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时间:2009-11-18 01:20来源:互联网 提供网友:hanlong   字体: [ ]
[00:04.60]How Dictionaries Are Made
[00:08.54]It is widely believed that everyword has a correct meaning,
[00:15.78]that we learn these meanings mainly from teachers and grammarians and
[00:22.83] that dictionaries and grammarsare the supreme1 authority
[00:28.89]in matters of meaning and usage.
[00:33.46]Few people ask by what authority the writers of dictionariesand grammars say what they say,
[00:43.13]I once got into a dispute with an English womanover the pronunciation of a word andn
[00:52.06] offered to look it up in the dictionary.
[00:56.42]The English woman said firmly,"What for? I am English.
[01:04.37]I was born and brought up in England.
[01:09.12]The way I speak is English,"
[01:13.77]Such self-assurance about one's own language
[01:19.54]is fairlycommon among the English.
[01:24.40]In the United States,however,
[01:29.36]anyone who is willing to quarrel with the dictionary
[01:35.01]is regarded as either eccentric or mad.
[01:41.20]Let us see how dictionaries are made  and how the editors arrive at definitions.
[01:50.03]What follows applies only to those dictionary offices where first-hand
[01:58.28]original research goes on--
[02:02.64]not those in which editors simply copy existing dictionaries.
[02:10.09]The task of writing a dictionary
[02:15.13]begins with the reading of vast amounts of the literature of the period
[02:22.99]or subject that the dictionary is to cover.
[02:28.35]As the editors read,they copy on cards every interesting or rare word,
[02:37.70]every unusual or peculiar2 occurrence of a common word,
[02:44.86]a large numher of common words in their ordinary uses,
[02:52.41]and also the sentences in which each of these words appears.
[03:00.35]That is to say,the context of each wordis connected along with the word itself.
[03:10.69]For a really big job of dictionary writing,
[03:17.25]such as the Oxford3 English Dictionary,millions of such cards are collected,
[03:25.79]and the task of editing occupies decades.
[03:32.14]As the cards are collected, they are alphabetized and sorted.
[03:35.56]卡片收集好之后, 要把它们按字母排序和整理.
[03:38.98]When the sorting is completed, there will be for each word
[03:45.65]anywhere from two or three to several hundred quotations,each on its card.
[03:50.62]每个词可有从两 三条到几百条引文作为例句,每条都写在一张卡片上.
[03:55.60]To define a word, then,
[03:59.57]the dictionary editor placesbefore him the stack of cardsillustrating that word;
[04:08.11]each of the cards represents an actual use of the word
[04:15.76]by a writer of some literary ox historical importance. [04:19.24]重要的作家对该词的一种实际用法.
[04:22.71]He reads the cards carefully, discards some, re-reads the rest,
[04:31.18]and divides up the stack according to what he thinks  are the several senses of the word.
[04:35.57]有些就废弃 不用了,
[04:39.95]Finally, he writes his definitions,
[04:46.41] followlng the hard-and-fast rule that each definition must be based on what
[04:54.56]the quotationsin front of him reveal about the meaning of the word.
[05:02.21]The editor cannot be influenced by what he thinks a given word ought to mean[05:06.14]编辑不能受到他自己认为某个词应是什么词义的影响.
[05:10.07]He must work according to the cards, or not at all
[05:15.53]The writing of a dictionary, therefore,is not a task of setting up authoritative4 statements
[05:24.00]about the "true meanings" of words,
[05:29.25]but a task of recording5, to the best of one' s ability,
[05:36.22]what various words have meant to authors in the distant or immediate6 past.
[05:45.29]If, for example, we had been writing a dictionary in 1890
[05:52.34]or even as late as 1919,
[05:58.40]we could have said that the word "broadcast"means "
[06:02.03]我们可以说," broadcast "一词的词义是"散播,撒播"
[06:05.66]to scatter7" (seed, for example),
[06:10.52]but we could not have stated that from 1921 on,
[06:18.57]the most common meaning of the word should become
[06:24.44]"to send out programs by radio or television."
[06:30.97]In choosing our words when we speak or write,
[06:36.41]we can be guided by the historical record provided us by the dictionary
[06:43.36]but we cannot be bound by it, because new situations,
[06:49.91]new experiences,new inventions,new feelings,are always forcing us to give new uses to old words.
[07:00.36]looking under a "hood8,"
[07:04.20]we should ordinarily, have foundfive hundred years ago, a monk;
[07:07.43]500年前,如果我们朝" hood"下看去,我们一般会看到一个修道士;
[07:10.65]today, we find a car engine.
[07:12.88]而今在" hood"下面看到的却是一台汽车发动机.
[07:15.10]Text B
[07:17.94]Reading Provides Necessary Survival Skills
[07:23.30]With the coming of the television age
[07:27.14]and the increasing emphasis on pictures and sound in all quartets of our society,
[07:34.01]many people would have us believe
[07:37.56]that we are moving rapidly away from reading as a necessary life skill.
[07:43.49]But this is not the case at all.
[07:45.16]但情况完全不是这 样。
[07:46.83]Good reading is a more important life skill than ever before
[07:52.71]and the printed word continues to be the cornerstone
[07:57.68]of both higher education
[08:01.44]and better positions in the job market.
[08:05.38]For students, almost all studying involves reading.
[08:10.63]For adults,reading is day to day,
[08:15.39]either a stumbling blockor a smooth path to pleasure and opportunity.
[08:22.15]This is why good reading habits are not only an important study skillfor the student, [08:25.39]这就是为什么好的阅读习惯不仅是学生的重要学习技能,
[08:28.63]but also an important life skill for anyone.
[08:33.38]SCANNING-You can get a good idea about the material
[08:39.84]by taking a few moments right off to read the title,
[08:45.19]chapter headings,section titles and headlines.
[08:51.07]The purpose of scanning
[08:54.23]is to get a quick understanding of what to expect from the reading,
[09:00.40]so that you will know what you are reading as you go along.
[09:05.57]Maps, charts, graphs and pictures are clues that will help the reader
[09:13.51]to cue in on the content and organization of the material.
[09:19.75]This simple technique of scanning
[09:23.51]can help you read for ideas[09:25.39]能够帮助你获取大意,
[09:27.28]because you will know ,where you are going when you begin to read.
[09:32.92]READING SPEED--Another good reading habit is reading fast.
[09:39.16]The expression "haste makes waste" does not apply to reading.
[09:45.64]In fact, most people read much too slowly.
[09:50.99]Right now you are probably reading this slower than you need
[09:56.64]for good comprehension.
[09:58.41]所需 要的速度要慢.
[10:00.19]Studies show that fast readers are the best readers,
[10:05.54]and that slow readers
[10:08.71]often lose their concentrationand comprehension abilities
[10:14.06]because their minds will wander our of boredom9.
[10:19.02]Remember, nothing hurts concentration more than reading too slowly.
[10:25.79]Your mind will keep up with your reading speed if you ask it to.
[10:31.67]By always reading at your top speed, you challenge your understanding
[10:37.91]and make it easier for your mind to concentrate on the material.
[10:47.24]For a person with good reading habits,
[10:51.18]a printed page contains not onlywords but ideas,
[10:56.64]actions,thoughts and feelings.
[11:01.39]But all these things are built on words.
[11:05.84]The more words you are familiar with,
[11:09.60]the less you are aware of reading words
[11:13.72]and the more you are aware of content and meaning.
[11:19.08]Expanding your vocabulary
[11:22.92]will help you to read more effectively and rapidly
[11:27.65]Many people simply skip over words they do not understand.
[11:33.32]This, naturally, hurts their overall comprehension.
[11:38.78]Other people stop at each new word and look it up in the dictionary
[11:44.10]but this method can slow down your reading
[11:48.55]affecting concentration and comprehension.
[11:53.20]But you can build your vocabulary without using a dictionary each time. [11:55.98]不过你可以扩大你的词汇而不每次都查词典.
[11:58.76]Here are two roles:
[12:01.92]1. Pause for a moment on each new word and let it register in your mind.
[12:09.78]2. Try to guess what the word means from context clues,
[12:16.86]from the words around it.What happens with this method
[12:22.50] is that you will see the word again and again
[12:26.87]Each time you will have a stronger impression of the meaning.
[12:32.14]Soon, the new word will be familiar and its meaning clear.
[12:38.10]The key to the method is to be alert to new words.
[12:43.06]Don't skip over then.
[12:46.22]You'll find you are adding to your vocabulary each day
[12:51.19]and a good strong vocabulary is great help to reading qucikly
[12:57.43]and with strong comprehension.
[13:01.48]Good reading habits like these
[13:05.24]can help studentsand working adults alike to be more successful.
[13:11.01]The special world of school and the real world of school
[13:17.18]and of everyday life can be more comfortable productive#p[13:20.05]学校的特殊世界和学校与
[13:22.93]and rewarding with the additiion of simple
[13:27.29]yet important life skillssuch as good reading habits.


1 supreme PHqzc     
  • It was the supreme moment in his life.那是他一生中最重要的时刻。
  • He handed up the indictment to the supreme court.他把起诉书送交最高法院。
2 peculiar cinyo     
  • He walks in a peculiar fashion.他走路的样子很奇特。
  • He looked at me with a very peculiar expression.他用一种很奇怪的表情看着我。
3 Oxford Wmmz0a     
  • At present he has become a Professor of Chemistry at Oxford.他现在已是牛津大学的化学教授了。
  • This is where the road to Oxford joins the road to London.这是去牛津的路与去伦敦的路的汇合处。
4 authoritative 6O3yU     
  • David speaks in an authoritative tone.大卫以命令的口吻说话。
  • Her smile was warm but authoritative.她的笑容很和蔼,同时又透着威严。
5 recording UktzJj     
  • How long will the recording of the song take?录下这首歌得花多少时间?
  • I want to play you a recording of the rehearsal.我想给你放一下彩排的录像。
6 immediate aapxh     
  • His immediate neighbours felt it their duty to call.他的近邻认为他们有责任去拜访。
  • We declared ourselves for the immediate convocation of the meeting.我们主张立即召开这个会议。
7 scatter uDwzt     
  • You pile everything up and scatter things around.你把东西乱堆乱放。
  • Small villages scatter at the foot of the mountain.村庄零零落落地散布在山脚下。
8 hood ddwzJ     
  • She is wearing a red cloak with a hood.她穿着一件红色带兜帽的披风。
  • The car hood was dented in.汽车的发动机罩已凹了进去。
9 boredom ynByy     
  • Unemployment can drive you mad with boredom.失业会让你无聊得发疯。
  • A walkman can relieve the boredom of running.跑步时带着随身听就不那么乏味了。
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