put your dirty socks away, Jim! They are giving out bad smell!(吉姆,把你的脏袜子拿开!它们在散发着臭气。) / Father kept him in and doing his lessons.(父亲把他关在家里做作业)

[注意] “动词+副词”的宾语如果是代词,则该副词应该放在代词之后。如:He wrote down the word.(他写下了那个词。)→He wrote it down.(他把它写了下来。)

3有关副词的重要注释:

as…as…常构成一些词组:as soon as…(一旦…), as well as…(同样), as+形容词/副词+as possible(尽可能……)。如:Please ring me up as soon as you get to Beijing.(请你一到北京就给我写信。)/ Miss Gao hurried to the school gate as quickly as possible.(小姐尽快地赶到了校门口。)

  [注释] as long / much as + 名词”可以表示“长达/多达”的含义。如:The house costs as much as five hundred thousand yuan.(那幢房子花费高达50万元)/ They stayed in the cave(山洞)as long as two weeks.(他们呆在山洞里长达两周)    

laterafteragobefore的用法:①“一段时间+later/ago”分别表示“(多久)以后/以前”,主要用于过去时态。②“after/before+某个时刻”分别表示“在某时刻之后/之前”,此时两个词是介词。③agobeforeago只能用于过去时,before用于完成时。如:He had an accident a week ago.(一周前出了一个事故)/ Some years later, the boy became a very famous singer.(数年后这个男孩成了著名的歌唱家)/ Have you been there before?(你从前到过那儿吗?)/ After a few years he gave up smoking.(过了几年他戒了烟。)

abovebelowoverunder的用法:在上下方用abovebelow,在高低处用overunder.如:The stars are high above in the sky.(星星高挂在空中) / A plane flew over quickly.(一架飞机从头顶飞过。)

abovebelowoverunder是介词性质时,意义相似。

tooalsoeithernor的用法:too(“也”)用于肯定句和疑问句的末尾,且用逗号隔开;also(“也”)用于肯定句句子谓语动词之前;either(“也”)用于否定句末尾,也用逗号隔开;nor(“也不”)用于倒装句句首;如:Are you American,too?(你也是美国人吗?)/ He is not happy and I am not happy, either.(他不愉快,我也不。) / He didn’t watch the football game. Nor did I.(他没有看足球赛,我也没有。)/ You can also find the market is very good.(你还可以发觉那个市场很好。)

enoughtoosoveryquitevery much的用法: enough (“足够,十分”)放在形容词或副词之后;too(“太”)very(“非常”)quite(“相当”)so(“如此地”)等放在形容词或副词之前,very much(“非常”)放在动词之后。如:It’s too/so/very/quite expensive.(它太贵/那么贵/非常贵/相当贵。)/ I don’t like sweets very much.(我不很喜欢糖果)

   [注意] very much的区别:very修饰形容词、副词的原级和现在分词形容词,much修饰形容词和副词的比较级;much还可以修饰疑问句和否定句中的动词,very不可以。如:He is very stupid.(他很笨)/ The film was very moving and everyone swept.(电影非常动人,大家都哭了)/ You must work much harder or you will fail to enter the good school.(你得学习更努力,不然你考不进那所好学校)/ I don’t like him much.(我不太喜欢他)

sometimes sometime some times some time的用法:sometimes(有时)用于一般现在时、 sometime(在将来某时)用于将来时、 some times(数次)表示次数、some time(一些时间)表示一段时间。如:Sometimes they go hiking in the mountains.(他们有时徒步旅行到山里去)/ I will stay here some time.(我会在这儿呆些时候的。)/ I will meet your father sometime.(我什么时候要见见你的父亲。)

howwhat用于感叹句的用法:对句子中的形容词或副词感叹时用how,对人或事物(可能含有形容词作修饰语)进行感叹用what. 如:What a fine day (it is) today!(今天天气真好!) / How difficult (the problem is)!((问题)真难呀!)

alreadyyet的用法:在完成时中,already一般用于肯定句,yet一般用于否定句和疑问句。如:Have you done it already?(你已经做好了?) / I have not had my breakfast yet.(我还没有吃早饭呢。)

hardhardly的用法:hard作为副词意思是:“努力地,猛烈地”,hardly是否定词,意思是:“几乎不”,一般与情态动词can/could连用。如:They study English very hard.(他们英语学得很刻苦)/ You can hardly see a person spit in a public place.(在公共场所你几乎看不到一个人随地吐痰)

like...very muchlike...better(=prefer)like...best的用法:三个短语分别表示“非常喜欢”、“更喜欢”、“最喜欢”。如:I like baseball very much.(我非常喜欢棒球)/ Do you like butter better than cheese?( / They like hamburgers best.

⑾“quite/what+a+形容词+名词的用法:记住:①quite/such/what...+a+形容词+名词;too/so/how+形容词+a+名词;rather+a+形容词+名词 = a+ rather+形容词+名词。如:I have never seen such a strange guy(家伙).(我从未见过这样奇怪的家伙) / It is quite a nice day for a walk.(这真是散步的好日子)

how 的几个短语:how often“多常,每隔多久”,用于一般时态,对表示频度的词语进行提问; how soon“多久以后”,用于将来时态; how long“多久”,用于过去时、完成时或其他时态; how many times“多少次”,用于过去时或完成时,对总计次数进行提问; how much“多么,多少”,对程度进行提问,也可以对数量(不可数)或金钱进行提问。如:How long have you been like this?(你这样已经多久了?)/ How often does he wash his face?(他每隔多久洗一次脸?)

muchmoremost的用法:这三个词除了是形容词作名词的修饰语之外,还是程度副词,much表示“很”,修饰原级形/,more表示“更”用来构成多音节形/副的比较级,most表示“最”用来构成多音节形/副的最高级。此外,much也可以修饰比较级形/副。如:This park is much more beautiful than that one.(这个公园比那个漂亮多了)/ It is the most instructive film I have ever seen.(这是我看过的最有教育意义的电影)

no moreno longernot...any moreno...any longer的用法:表示时间,可以用no longernot...ny moreno...any longer,而且no longer只能放在谓语动词之前;表示程度,可以用no morenot...any more.如:He no longer lived there.(他不再住在那里) / Tom wanted no more cakes.(他不想再要蛋糕) / He didn’ t smoke any more/longer.(他不再抽烟)

被动语态中,方式副词一般放在be与谓语动词之间。如: The runner was badly hurt.(赛跑运动员受了重伤) / English is widely spoken in the world today.(如今世界上英语说得很广泛)

too...to...so...that...的问题:副词too/so后面跟形容词或副词,to后面跟动词,that后面跟从句。Too...to... (“太.……以致不……)是否定的结构,用于简单句;so...that...(“如此以致)是肯定结构,用于复合句。如:The child is too young to join the army.(这孩子年龄太小还不能参军)/ He is so strong that he can lift the heavy box.(他这么强壮,搬得动那个重箱子。)

既是形容词也是副词的单词有:early, late, long, last, next, first, near, enough, much, all, hard, alone, fast, slow, high, low, straight等等。如:It was a long holiday.(那是个长假)/ He stayed there very long.(他在那儿呆了好久)/ Think hard then you will find a way.(好好想你就会找到办法)/ He is a very hard(难对付的) person.(他是个难玩的家伙)

fartherfurther的用法区别:表示地点、方向或距离时两个词同义,意思为“更远、较远”,但是further还表示“更多、进一步、额外”等意思,此时不能换为farther. 如:They decided to go farther/further the next day.(他们决定第二天走得再远些)/ This problem will be further discussed.(这个问题还要进一步讨论)/ Every one of them had their further studies after they left college.(他们每个人大学毕业后继续进修)

ratherquite的用法区别:同very一样,两个词都表示形容词或副词的程度,quite表示“不到最高程度但是比预料的好”,ratherquite更接近very的含义,含有令人惊讶的意思。见下图对“nice”程度的描绘:

      not nice       (fairly) nice        quite nice          rather nice       very nice

                

    如:It’s quite a nice film.(这是部好片子)(可能意味着不是一部最好的电影) / It’s rather a nice film.(这是部很不错的电影。)(意味着比大多数电影都好)

    [注意]注意quiterather后面的次序词序。

maybepossiblyperhaps的区别:maybe“可能、也许”,比另外两个词更不正式、更随便、可能性不大;possibly“可能地、或者、也许”,可能性较大,在否定句和疑问句中表示“无论如何”;perhaps“可能”,较为常用而且正式,可能性也不大。如:You could put it over there,maybe.(也许你可以把它放在那边) / I couldn’t possibly have finished such a long book in such a short time.(我不可能在这么短的时间内完成这么长的一本书)/ I thought perhaps it was the letter you have been expecting.(我以为那也许就是你期盼的信件)

(21) mostmostly的区别:most作为形容词和名词时意思是“大多数的、大部分的”,作为副词时意思为“最,十分、很”;mostly仅为副词,意思为“主要地、多半地、大部分地”。如:I was at home most of the time when I was free.(我有空时大部分时间都在家)Most children are naughty.(大部分的孩子都淘气)/ This is the most exciting part of the film.(这是电影中最令人兴奋的部分)/She is mostly out on Sundays.(星期天她一般不在家)

(22) (be) worth(be) worthy of的区别:worth一般被看作是介词,后面接名词或者动名词,用主动表示被动含义,还可以用副词well修饰;worthy of表示“值得的、配得上的”,后面跟动名词的被动形式。如:What is worth doing at all is worth doing well(凡是值得做的,就值得好好去做). / The house is worth 300,000.(房子价值30万元)/ This book is well worth reading several times.(这本书值得好好读几遍)/ It is a thing worthy of being seen.(这是一个值得看的东西) 

(23)almostnearly的区别:两个词意思相近,都表示“几乎、将近”,大多数情况下可以互换,与否定词连用时用almost不用nearly. almost no 相当于hardly any(几乎没有)。如:He had done almost nothing today.(他今天几乎没有干什么) / We are almost/nearly there.(我们几乎就到那里了)/ Almost nobody/Hardly anybody understood his words.(几乎没有人懂他的话)

(24) a bita little的区别:这两个名词短语经常当作副词使用,修饰形容词或副词的原级或比较级,可以互换,语气比rather弱。如:This digital camera is a bit(a little) expensive.(这台数码相机有点贵)/ It is a little(a bit) colder than yesterday.(今天比昨天冷了点)

  另外,a little可以直接加不可数名词,a bit 则采用“a bit + of +名词(不可数或可数名词复数)”的形式。如:I have got a bit of a cold.(我有点感冒)/ Go and get a little water for me, please.(请你去给我搞点水来)

 [注意] not a bit(=not at all)意为“根本不”, not a little则意为“非常,不是一点”。

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