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时间:2009-11-18 01:27来源:互联网 提供网友:hanlong   字体: [ ]
[00:04.60]How TV Violence Affects Kids
[00:10.16]For more than a quarter of a century, evidence has been increasing
[00:16.64]that children's exposureto violence on television
[00:22.39]has long-lasting effects on their behavior.
[00:28.55]Between 1982 and 1986, the amount of television time allocated1 each week
[00:38.30]to violent programs increased significantly.
[00:45.06]And the number of violent acts on television in the past years
[00:52.51]has increased from about 19 to 27 per hour.
[01:01.28]Given the amount of time that children watch television,
[01:07.13]it has become one of the most powerful models they want to follow.
[01:15.49]The Position Statement on Media Violence in Children's Lives,
[01:22.65]recently adopted by the National Associationfor the Education of Young Children,
[01:30.20]points out that preschool children are particularly easily affected2 by the median
[01:40.34]because they are not yet fully3 able to distinguish fantasy from reality
[01:49.19]and their understanding of the underlying4 motives5 for behavior
[01:55.96]and the subtleties6 of moral conflicts is not yet well developed.
[02:04.42]For example, the rapid recoveries of people on TV from violent attacks
[02:13.49]give children an unrealistic picture of the injuries that have been suffered
[02:21.56]Effects on Play
[02:25.01]Children naturally often want the toys shown on and advertised during these programs.
[02:33.36]And with these toys, their play tends to be more imitative than imaginative.
[02:41.31]Children simply imitate the behavior observed during the program,
[02:48.07]thus undermining both the imaginative and the expressive7 functions of play
[02:56.82]The narrow range of most violence-related toys advertised on television
[03:06.38]jeopardizes the role of play in helping8 children
[03:13.44]make better sense of their own feelings and interpret their world.
[03:21.17]Some research even suggests that children apply the behaviors observed on TV programs
[03:31.51]to their real-life situations.
[03:36.06]Parents Can Help
[03:39.61]It is a good idea for parents to monitor the amountas well as the kind of television their preschool child watches.
[03:50.48]If your child appears to be crazy about war play and weapons,
[03:58.03]it would be a good idea to control his viewing.
[04:03.70]Controlling viewing is easier to do during the preschool yearsthan during the school years,
[04:11.06]so you should initiate9 a pattern of restricted television watching now.
[04:14.79]因此从现在起应当制定一套限制看电视的办法. [04:18.51]Help your child to interpret what she sees
[04:24.28]to think of explanationsfor the events depicted
[04:30.52]and to imagine how the show is put together.
[04:36.30]Make simple critiques of a show
[04:42.04]without implying that her fascination10 with the drama and the weapons makes her guiltyby association.
[04:52.39]Ask the teachers of your child' s preschoolabout their policy on war play and toy weapons.
[05:00.75]Many preschool teachers do not like to have commercially made toy weaponsbrought into the classroom[05:05.44]许多幼儿园的老师
[05:10.13]and welcome hearing your concerns about this matter.
[05:16.19]Look for other parents who share your views.
[05:22.25]Work together to control the amount of violent programs watched
[05:29.69]and the number of violent toys found in the home.
[05:32.56]大家共同努力控制观看暴力电视节目的数量,控制家中的暴力玩具 的数目.
[05:35.44]Try to arrange play dates for the children as an alternative to TV viewing
[05:43.77]Or look for videos of healthy,nonviolent programs for children,
[05:50.93]and encourage their use as an attractive alternative to violent television programs.
[05:59.78]Text B
[06:02.53]Why Don't Girls Think Like Boys ?
[06:06.50]Do you believe that only boys do well in science?
[06:11.15]Does it seem to you that girls have better vocabularies than boys?
[06:16.58]In your opinion,are boys better at building things.
[06:21.83]If your answer to each of those questions is "Yes," you are right,
[06:27.40]according to an article in Current Science.
[06:31.55]There are exceptions, but here are the facts.
[06:36.12]On the average, males score higher on tests that measure mathematical reasoning,
[06:42.65]mechanical ability,and problem-solving skills.
[06:48.22]Females show superior ability
[06:51.98]in tests measuring vocabularyspelling, and memory.
[06:57.85]But these differences will probably not always exist.
[07:03.11]In the future, a person's abilities may not be determined11 by sex.
[07:09.87]As one scientist says, "Nothing is impossible for a person to be or do."
[07:16.40]In several recent studies, young babies have been observed
[07:22.17]and tested to discover how different abilities ere developed.
[07:27.74]A scientific team headed by Jerome Kagana
[07:32.49]psychologist at Harvard University,
[07:37.64]is studying the thinking ability of children 11 1/2 months old.
[07:44.01]The test is a simple one.
[07:47.46]The baby, while seated on its mother's lap
[07:52.29]watches a "show" on a small theater stage.
[07:56.94]In act 1 of the show, [07:58.68]表演的第一幕是
[08:00.42]an orange-colored block is lifted from a blue box
[08:05.56]and moved slowly across the stage.
[08:09.72]Then it is returned to the box.
[08:14.08]This is repeated six times.
[08:18.16]Act 2 is similar, except that the orange block is smaller.
[08:24.82]Baby boys do not seem to notice the difference in the size of the block,
[08:30.56]but girls immediately become excited
[08:34.69]and begin to make noises that sound like language.
[08:39.05]They seem to be trying to talk.
[08:42.58]It is known that bones, muscles,and nerves develop faster in baby girls.
[08:49.45]Usually, too, baby girls talk at an earlier age than boys do.
[08:55.90]Scientists think there is a physical reason for this.
[09:00.37]They believe that nerves in the left side of the brain
[09:05.52]develop faster in girls than in boys.
[09:07.75]男孩左半脑神经发育更快些[09:09.98]And it is this side of the brain
[09:13.82]that strongly influences an individual's ability to use words,
[09:19.88]to spell, and to remember things.
[09:24.32]By the time they start to school,
[09:28.19]therefore,little girls have an advantage that boys do not have.
[09:34.12]Girls are physically12 more ready to remember facts,to spell,and to read
[09:40.88]These,of course,are skills that are important in elementary school.
[09:46.74]But what have the boys been doing in the years before starting school?
[09:52.01]They have been developing something called aggression13.
[09:56.77]An aggressive person has courage arid14 energy.
[10:01.21]He feels strong and independent.
[10:04.87]He is often the first one to start a fight.
[10:09.02]What produces aggression in little boys?
[10:13.09]It has long been assumed that aggression is caused by male hormones15.
[10:18.95]Scientists today believe that male hormones are only part of the explanation, however:
[10:25.42]They say aggressiveness in boys is also caused by mothers.
[10:31.07]A team of psychologists discovered this by placing mothers
[10:36.53]and their one-year-old babies in a room filled with toys.
[10:41.38]The room had a wall through which the scientists could observe what happened with but being seen.
[10:47.65]They took notes on everything the mothers and babies did.
[10:52.30]Here is a sample of those notes,
[10:56.38]taken during the observation of a baby boy and his mother:
[11:01.84]"Baby leans against mother.
[11:05.39]Looks up at her.  She speaks to him.
[11:10.15]She turns him around.  He walks away, picks up toy cat.
[11:13.18]她把他的身子转过去。他走开,拾起玩具猫, [11:16.21]Goes to mother,drops cat,and leans against her.
[11:21.67]Looks up at her, She turns him around,"
[11:26.32]From such observations and from conversations with mothers,
[11:31.91]scientists learned something about the treatment of baby boys and baby girls
[11:37.76]While the mother keeps her daughter dose to her,
[11:41.83]she trains her son to move away from her,to develop independence.
[11:47.71]Consequently, it is easy to understand why little girls
[11:53.17]often perform school tasks better than boys,
[11:57.90]especially if the taskrequires sitting still,
[12:02.73]and accepting the teacher's ideas.
[12:07.88]a girl may pass early through the first few grades.
[12:12.73]While boys of her age bring home low marks,
[12:16.99]the girl may easily get good grades.
[12:21.43]Girls:seem to have "better brains" in school.
[12:26.11]Why,then, do so few become great scientists?
[12:31.39]Why is the most important thinking in adult society done by men?
[12:37.24]According to scientists, the answer is aggression.
[12:42.31]Because boys are aggressive
[12:45.96]they refuse to accept other people's solutions;
[12:48.23]他们不接受别人的解决方案[12:50.51]they insist upon solving problems for themselves.
[12:55.18]Thus,while little girls are getting high marks in school
[13:00.43]for remembering what the teacher has told them,
[13:04.48]little boys are learning to think in more independent ways.
[13:09.52]In the adult world,
[13:12.55]the aggressive person is usually the one who gets the big salary,
[13:17.88]the great responsibility, the powerful job.
[13:23.24]And since males are trained at an early age to be aggressive,
[13:28.28]males are more often chosen for key positions.
[13:32.93]Many people believe this situation is wrong.
[13:37.50]They think women could be successful in science and industry
[13:42.36]if they were trained to be independent and problem-solving,as boys are.


1 allocated 01868918c8cec5bc8773e98ae11a0f54     
adj. 分配的 动词allocate的过去式和过去分词
  • The Ford Foundation allocated millions of dollars for cancer research. 福特基金会拨款数百万美元用于癌症研究。
  • More funds will now be allocated to charitable organizations. 现在会拨更多的资金给慈善组织。
2 affected TzUzg0     
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
3 fully Gfuzd     
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
4 underlying 5fyz8c     
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.这个单词有它潜在的含义。
5 motives 6c25d038886898b20441190abe240957     
n.动机,目的( motive的名词复数 )
  • to impeach sb's motives 怀疑某人的动机
  • His motives are unclear. 他的用意不明。
6 subtleties 7ed633566637e94fa02b8a1fad408072     
细微( subtlety的名词复数 ); 精细; 巧妙; 细微的差别等
  • I think the translator missed some of the subtleties of the original. 我认为译者漏掉了原著中一些微妙之处。
  • They are uneducated in the financial subtleties of credit transfer. 他们缺乏有关信用转让在金融方面微妙作用的知识。
7 expressive shwz4     
  • Black English can be more expressive than standard English.黑人所使用的英语可能比正式英语更有表现力。
  • He had a mobile,expressive,animated face.他有一张多变的,富于表情的,生动活泼的脸。
8 helping 2rGzDc     
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
9 initiate z6hxz     
  • A language teacher should initiate pupils into the elements of grammar.语言老师应该把基本语法教给学生。
  • They wanted to initiate a discussion on economics.他们想启动一次经济学讨论。
10 fascination FlHxO     
  • He had a deep fascination with all forms of transport.他对所有的运输工具都很着迷。
  • His letters have been a source of fascination to a wide audience.广大观众一直迷恋于他的来信。
11 determined duszmP     
  • I have determined on going to Tibet after graduation.我已决定毕业后去西藏。
  • He determined to view the rooms behind the office.他决定查看一下办公室后面的房间。
12 physically iNix5     
  • He was out of sorts physically,as well as disordered mentally.他浑身不舒服,心绪也很乱。
  • Every time I think about it I feel physically sick.一想起那件事我就感到极恶心。
13 aggression WKjyF     
  • So long as we are firmly united, we need fear no aggression.只要我们紧密地团结,就不必惧怕外来侵略。
  • Her view is that aggression is part of human nature.她认为攻击性是人类本性的一部份。
14 arid JejyB     
  • These trees will shield off arid winds and protect the fields.这些树能挡住旱风,保护农田。
  • There are serious problems of land degradation in some arid zones.在一些干旱地带存在严重的土地退化问题。
15 hormones hormones     
n. 荷尔蒙,激素 名词hormone的复数形式
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body. 这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
  • The adrenals produce a large per cent of a man's sex hormones. 肾上腺分泌人体的大部分性激素。
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