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词性--介词

时间:2011-09-15 06:37来源:互联网 提供网友:nan   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

介词(prep.): 表示它后面的名词或代词与其他句子成分的关系。如in, on, from, above, behind

 

1、介词的主要用法:

介词是一种虚词,不能独立使用。介词之后一般有名词或代词(宾格)或相当于名词的其他词类、短语或从句作它的宾语,即构成介词短语。有些介词是由两个以上的词构成的短语介词,如:out of(中出来), because of(因为), away from(距离…), on top of(顶上), ever1 since2(自从…), next to(隔壁), according3 to(根据…), in front of(前方)等。

2、介词的分类表: (见下表)

   地点(位置、范围)介词above, about附近, across4对面, after后面, against5倚着..., along6近旁, among中间, around周围, round….周围,  at, before..., behind..., below7低于..., beside...旁边, between...之间, by..., down...下面, from来自..., in...里面, inside8...里面, near靠近..., of...之中, on...上面, out of...之外, outside....外面, over....上方, under...下方, up...上面,  on top of...顶部,   in front of...,  close to靠近..., in the middle of...的中间, at the end of...的末端,等等。

    方向(目标趋向)介词across横越..., against对抗..., along沿着..., around绕着..., round环绕..., at朝着..., behind后面, etween…and…...,by路过/通过..., down, for..., from/..., in进入..., into进入..., inside...里面, near接近..., off脱离/..., on..., out of..., outside...., over跨过..., past经过/超过..., through穿过..., to/..., towards10朝着..., on to...上面, onto11...上面, up..., away from远离...

    时间介词about大约..., after以后, at… (时刻), before以前, by为止, during期间, for…(之久), from…(), in(/下午);(多久)以后, on(某日), past过了…(), since自从…(至今), through 贯穿…(期间), till直到, until直到, to(下一时刻), ever since从那时起至今,at the beginning12 of...开始时 ,at the end of... , in the middle of...当中 ,at the time of...

    方式介词as9作为/当作..., by//乘坐/..., in…(语言),  like一样, on()/(),通过(收音机/电视机), over通过(收音机), through通过..., with(材料),(///), without没有

    涉及介词: about关于..., except13除了…, besides14除了... for对于/而言, in…(方面), of…,有关..., on关于/有关..., to而言, towards针对..., with而言

    其它介词:

【目的介词】 for为了...,  from防止…,  to为了      

【原因介词】 for因为...,  with由于…,  because of因为...               

【比较介词】 as一样,like一样,than...,to相比, unlike不同

【伴随/状态介词】 against一起(比赛),at(上班/休息/上学/,etc.),in穿着…(衣服/颜色),into变成...,on(值日), with一起,/带着/长着..., without没有//不与一起

3、介词短语的句法作用:

介词短语相当于一个形容词或副词,可用作状语、定语和表语。如:The man came15 <down the stairs>.()(那个人走下楼来)/The woman <with a flower on her head> is from the countryside16.()(头上戴花的妇女来自乡下)/The teacher is now with the pupils.()(老师现在和学生在一起)

4介词短语在句子中的位置:

   介词短语做状语时,如果表示时间/地点,可以放在句首或句尾,如果表示方向/方式/伴随/涉及/原因/目的/比较,一般放在句尾; 介词短语作表语时放在连系动词之后;介词短语作定语时,只能放在被修饰的名词之后。如:He wanted to find a good job in Shanghai  the next year.(状语)(他想来年在上海找份好工作)/ They searched17 the room for the thief18.(他们在房间里搜索小偷) / The letters are for you.(表语)(信是给你的)/ Have you seen19 a cat with a black head and four white legs?(定语)(你看见一只黑头白腿的猫了吗?)

5、重要注释:

this / that / these / those / last / next / a / every / each等词构成的时间短语,前面不用任何介词。如:Every year travellers20 from abroad21 come to visit Pingyao.(每年都有国外的游客来游览平窑镇)/ He had22 a bad cold that week.(那个星期他患重感冒)

for有时用来引出动词不定式的逻辑主语,常翻译成“对于而言”。如:It’s too hard for me to finish the work in only one hour.(让我在区区一个小时内完成这项工作太难了)/ The house is big enough for 10 men to live in.(房子够大的可以容10个人住)

of有时用来表示后面的人物正好是前面的表语的逻辑主语。如:It’s very nice/kind of you to do so.(你这么做真是太好了)

介词有时会与它的宾语分离,而且宾语前置。

   当宾语是疑问词时。Who are you talking about?(你们在谈论谁?)

   宾语在从句中当连接词时。He has a younger23 brother who he must take good care24 of.(他有     一个需要他照顾的小弟。) / Do you know who our teacher is talking with over there?(你知道我们的老师在那边和什么人谈话吗?)

动词不定式作定语且该动词为不及物动词,后面有介词。I finally26 found27 a chair to sit on.(   最终找到了一张椅子坐。)

   (5) 记住一些固定词组:arrive at/in(到达…),on foot(步行),not…at all(根本不),to the north of(以北),in the east of(的东部),in the night(在夜间),at night(在晚上),be afraid of(害怕…),be full of(充满/ 装满….),be filled28 with(充满/ 装满….),be good/bad for(有益/有害),be made29 of(做成),be made from(制造),play with(玩耍……),look out of(外面看),at the end of(末梢/结束时),by the end of(不迟于…/末为止),with the help ofwith one’s help(的帮助下),look after(照料…),look for(寻找…),on a bike(=by bike)骑车, help sb. with(帮某人做…),get on (well) with(与某人相处[融洽]),等等。

6、某些介词的用法辨析:

  时间或地点介词inonat的用法区别:表示时间时, in表示在一段时间里(在将来时句子中则表示在一段时间之后), on表示在具体的某一天或者某天的上下午等, at表示在某个时刻或者瞬间;  表示地点时, in表示在某个范围之内, on表示在某个平面上或与一个面相接触,at则表示在某个具体的场所或地点。如:He was30 born31 on the morning of May 10th.(他出生于五月十日的早晨)/ I usually get up at 700 in the morning.(我通常在早上的七点钟起床) / His glasses are right on his nose.(他的眼镜就架在他的鼻子上)/ He is at the cinema at the moment.(此刻他正在电影院)

afterin表示时间的用法区别:“after+(具体时刻/从句)”表示“在时刻之后”常用于一般时态;“in+(一段时间)”表示“在(多久)之后”,常用于将来时态。如:He said32 that he would33 be here after 600.(他说他六点钟之后会来这儿)/ My father is coming back from England in about a month.(我父亲大约一个月以后从英国回来)

sincefor表示时间的用法区别:“since+(具体时刻/that-从句)”表示“自从起一直到现在”,for +(一段斶间)”表示“总共有之久”,都常用于完成时态;如:Uncle Li has worked in this factory since 1970.(李叔叔自从1970年起就在这家工厂工作了)/ Uncle Li has worked in this factory for over 30 years. (李叔叔在这家工厂已经工作了30多年)

byinwith表示方式的用法区别:都可以表示“工具、手段”,但是by主要表示“乘坐”某个交通工具或“以……方式”,在被动句中可以表示动作的执行者;in表示“使用”某种语言/文字,with表示“使用”某个具体的工具、手段。如:We see with our eyes and walk with our feet.(我们用眼睛看东西,用双脚走路)/ Please write that article(文章) in English.(请你用英语写那篇文章)/ Let’s go to the zoo by taxi.(我们打的去动物园吧。)/ It was written by Lao She.(那是老舍写的)

abouton的用法区别:都可以表示“有关,但是about的意义比较广,on主要表示“有关…(专题/课程)”。如:Tom is going34 to give a talk on the history of America.(汤姆要作一个美国历史的报告)/ They are very excited35 talking about the coming field36 trip.(他们兴致勃勃地谈论着即将来到的野外旅游)

throughacrossover的用法区别: through指“穿过…(门洞/人群/树林)”; acrossover可以指“跨越…(街道/河流),可互换,但是表示“翻过”时只能用over. 如:Just then a rat37 ()ran across the road.(就在那时一只老鼠跑过路面)/ There is a bridge38 across/over the river.(河上有座桥)/ They climbed over the mountain and arrived there ahead39 of time.(他们翻过大山提前到达了那里)/ The visitors40 went through a big gate into another park.(参观者们穿过一个大门来到另一个公园)

(7)aslike的区别:两个词都表示“像……,但是as译为“作为……,表示的是职业、职务、作用等事实,like译为“像……一样”,表示外表,不是事实。如:Let me speak to you as a father.(我以父亲的身份和你讲话。)(说话者是听者的父亲) / Let me speak to you like a father.(让我像一位父亲一样和你讲话)(说话者不是听者的父亲)

(8)at the end ofby the end ofto the endin the end的用法区别:at the end of…既可以表示时间也可以表示地点,译为“在末;在尽头”,常与过去时连用;by the end of…只能表示时间,译为“在前;到为止”,常用于过去完成时; in the endat last基本等义,表示“终于、最后”,通常用于过去时;to the end译为“到的终点为止”,前面往往有表示运动或连续性的动词。如:By the end of last term we had learned41 16 units42 of Book III.(到上学期期末我们已经学习了第三册16个单元)/ At the end of the road you can find a big white house with brown windows.(在路的尽头你能找到一幢有棕色窗户的白房子)/ They left for Beijing at the end of last week.(上周末他们动身去了北京)/ In the end he succeeded43 in the final25 exams44.(他最终在期末考试中考及格了)/ We should go on with the work to the end.(我们应该把工作干到底)/ Follow this road to the end and you will see a post office.(沿这条路走到底就能看见一家邮电局)

(9)for a momentfor the momentin a momentat the moment的区别:for a moment“一会儿、片刻”(=for a while),常与持续性动词连用;for the moment“暂时、目前”,常用于现在时;in a moment“一会儿、立即、马上”(=soon; in a few45 minutes),一般用于将来时;at the moment“此刻,眼下”(=now),用于现在进行时。如:Please wait for a moment.(请稍等)/ Let’s leave things as they are for the moment.(暂时就维持现状吧!) / I’ll come back in a moment.(我过会儿回来)/ I am very busy at the moment.(眼下我很忙)

(10)but的问题:用介词but引出另一个动词时,要注意:如果前面有do,后面就用原形动词,前面没有do,后面的动词要加to。如:I could46 do nothing but wait.(我什么也做不了只能等) / They had no choice(选择) but to fight47.(他们没有选择只有战斗)

(11)in front of in the front of in front of“在的前面”, in the front of“在的前部”。如:A car was parking48 in front of the hall.(大厅跟前停着一辆汽车)/ In the front of the hall stood49 a big desk.(大厅前部立着一个大讲台)

(12)exceptbesides的区别:except“除了”,表示排除掉某人物,即不包含;而besides“除了”则表示包含,即“不仅…………”。如:Everyone went to the Palace50 Museum except Tom.(除了Tom,大家都去了故宫博物院)(Tom没有去故宫)/ Besides Chinese he also studied many other subjects.(除了汉语之外,他还学其他许多功课)(“汉语”也是他学的功课之一)

 


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 ever ZijzR     
adv.曾经;永远;不断地;在任何时候;究竟
参考例句:
  • Have you ever been to hangzhou?你曾经去过杭州吗?
  • I will be young and strong and beautiful for ever.我将永远年轻、强壮,永远漂亮。
2 since syswX     
adv.后来;conj.既然,因为,自从;prep.自从
参考例句:
  • He's been working in a bank since leaving school.自从毕业后,他就一直在一家银行工作。
  • I have known him ever since I was a child.我自孩提时代起就已经认识他了。
3 according YzQztq     
adj.按照,根据
参考例句:
  • According to the Bible we are all the seed of Adam.根据《圣经》所说的,我们都是亚当的后裔。
  • We must cut our coat according to our cloth this year.今年我们必须学会量入为出。
4 across JJGy1     
adv.横过,使...被理解(或接受);prep.穿过,横过
参考例句:
  • He walked across the road carefully.他小心地过马路。
  • You can go across the bridge.你可以越过这座桥。
5 against HKsy2     
prep.与…对抗;对着
参考例句:
  • You're against the traffic rules.你违反了交通规则。
  • Are you for or against?你是赞成还是反对?
6 along 6L6ym     
adv.一道,一起;prep.沿着,顺着
参考例句:
  • Would you like to come along?你想一起去吗?
  • They walked slowly along the road.他们沿着公路慢慢走。
7 below xQKy2     
prep./adv.在……的下面;低于……
参考例句:
  • I looked down at the hall below.我瞧了瞧下面的大厅。
  • The temperature is below zero.温度在零度以下。
8 inside MxDyi     
n.内部,内脏,内幕;adj.内部的,秘密的,户内的;prep.在...之内
参考例句:
  • Two minutes later we were inside the taxi.两分钟以后我们已经坐在出租车里面了。
  • He will be back inside two days.他将在两天内回来。
9 as pNiyL     
conj.按照;如同
参考例句:
  • He got work in a hotel as a waiter.他在一家旅馆找到了当服务生的工作。
  • In the hotel,the old men were drinking away as usual.在旅馆里,这些老人和往常一样喝个不停。
10 towards AnSwe     
prep.朝,向,致力于,有助于,对于;大约,将近
参考例句:
  • The house will be ready towards the end of the year.这房子在年底以前可以造好。
  • He is friendly towards me.他对我友好。
11 onto SIyxG     
prep.到…之上;向…之上
参考例句:
  • The cat jumped onto the chair.猫跳到椅子上。
  • He threw himself onto the sofa.他猛然坐到沙发上。
12 beginning 2NFzJ     
n.开始的部分;起点
参考例句:
  • This is only the beginning.这仅仅是开始。
  • Children should form good habits from the very beginning.孩子们从一开始就应养成良好的习惯。
13 except Wn2xN     
v.除,除外,反对;prep.除了...之外,若不是,除非
参考例句:
  • Everybody is here except tom.除了汤姆大家都到了。
  • He never came except when he was in trouble. 除非有了困难,他从来不到这里来。
14 besides jQsyH     
adv.此外;并且;prep.于…之外;除…以外
参考例句:
  • He had other people to take care of besides me.除了我以外,他还需要照料其他人。
  • Besides English, he has to study German and French.除英语外,他还要学德语和法语。
15 came xTYyl     
v.动词come的过去式
参考例句:
  • I was surprised why he came here so early.他为什么那么早到这里,我很惊奇。
  • The doctor came in time to save his life.医生及时来抢救他的生命。
16 countryside ozJx7     
n.乡下;农村
参考例句:
  • He's just come from the countryside.他刚从乡下来。
  • He's going to work in the countryside.他将要到农村去工作。
17 searched 8ae282bece4a312bbc5595c60eedc0e6     
v.找寻( search的过去式和过去分词 );搜查;探查;[医学](用仪器)探测(外伤)
参考例句:
  • Police frogmen searched the lake for the murder weapon. 警方的蛙人搜索这个湖,寻找谋杀凶器。
  • We searched until we knew it would be pointless to continue. 我们搜索又搜索,直到觉得继续下去也枉然时才罢手。
18 thief CoWwk     
n.贼;小偷
参考例句:
  • He saw the thief running away.他看见贼逃走了。
  • The thief broke the window and got into the house.那个窃贼打破窗子,进入屋内。
19 seen ujyzZX     
vbl.(see的过去分词)看见
参考例句:
  • Since I left college, I have not seen him.自从我离开大学以后,就没有见过他了。
  • I hope to have seen the film next week.我希望下星期能看到这部电影。
20 travellers 1864e7f39b51167cbde73f11876b0286     
n.旅行者( traveller的名词复数 );旅游者;旅客;游客
参考例句:
  • The unusually heavy rainfall was an ill omen for the travellers. 异乎寻常的大雨是旅行者的不祥之兆。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The travellers looked weather-beaten, there was little spit and polish. 旅客们满面风尘,仪容不整。 来自《简明英汉词典》
21 abroad fI1yI     
adj.在国外,海外(一般作表语);adv.到国外,在国外
参考例句:
  • I just got back from abroad.我刚从国外回来。
  • He goes abroad every year.他每年都到国外去。
22 had FeBxb     
vbl.have的过去式和过去分词;conj.有
参考例句:
  • I just had a good idea!我有个好主意!
  • The boy had a small branch of a tree in his hand.这个男孩手上拿一条小树枝。
23 younger xfnwQ     
adj.年轻的;n.年纪较小的人
参考例句:
  • My younger brother hides behind the door. 我弟弟躲在门后。
  • She is older than me but my other sisters are younger. 她比我大,其余都是我妹妹。
24 care FTYyC     
n.小心,照料,忧虑;v.关心,照顾,喜爱,介意
参考例句:
  • I really care about the students in my class.我的确喜欢这个班上的学生。
  • Her work is to take care of the children.她的工作是照料好孩子。
25 final 7kCxP     
adj.最后的;n.决赛
参考例句:
  • Is this your final decision?这是你们最终决定吗?
  • The father had the final say.父亲有最后的决定权。
26 finally SkDxQ     
adv.最后地;最终
参考例句:
  • We can finally take a rest.总算是可以休息了。
  • Finally,they won the game.结果他们打赢了。
27 found 8i5xD     
v.建立,创立,创办;vbl.(find的过去分词)找到
参考例句:
  • I found him at home.我发现他在家。
  • The United Nations was found in 1945.联合国于1945年成立。
28 filled mt0zUM     
adj.满的;填满的;充气的;加载的v.(使)充满, (使)装满,填满( fill的过去式和过去分词 );满足;配药;(按订单)供应
参考例句:
  • He was filled with anger at the way he had been treated. 他因遭受如此待遇而怒火满腔。
  • two wine glasses, filled to the brim 两只斟满的酒杯
29 made hAgx2     
v.make的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • They were not made in china.它们不是中国制造的。
  • The monkey made a long arm for the peach.猴子伸臂去摘桃子。
30 was bglwv     
v.(is,am的过去式)是,在
参考例句:
  • He said he was right.他说他是正确的。
  • He was cold and hungry.他又冷又饿。
31 born 8xkzhH     
v.动词bear的过去分词;adj.出生的,与生俱来的
参考例句:
  • The baby can cry as soon as he is born.婴儿生下来就会哭。
  • I feel as if I had been born again.我有一种再生之感。
32 said IYtxh     
v.动词say的过去式、过去分词
参考例句:
  • He said to me that he could not come.他对我说他不能来。
  • He said to his mother that he would do it by himself.他对他的母亲说他将自己独立做那件事。
33 would 8fPwB     
aux.will的过去式;愿,要;常常;大概;将要,会
参考例句:
  • Why would you say that?为什么你会这么说?
  • Would you please help me?你能帮帮我吗?
34 going dsHzY9     
n.去,离去,地面(或道路)的状况,工作情况;(复数形式)goings: 行为;adj.进行中的,流行的,现存的
参考例句:
  • We're going to listen to a report this afternoon. 今天下午我们要去听报告。
  • He hates leaving the office and going on holiday.他不愿离开办公室去度假。
35 excited Uthz63     
adj.激动的;兴奋的
参考例句:
  • He was so excited that he could not speak.他太兴奋,连话都说不出来了。
  • The excited children forgot to take the presents to the party.孩子们兴奋得忘了把礼物带到聚会上了。
36 field qksxD     
adj.野外;n.地,田地
参考例句:
  • Go into the field and clear those boys off.到田里去把那些男孩赶走。
  • He is going across the field.他正穿越田野。
37 rat pTwx1     
n.鼠,卑鄙的人,变节者;vi.背叛,捕鼠;vt.弄蓬松,告发
参考例句:
  • The rat is hated by many people.老鼠被很多人憎恶。
  • He stopped up the rat holes.他塞住了那些老鼠洞。
38 bridge kSkyp     
n.桥,鼻梁,桥牌;vt.渡过,架桥
参考例句:
  • There are two bookshops near the bridge.大桥附近有两家书店。
  • I am strange at bridge.我对桥牌是外行。
39 ahead fKhyM     
adv.在前,向前,提前,在前面
参考例句:
  • We have to go ahead to find a garage.我们得到前边找个修车厂。
  • Youth looks ahead and age backward.青年人向前看,老年人向后看。
40 visitors f24d2cc05ca7eaa87d0959ea3f5ddfb2     
n.访问者( visitor的名词复数 );参观者;游客;候鸟
参考例句:
  • a constant stream of visitors all day 整天络绎不绝的游客
  • The composer was one of many illustrious visitors to the town. 那位作曲家是许多造访过这个城市的杰出人物之一。
41 learned m1oxn     
adj.有学问的,博学的;learn的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • He went into a rage when he learned about it.他听到这事后勃然大怒。
  • In this little village,he passed for a learned man.在这个小村子里,他被视为有学问的人。
42 units b98b3dfbd27e710e6c3ceeae58770b52     
n.单位;[药剂学](药物、疫苗、血清、抗原等的)单位( unit的名词复数 );装置;一件(商品);(栋公寓大楼中的一套公寓)单元
参考例句:
  • cheap self-assembly kitchen units 廉价的自己组装的厨房设备
  • There's no justification for dividing the company into smaller units. 没有理由把公司划分成小单位。 来自《简明英汉词典》
43 succeeded 9b1751bd331d17d4f91c2c61c1d43560     
v.成功( succeed的过去式和过去分词 );完成;继承;达到目的
参考例句:
  • Demonstrators succeeded in disrupting the meeting. 示威者成功地扰乱了会议。
  • He succeeded in propelling the ball across the line. 他成功地把球带过线。
44 exams 66cc5c978a5d856f82819a8b397fc04b     
abbr.examinations 考试n.考试( exam的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • I made a real balls-up of my exams. 我考试考得一塌糊涂。
  • Jake's passed his exams. We're going out to celebrate. 杰克已通过考试,我们要外出庆祝一下。
45 few kk0x2     
adj.很少的,不多的,少数的;int.少数的
参考例句:
  • There are few woods in that area.那个地区几乎没有森林。
  • I have a few questions.我有些问题要问你。
46 could lzvxe     
v.能,可能(can的过去式);aux.v.(can的过去式)能;可以
参考例句:
  • Could I open the window?我可以打开窗子吗?
  • I could wait ten minutes.我可以等十分钟。
47 fight Ok0xH     
n.打架,战斗,斗志;v.对抗,打架
参考例句:
  • We are ready to fight again.我们再度准备好战斗。
  • I'll fight with you.我会和你并肩作战。
48 parking EmKzN3     
n.停车,停机,停放
参考例句:
  • A bus is parking on the road.路上停着一辆公共汽车。
  • Next you must learn how to back a car into a parking space.下一步你应该学会如何把车倒入停车的空地。
49 stood AuEwX     
vbl.stand的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • She stood up when they came in.当他们进来时,她站了起来。
  • The child stood by the side of his mother.孩子站在母亲身边。
50 palace 7Kox2     
n.皇宫;官殿;豪华大厦
参考例句:
  • It is really a magic palace!那真是一个有魔力的宫殿!
  • What a palace this was!这里可真像皇宫啊!
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