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大学英语自学教程上UNIT15

时间:2009-11-18 01:27来源:互联网 提供网友:hanlong   字体: [ ]
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[00:04.60]How TV Violence Affects Kids
[00:07.38]电视暴力怎样影响孩子
[00:10.16]For more than a quarter of a century, evidence has been increasing
[00:13.40]在四分之一的世纪还多一些的时间里,愈来愈多的证据表明,
[00:16.64]that children's exposureto violence on television
[00:19.51]孩子们看电视里的暴力场面
[00:22.39]has long-lasting effects on their behavior.
[00:25.47]对他们的行为有着持久的影响.
[00:28.55]Between 1982 and 1986, the amount of television time allocated1 each week
[00:33.42]在1982年到1986年期间,每周电视节目中
[00:38.30]to violent programs increased significantly.
[00:41.68]暴力节目的时间有很大的增长.
[00:45.06]And the number of violent acts on television in the past years
[00:48.78]在过去几年中,电视中的暴力行为的数量
[00:52.51]has increased from about 19 to 27 per hour.
[00:56.89]从每小时大约19个增加到27个.
[01:01.28]Given the amount of time that children watch television,
[01:04.21]假定孩子们有这么多的时间看电视,
[01:07.13]it has become one of the most powerful models they want to follow.
[01:11.31]那么暴力便成为他们想要模仿的最有影响力的榜样之一.
[01:15.49]The Position Statement on Media Violence in Children's Lives,
[01:19.07]全美国儿童教育协会最近就传媒暴力影响儿童生活问题
[01:22.65]recently adopted by the National Associationfor the Education of Young Children,
[01:26.43]发表立场声明,声明还指出学龄前儿童
[01:30.20]points out that preschool children are particularly easily affected2 by the median
[01:35.27]特别容易受传媒的影响,
[01:40.34]because they are not yet fully3 able to distinguish fantasy from reality
[01:44.76]因为这时的儿童还没有充分能力区分幻想与现实,
[01:49.19]and their understanding of the underlying4 motives5 for behavior
[01:52.57]不能很好地理解某些行为内在的动机
[01:55.96]and the subtleties6 of moral conflicts is not yet well developed.
[02:00.19]以及道貌岸然德冲突的微妙性.
[02:04.42]For example, the rapid recoveries of people on TV from violent attacks
[02:08.95]例如,在电视里,人们受暴力袭击后迅速恢复健康,
[02:13.49]give children an unrealistic picture of the injuries that have been suffered
[02:17.52]就能使孩子对人体所受伤害产生了不现实的想法
[02:21.56]Effects on Play
[02:23.28]对孩子游戏的影响
[02:25.01]Children naturally often want the toys shown on and advertised during these programs.
[02:29.19]孩子们常常很自然地想到电视节目里展现的或者做了广告的那些玩具.
[02:33.36]And with these toys, their play tends to be more imitative than imaginative.
[02:37.34]有了这些玩具后,他们游戏时更倾向于模仿,而不是按自己的想像进行.
[02:41.31]Children simply imitate the behavior observed during the program,
[02:44.69]儿童单纯地模仿电视节目中看到的行为,
[02:48.07]thus undermining both the imaginative and the expressive7 functions of play
[02:52.45]这样会与暴力有关的玩具范围狭小,
[02:56.82]The narrow range of most violence-related toys advertised on television
[03:01.60]这会危及游戏在帮助儿童
[03:06.38]jeopardizes the role of play in helping8 children
[03:09.91]更好地理解自己的感情
[03:13.44]make better sense of their own feelings and interpret their world.
[03:17.30]与解释周围世界中的作用.
[03:21.17]Some research even suggests that children apply the behaviors observed on TV programs
[03:26.34]有的研究甚至认为,儿童会把电视节目中
[03:31.51]to their real-life situations.
[03:33.79]看到的行为搬到现实生活中去.
[03:36.06]Parents Can Help
[03:37.84]父母能起的作用
[03:39.61]It is a good idea for parents to monitor the amountas well as the kind of television their preschool child watches.
[03:45.04]父母监管学龄前儿童所看电视的数量和种类,这是一个分主意.
[03:50.48]If your child appears to be crazy about war play and weapons,
[03:54.25]如果孩子似乎对打仗游戏和武器着迷时,
[03:58.03]it would be a good idea to control his viewing.
[04:00.86]最好要控制他观看电视.
[04:03.70]Controlling viewing is easier to do during the preschool yearsthan during the school years,
[04:07.38]控制学龄前儿童比控制上学后的儿童要容易.
[04:11.06]so you should initiate9 a pattern of restricted television watching now.
[04:14.79]因此从现在起应当制定一套限制看电视的办法. [04:18.51]Help your child to interpret what she sees
[04:21.39]要帮助孩子理解所看的内容----
[04:24.28]to think of explanationsfor the events depicted
[04:27.40]想一想怎样才能解释所描述的事件,
[04:30.52]and to imagine how the show is put together.
[04:33.41]想像一下该戏是怎么连贯起来的.
[04:36.30]Make simple critiques of a show
[04:39.17]对节目作一些简单的评论,
[04:42.04]without implying that her fascination10 with the drama and the weapons makes her guiltyby association.
[04:47.22]但不要有任何暗示,使孩子联想到由于自己对剧情和武器的着迷而感到内疚.
[04:52.39]Ask the teachers of your child' s preschoolabout their policy on war play and toy weapons.
[04:56.57]可以请教孩子的老师有关他们对打仗游戏和玩具武器的态度.
[05:00.75]Many preschool teachers do not like to have commercially made toy weaponsbrought into the classroom[05:05.44]许多幼儿园的老师
[05:10.13]and welcome hearing your concerns about this matter.
[05:13.16]不喜欢孩子把商业性的玩具武器带进教室,
[05:16.19]Look for other parents who share your views.
[05:19.22]他们愿意听听你们对这种事的关心.
[05:22.25]Work together to control the amount of violent programs watched
[05:25.97]还可以找找与你们看法一致的其父母.
[05:29.69]and the number of violent toys found in the home.
[05:32.56]大家共同努力控制观看暴力电视节目的数量,控制家中的暴力玩具 的数目.
[05:35.44]Try to arrange play dates for the children as an alternative to TV viewing
[05:39.60]设法给孩子规定游戏的时间,以取代看电视.
[05:43.77]Or look for videos of healthy,nonviolent programs for children,
[05:47.35]或者给孩子找一些内容健康,非暴力的录相节目,鼓励他们观看,
[05:50.93]and encourage their use as an attractive alternative to violent television programs.
[05:55.36]以此作为更有吸引力的手段替代暴力电视节目.
[05:59.78]Text B
[06:02.53]Why Don't Girls Think Like Boys ?
[06:04.51]女孩的思维方式为什么秘男孩不同?
[06:06.50]Do you believe that only boys do well in science?
[06:08.82]你是否相信只有男孩才能学好科学?
[06:11.15]Does it seem to you that girls have better vocabularies than boys?
[06:13.86]你是否感到女孩掌握词汇比男孩强?
[06:16.58]In your opinion,are boys better at building things.
[06:19.21]你的意见是不是男孩更善于制作物件?
[06:21.83]If your answer to each of those questions is "Yes," you are right,
[06:24.61]如果你对其中任何一个问题的回答是肯定的话,
[06:27.40]according to an article in Current Science.
[06:29.47]那么按照《当代科学》中的一篇文章的看法,你是正确的。
[06:31.55]There are exceptions, but here are the facts.
[06:33.84]虽然也有例外,但是以下都是事实。
[06:36.12]On the average, males score higher on tests that measure mathematical reasoning,
[06:39.39]在测试数学推理、机械能力和解题技能方面,
[06:42.65]mechanical ability,and problem-solving skills.
[06:45.43]男性一般得分较高;
[06:48.22]Females show superior ability
[06:50.10]在测试词汇、拼写和记忆方面
[06:51.98]in tests measuring vocabularyspelling, and memory.
[06:54.92]女性表现出更强的能力。
[06:57.85]But these differences will probably not always exist.
[07:00.48]但这些差异可能并非总是如此。
[07:03.11]In the future, a person's abilities may not be determined11 by sex.
[07:06.49]将来一个人的能力可能不由性别决定,
[07:09.87]As one scientist says, "Nothing is impossible for a person to be or do."
[07:13.14]正如一位科学家所说“人欲成名或成事,未有不可成者”。
[07:16.40]In several recent studies, young babies have been observed
[07:19.29]在最近几次研究中,人们对幼儿进行观察和试验,
[07:22.17]and tested to discover how different abilities ere developed.
[07:24.96]以便了解不同的能力是怎样形成的。
[07:27.74]A scientific team headed by Jerome Kagana
[07:30.12]哈佛大学心理学家杰罗姆’卡根
[07:32.49]psychologist at Harvard University,
[07:35.07]领导的科学小组研究了
[07:37.64]is studying the thinking ability of children 11 1/2 months old.
[07:40.83]11个半月的幼儿的思维能力。
[07:44.01]The test is a simple one.
[07:45.74]试验很简单,
[07:47.46]The baby, while seated on its mother's lap
[07:49.88]被试小孩坐在母亲的膝盖上
[07:52.29]watches a "show" on a small theater stage.
[07:54.62]观看一家小戏院舞台上的“表演”。
[07:56.94]In act 1 of the show, [07:58.68]表演的第一幕是
[08:00.42]an orange-colored block is lifted from a blue box
[08:02.99]一块橘红色的积木从一只蓝色盒子里取出,
[08:05.56]and moved slowly across the stage.
[08:07.64]慢慢地从舞台一头移到另一头,
[08:09.72]Then it is returned to the box.
[08:11.90]然后放回到盒子里.
[08:14.08]This is repeated six times.
[08:16.12]这个过程重复六次。
[08:18.16]Act 2 is similar, except that the orange block is smaller.
[08:21.49]第二幕类似,不同的是橘红色积木比较小。
[08:24.82]Baby boys do not seem to notice the difference in the size of the block,
[08:27.69]男孩似乎没有注意到积木体积上的变化,
[08:30.56]but girls immediately become excited
[08:32.63]而女孩很快兴奋起来,
[08:34.69]and begin to make noises that sound like language.
[08:36.87]并发出听起来像语言的声音,
[08:39.05]They seem to be trying to talk.
[08:40.82]似乎企图说些什么。
[08:42.58]It is known that bones, muscles,and nerves develop faster in baby girls.
[08:46.01]大家知道女孩的骨骼、肌肉和神经发育得更快些。
[08:49.45]Usually, too, baby girls talk at an earlier age than boys do.
[08:52.68]女孩通常也比男孩说话早。
[08:55.90]Scientists think there is a physical reason for this.
[08:58.14]科学家认为这中间有生理上的原因。
[09:00.37]They believe that nerves in the left side of the brain
[09:02.94]他们认为女孩比
[09:05.52]develop faster in girls than in boys.
[09:07.75]男孩左半脑神经发育更快些[09:09.98]And it is this side of the brain
[09:11.90]而正是大脑的左侧
[09:13.82]that strongly influences an individual's ability to use words,
[09:16.85]强烈地影响着一个人使用词汇、
[09:19.88]to spell, and to remember things.
[09:22.10]拼写和记忆事物的能力.
[09:24.32]By the time they start to school,
[09:26.26]因此,到了开始上学的时候,
[09:28.19]therefore,little girls have an advantage that boys do not have.
[09:31.15]女孩子有男孩子没有的优势.
[09:34.12]Girls are physically12 more ready to remember facts,to spell,and to read
[09:37.50]在生理上,女孩子更容易记忆事物.拼写和阅读.
[09:40.88]These,of course,are skills that are important in elementary school.
[09:43.81]这些在小学阶段当然是重要的技能。
[09:46.74]But what have the boys been doing in the years before starting school?
[09:49.37]然而,男孩在上学前在干些什么呢?
[09:52.01]They have been developing something called aggression13.
[09:54.39]他们发展了一种称之为进取心的东西。
[09:56.77]An aggressive person has courage arid14 energy.
[09:58.99]一个有进取心的人是有勇气和精力的人。
[10:01.21]He feels strong and independent.
[10:03.04]他感到有力量,具有独立性,
[10:04.87]He is often the first one to start a fight.
[10:06.94]常常首先挑起争斗。
[10:09.02]What produces aggression in little boys?
[10:11.06]是什么造成小男孩具有进取心呢?
[10:13.09]It has long been assumed that aggression is caused by male hormones15.
[10:16.02]长期以来人们认为进取心是雄性激素造成的,
[10:18.95]Scientists today believe that male hormones are only part of the explanation, however:
[10:22.18]但现在科学家们相信雄激素只能解释其中的部分原因。
[10:25.42]They say aggressiveness in boys is also caused by mothers.
[10:28.24]他们指出男孩的进取心也是由母亲养成的。
[10:31.07]A team of psychologists discovered this by placing mothers
[10:33.80]这个结论是一组心理学家通过下列实验发现的实验安排一些母亲。
[10:36.53]and their one-year-old babies in a room filled with toys.
[10:38.96]和他们一岁的孩子们呆在一间放满玩具的房间里。
[10:41.38]The room had a wall through which the scientists could observe what happened with but being seen.
[10:44.52]房间有面墙,科学家可以隔墙观察到房间里发生的情况,而自己不会被人看见。
[10:47.65]They took notes on everything the mothers and babies did.
[10:49.98]他们把母亲和孩子们
[10:52.30]Here is a sample of those notes,
[10:54.34]的所作所为记录下来。
[10:56.38]taken during the observation of a baby boy and his mother:
[10:59.11]下面是观察一个男孩和他母亲时记录下来的片断:
[11:01.84]"Baby leans against mother.
[11:03.61]“孩子靠在母亲身上,
[11:05.39]Looks up at her.  She speaks to him.
[11:07.77]抬头看她。她跟他说话。
[11:10.15]She turns him around.  He walks away, picks up toy cat.
[11:13.18]她把他的身子转过去。他走开,拾起玩具猫, [11:16.21]Goes to mother,drops cat,and leans against her.
[11:18.94]向母亲走来,丢下玩具猫,靠在她身上,
[11:21.67]Looks up at her, She turns him around,"
[11:23.99]抬头看她。她把他的身子转过去”。
[11:26.32]From such observations and from conversations with mothers,
[11:29.11]科学家通过观察和与母亲们的谈话,
[11:31.91]scientists learned something about the treatment of baby boys and baby girls
[11:34.83]了解到母亲对待男孩与女孩不同。
[11:37.76]While the mother keeps her daughter dose to her,
[11:39.79]母亲让女儿靠近自己,
[11:41.83]she trains her son to move away from her,to develop independence.
[11:44.77]而对儿子却训练他离开自己,培养他的独立性。
[11:47.71]Consequently, it is easy to understand why little girls
[11:50.44]因此,不难理解为什么小女孩
[11:53.17]often perform school tasks better than boys,
[11:55.53]常常比男孩完成学校作业更出色,
[11:57.90]especially if the taskrequires sitting still,
[12:00.31]特别是这些作业需要孩子坐着不动、
[12:02.73]and accepting the teacher's ideas.
[12:05.30]服从指挥、老师说什么就听什么的时候更是如此。
[12:07.88]a girl may pass early through the first few grades.
[12:10.31]女孩在小学低年级可能很容易过关。
[12:12.73]While boys of her age bring home low marks,
[12:14.86]同样年龄的男孩拿着低分回家的时候,
[12:16.99]the girl may easily get good grades.
[12:19.21]女孩也许轻而易地获得好成绩。
[12:21.43]Girls:seem to have "better brains" in school.
[12:23.77]在学校期间,女孩的大脑似乎更好使一些。
[12:26.11]Why,then, do so few become great scientists?
[12:28.75]那么,最终成为伟大科学家的女孩为什么寥寥无几呢?
[12:31.39]Why is the most important thinking in adult society done by men?
[12:34.31]为什么在成年人社会中最重要的思想出息于男性呢?
[12:37.24]According to scientists, the answer is aggression.
[12:39.77]按照科学家的看法,答案是进取心。
[12:42.31]Because boys are aggressive
[12:44.13]因为男孩具有进取心,
[12:45.96]they refuse to accept other people's solutions;
[12:48.23]他们不接受别人的解决方案[12:50.51]they insist upon solving problems for themselves.
[12:52.85]他们坚持靠自己解决问题。
[12:55.18]Thus,while little girls are getting high marks in school
[12:57.81]因此小女孩在学校因能
[13:00.43]for remembering what the teacher has told them,
[13:02.46]记住老师所教给的内容而得到高分,
[13:04.48]little boys are learning to think in more independent ways.
[13:07.00]反过来小男孩学会以更独立的方式思考问题。
[13:09.52]In the adult world,
[13:11.04]在成年人世界里,
[13:12.55]the aggressive person is usually the one who gets the big salary,
[13:15.22]有进取心的人通常是拿高薪的人、
[13:17.88]the great responsibility, the powerful job.
[13:20.56]承担重大责任的人、手握重权的人。
[13:23.24]And since males are trained at an early age to be aggressive,
[13:25.76]由于男人在年轻时就培养了进取心,
[13:28.28]males are more often chosen for key positions.
[13:30.61]因此有更多的机会被选拔担当重要的职位。
[13:32.93]Many people believe this situation is wrong.
[13:35.22]许多人相信这种状况是错误的。
[13:37.50]They think women could be successful in science and industry
[13:39.93]他们认为如果妇女能像男孩一样培养独立性和解决问题的能力,
[13:42.36]if they were trained to be independent and problem-solving,as boys are.
[13:45.29]那么她们也是能在科学和产业方面取得成就的。

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1 allocated 01868918c8cec5bc8773e98ae11a0f54     
adj. 分配的 动词allocate的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • The Ford Foundation allocated millions of dollars for cancer research. 福特基金会拨款数百万美元用于癌症研究。
  • More funds will now be allocated to charitable organizations. 现在会拨更多的资金给慈善组织。
2 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假装的
参考例句:
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
3 fully Gfuzd     
adv.完全地,全部地,彻底地;充分地
参考例句:
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
4 underlying 5fyz8c     
adj.在下面的,含蓄的,潜在的
参考例句:
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.这个单词有它潜在的含义。
5 motives 6c25d038886898b20441190abe240957     
n.动机,目的( motive的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • to impeach sb's motives 怀疑某人的动机
  • His motives are unclear. 他的用意不明。
6 subtleties 7ed633566637e94fa02b8a1fad408072     
细微( subtlety的名词复数 ); 精细; 巧妙; 细微的差别等
参考例句:
  • I think the translator missed some of the subtleties of the original. 我认为译者漏掉了原著中一些微妙之处。
  • They are uneducated in the financial subtleties of credit transfer. 他们缺乏有关信用转让在金融方面微妙作用的知识。
7 expressive shwz4     
adj.表现的,表达…的,富于表情的
参考例句:
  • Black English can be more expressive than standard English.黑人所使用的英语可能比正式英语更有表现力。
  • He had a mobile,expressive,animated face.他有一张多变的,富于表情的,生动活泼的脸。
8 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
9 initiate z6hxz     
vt.开始,创始,发动;启蒙,使入门;引入
参考例句:
  • A language teacher should initiate pupils into the elements of grammar.语言老师应该把基本语法教给学生。
  • They wanted to initiate a discussion on economics.他们想启动一次经济学讨论。
10 fascination FlHxO     
n.令人着迷的事物,魅力,迷恋
参考例句:
  • He had a deep fascination with all forms of transport.他对所有的运输工具都很着迷。
  • His letters have been a source of fascination to a wide audience.广大观众一直迷恋于他的来信。
11 determined duszmP     
adj.坚定的;有决心的
参考例句:
  • I have determined on going to Tibet after graduation.我已决定毕业后去西藏。
  • He determined to view the rooms behind the office.他决定查看一下办公室后面的房间。
12 physically iNix5     
adj.物质上,体格上,身体上,按自然规律
参考例句:
  • He was out of sorts physically,as well as disordered mentally.他浑身不舒服,心绪也很乱。
  • Every time I think about it I feel physically sick.一想起那件事我就感到极恶心。
13 aggression WKjyF     
n.进攻,侵略,侵犯,侵害
参考例句:
  • So long as we are firmly united, we need fear no aggression.只要我们紧密地团结,就不必惧怕外来侵略。
  • Her view is that aggression is part of human nature.她认为攻击性是人类本性的一部份。
14 arid JejyB     
adj.干旱的;(土地)贫瘠的
参考例句:
  • These trees will shield off arid winds and protect the fields.这些树能挡住旱风,保护农田。
  • There are serious problems of land degradation in some arid zones.在一些干旱地带存在严重的土地退化问题。
15 hormones hormones     
n. 荷尔蒙,激素 名词hormone的复数形式
参考例句:
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body. 这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
  • The adrenals produce a large per cent of a man's sex hormones. 肾上腺分泌人体的大部分性激素。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  自学教程
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