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大学英语自学教程上UNIT14

时间:2009-11-18 01:25来源:互联网 提供网友:hanlong   字体: [ ]
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[00:05.09]The importance of Being Kind and Polite
[00:08.22]友善和礼貌的重要性
[00:11.34]"Frankly, I think you're boring."
[00:13.86]"老实说,我觉得你很乏味."
[00:16.38]Why do we seldom hear people speak so honestly?
[00:19.50]为什么我们很少听到人们说话如此坦城?
[00:22.62]Unless you want to end a relationship,
[00:25.00]除非你想结束与他或她的关系,
[00:27.38]you don't tell another person what you think of her or him like this.
[00:30.80]你当然不会像这样告诉他或她你的真实想法.
[00:34.22]Failing to be impressed by a friend's collection of stamps,
[00:37.55]如果一个朋友向你展示他的集邮册,你丝毫未被打动;
[00:40.88]yawning when a golfer tells you about that great shot he made on the 14th hole,
[00:44.85]如果一个高尔球手告诉你他在打第十四洞时打了如何漂亮的一杆,而你却打了个哈欠;
[00:48.82]or falling asleep when friends show picturesfrom their last trip to Sault Ste. Marie are all things that educated people try not to do.
[00:55.41]或者当朋友们向你炫耀他们上次苏圣玛丽之旅的照片时,你却睡着了,这些都是有教养的人所尽力避免的行为
[01:01.99]This is what manners are about:
[01:04.88]这就是礼义的内容:
[01:07.76]acting in a civilized1 way to avoid misunderstanding friction2, and conflict.
[01:12.08]以文明的方式行事,避免误解,摩擦和冲突.
[01:16.41]There are no laws enforcing respect.
[01:18.93]并没有法律强迫你去遵重别人.
[01:21.45]Yet we cannot interact with others without some rules of behavior,
[01:25.07]然而我们与别人打交道却不能没有一定的行为准则,
[01:28.69]rules that are set by some form of social consensus3.
[01:31.86]这些准则是由某种形式的社会公论所决定的.
[01:35.03]These guidelines represent what a majority of people consider acceptable
[01:38.72]这些标准代表了大多数人的意见,
[01:42.40]and what they consider unacceptable.
[01:44.99]认为什么可以接受,什么不可以接受.
[01:47.57]Rude people are those whose behavior shows little respect for the rules that the majority follow.
[01:52.44]某些人的行为很少尊重大多数的所遵从的准则,他们就是粗鲁的人.
[01:57.32]For instance, because they talk at home while the television is on
[02:00.86]比如,因为人们在家看电视的时候可以谈话,
[02:04.40]many people think they can talk at movies as well.
[02:07.57]很多人就认为在电影院里照样可以谈话.
[02:10.74]They are not even aware that this habit will botherthe other members of the audience.
[02:15.01]他们甚至意识不到这个习惯会影响其他观众.
[02:19.28]Restaurants have smoking and non-smoking sections,
[02:22.52]餐馆设有烟区和非吸烟区,
[02:25.76]and most smokers4 are polite enough to ask,
[02:28.40]而且多数吸烟者在点烟以前总会礼貌地问一句,
[02:31.04]"Do you mind if I smoke?" before lighting5 up.
[02:33.86]"我吸烟您介意吗?"
[02:36.68]Restaurants should also have cellular-phone and no-cellu-hr-phone sections
[02:41.07]餐馆也应设移动电话或非移动电话区.
[02:45.46]A new class of rude people has been born:
[02:48.24]一种新的举止粗鲁的阶层正在兴起:
[02:51.02]the look-at-me phone users whoee boring conversationsare just as dan-gerous to our mental health
[02:56.40]就是那些"看我多神气"的打电话的人.他们乏味的电话聊天就像烟雾
[03:01.79]as smoke is to our lungs.
[03:04.06]有害于肺部一样危害着人们的精神健康.
[03:06.33]Sometimes, it is better to remain unknown
[03:09.52]有时候,与其让别人憎恨,
[03:12.71]than to make people hate you.
[03:14.89]还不如自己默默无闻.
[03:17.07]There are many children and adolescents whose behavior is gener-ally unacceptable.
[03:21.44]很多儿童和青少年的举止总的来说不可接受.
[03:25.82]They swear no matter who is around them
[03:28.39]不管身边有谁,他们照样骂人,
[03:30.96]they listen to their Walkmans while the teacher is talking to them.
[03:34.24]老师和他们谈话的时候,他们都照样听"随身听".
[03:37.52]Indifferent parents who refuse to discipline their childrenare not helping6 them.
[03:41.84]满不在乎的家长拒绝用纪律约束孩子,这不是在帮自己的子女.
[03:46.17]Kids who have no idea what being polite meanswill pay the price sooner or later.
[03:50.90]不知礼貌为何物的孩子们迟早是要付出代价的.
[03:55.62]When they join the work force,
[03:58.11]当他们工作以后,
[04:00.59]their employers and associates alike will soon realize that the behavior of these rude young people [04:05.37]老板和同事早晚会察觉这些举止粗鲁的年轻人
[04:10.15]is closer to that of animals than civilized individuals.
[04:13.69]更像动物而不像文明人.
[04:17.23]When they lose a few contracts because they
[04:19.96]当他们因谈话时满嘴食物
[04:22.69]talk with their mouth full or when they say "Bob" to someone who should be "Mr.Johnson,"
[04:26.92]而丢掉了几个合同,或本应称"约翰逊先生"但却叫他"鲍勃"时,
[04:31.15]these grown-up kids,because of their ignorance,
[04:34.02]这些长大了的孩子们,由于他们的无知,
[04:36.90]will never understand why others are getting aheadand they are not[04:40.72]永远不明白为什么别人在取得成功,而自己却不能.
[04:44.55]Every little bit of kindness helps.
[04:47.44]每一丁点的友善都会让人受益匪浅.
[04:50.32]With manners,the best rule is the one that works.
[04:53.50]对于仪态来说,什么奏效,什么就是最好的准则.
[04:56.67]It is easier to look and sound attractive when we are nice to other people
[05:00.40]当我们和颜悦色待人时,我们更容易看上去并听起来都充满魅力.
[05:04.12]Being polite and showing respectcan give us an edge.
[05:07.94]彬彬有礼和尊重别人
[05:11.77]Why do we need an edge?
[05:13.85]会使我们占有优势?
[05:15.92]Success in life often starts with a job we like,
[05:19.35]生活中的成功总是开始于一份我们喜欢的工作,
[05:22.77]and since getting a job is usually based on making the right impression,
[05:26.45]而给人一个好印象是得到一份工作的关键,
[05:30.14]it is always a good idea to be kind and polite.
[05:33.91]所以和善待人,彬彬有礼永远不失为一个好主意.
[05:37.68]Text B
[05:40.56]Why We Walk in Circles
[05:42.69]为什么我们走路会转圈
[05:44.82]"Pin the Tail on the Donkey"
[05:46.74]"给驴安尾"
[05:48.66]is always funwhen you're watchlng rather than pinning.
[05:51.24]的游戏就永远乐趣无穷.如果你只是旁观者而不是游戏者,
[05:53.83]It is somewhat'surprising to see how the blindfolded7 performers act.
[05:56.91]观看那些蒙着眼的游戏者的表现有点让人惊奇.
[05:59.99]Instead of going straight,they always wander off to one side or the other
[06:03.38]他们总是歪向这边或那边,而不是一直向前走.
[06:06.76]The greater the distance to the donkey, the farther they go astray.
[06:10.00]距离驴子越远,他们偏得越厉害.
[06:13.24]Have you ever wondered why they are unable to walk straight ahead?
[06:16.06]你是否会问为什么他们不能走直线行走呢?
[06:18.88]It is a well-known fact that a person will move in a circle
[06:21.41]这是一个众所周知的事实,
[06:23.95]when he cannot use his eyes to control his direction.
[06:26.43]即当一上人不能用眼睛控制他的方向时,他会绕圈走.
[06:28.91]Dark nights, dense8 fogs, blinding snowstorms,
[06:32.03]黑夜,浓雾,让人盲目的暴风雪天气
[06:35.15]thick forests all these can keep a traveler from seeing where he is going
[06:38.58]以及茂密的森林--所有这些都使旅行者看不清自己的去向.
[06:42.00]Then he is unable to move in any fixed9 direction, but walks in circles.
[06:45.83]于是他就不能沿着某一固定的方向行走,而是绕田圈子.
[06:49.65]Animals act the same way.
[06:51.53]动物也是如此.
[06:53.41]You have probably heard the saying
[06:55.61]你可能听说过一句谚语:
[06:57.80]"running around like a chicken with its head cut off."
[07:00.32]"像被砍掉头的鸡一样绕圈."
[07:02.84]Well, a chicken with its head cut off actually does run around in circles.
[07:05.78]真的,头被砍掉的鸡还真昌绕着圈子跑.
[07:08.72]Blind birds fly in circles.
[07:10.99]眼瞎的鸟儿也是绕圈子飞.
[07:13.27]And a blindfolded dog will swim in circles.
[07:16.05]还有,被蒙胧住眼睛的狗游泳时也绕着圈游.
[07:18.83]A Norwegian biologist, F.O. Guldbergdecided
[07:21.91]一位挪威生物学家古尔伯格
[07:25.00]that this problem of circular movementwas worth investigating.
[07:28.26]认为这种转圈运动问题值得研究.
[07:31.53]He collected many true stories on the subject.
[07:34.16]就此课题了收集了许多真实的故事.
[07:36.80]One of his stories is about people rowing on a lake
[07:39.44]其中一个故事是讲在一个有雾的黑漆漆的夜里,
[07:42.08]during a fog on a dark night.
[07:44.05]一群人在湖上划船.
[07:46.02]One group of rowers who tried to cross three miles of water
[07:49.05]这群划船的人想穿过3英里的水面
[07:52.08]in foggy weathernever succeeded in reaching their goal. [07:54.62]却怎么也达不到他们的目标.
[07:57.15]Without knowing it,they rowed in two large circles.
[08:00.48]他们不知不觉地划了两个大圆圈.
[08:03.81]When they finally got to the shore,
[08:06.14]当他们终于靠岸时,
[08:08.46]they discovered that they were at the spot they had started from.
[08:11.19]发现又回到了出发的地方.
[08:13.92]After studying many stories such as this,
[08:16.74]研究了许多这样的故事以后,
[08:19.57]Professor Guldberg wrote an article in which he discussed
[08:22.54]古尔伯格教授撰文讨论了
[08:25.52]Circular Motion as the Basic Motion of Animals.
[08:28.30]"转圈运动是动物的基本运动方式".
[08:31.09]"A simple example will help you to understand his explanation ofwhy we walk in circles.
[08:35.02]一个简单的例子可以帮助你理解他对为什么我们走路会转圈这个问题做的解释.
[08:38.95]Have you ever wound up a toy automobile10 and started it off across the floor?
[08:42.42]你曾经给一辆玩具汽车上满发条并让它们地板上跑过吗?
[08:45.90]Then you know that it will rarely travel in a straight path.
[08:48.47]那么你就知道它很少能沿一条直线运动.
[08:51.04]It will travel, instead, in some kind of are, or curve.
[08:54.02]相反,它会跑成一条弧线或一条曲线[08:57.00]If it is to travel in a straight llne,
[08:59.02]如果让它跑成直线,
[09:01.05]the wheels on both sideshave to be of exactly equal size.
[09:04.22]两边的轮子就要完全一样大小.
[09:07.40]If they are not,
[09:09.07]如果不是,
[09:10.74]the little automobile turns toward the sidewith the smaller wheels.
[09:13.86]小玩具汽车就会向较小的轮子那边转.
[09:16.98]Circular, movement in walking is caused in much the same way.
[09:20.16]行走时的转圈现象 也是由十分相同的原因引起的.
[09:23.33]Us-ally a manwalking will "watch his step" and "look where he is going."
[09:27.25]通常一个人走路时会"注意脚下"并"看清方向".
[09:31.17]He needs his senses' especially his eyesto get to the point he intends to reach.
[09:35.14]他需要运用他的感觉,特别是眼睛,以到达自己要去的地方.
[09:39.11]When he cannot use his eyes to guide his steps,
[09:41.77]当他不能用眼睛引导脚步时,
[09:44.44]he will walk straight only if he takes a stepof the same length with each foot.
[09:47.47]只有两脚迈出的步伐完全一样他才能走得笔直.
[09:50.50]In most people,however,muscle development is not the same in both legs
[09:54.18]然而对于多数人来说,两腿的肌肉发达程度并不一样,
[09:57.86]so that it is probable that the steps will be uneven11.
[10:00.44]所以走起步来很可能不匀称.
[10:03.01]The difference may be so small that no one is aware of it.
[10:05.69]这种差异也许很小以至于没有人会注意到它.
[10:08.37]But small as his, it can cause circular movement.
[10:11.25]但是虽然差异很小,它却能千百万边境转圈移动.
[10:14.14]Let us suppose that a man's left foot takes a step 20 inches long
[10:17.67]假设一个人左脚每步走20英寸
[10:21.19]and that his right foot takes a step 30 inches long.
[10:24.08]而右脚每步走30英寸.
[10:26.96]Now suppose he takes ten step
[10:29.34]现在假设他走了10步
[10:31.72]--five with his left footand five with his right.
[10:34.40]----左脚5步右脚5步.
[10:37.07]His left foot will travel 100 inches.
[10:39.56]其左脚将走100英寸.
[10:42.04]His right foot will travel 150 inches.
[10:44.82]其右脚则走了150英寸.
[10:47.60]This sounds impossible. One foot cannot remain 50 inches behind the other
[10:51.53]这听起来不太可能.一只脚不可能落后于另一只脚50英寸.
[10:55.46]What really happens?At each step the man turns a little bit to the left.
[10:59.29]事实会怎样呢?每走一步,这个人就往左偏一点.
[11:03.12]Sooner or later he makes a complete circle
[11:05.69]迟早他就会走完整的一圈.
[11:08.26]The tracks of his feet, however, make two circles, one inside the other
[11:12.00]他的足迹,就这样,形成内外两个圈.
[11:15.74]His left foot makes the smaller circle because it is taking smaller steps
[11:19.00]他的左脚走了内圈,因为左脚步伐较小.
[11:22.27]His right foot makes the larger circle because it is taking larger steps
[11:25.83]他的右脚走了外圈,因为右脚步伐较大.
[11:29.40]This is why a person may walk in an are when he sets out in a straight line.
[11:32.88]这就是一个人往前走直线却反而走出弧线来的原因.
[11:36.37]The muscles of a man's arms are no more identical than the muscles of his legs [11:40.09]一个人手臂的肌肉和他的两腿的肌肉一样不是完全相同的.
[11:43.82]This explains why the rowers who set out to cross the lakeat night rowed in a circle.
[11:47.70]这就解释了为什么划船的人在夜间想划过湖面反而却划成圆圈.
[11:51.58]By the same rule, a bird's wings do not develop evenly
[11:54.81]同样的规则 ,鸟儿的翅膀也发育不均衡,
[11:58.05]and so it will fly in circles when blinded.
[12:00.48]于是当蒙住鸟儿的眼睛时,它就会转圈飞.
[12:02.91]Thus,dear readers,our circular mystery has a very straight answer.
[12:06.39]因此,亲爱的读者,我们的圆圈奥秘却有着一个非常直截了当的答案.

点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 civilized UwRzDg     
a.有教养的,文雅的
参考例句:
  • Racism is abhorrent to a civilized society. 文明社会憎恶种族主义。
  • rising crime in our so-called civilized societies 在我们所谓文明社会中日益增多的犯罪行为
2 friction JQMzr     
n.摩擦,摩擦力
参考例句:
  • When Joan returned to work,the friction between them increased.琼回来工作后,他们之间的摩擦加剧了。
  • Friction acts on moving bodies and brings them to a stop.摩擦力作用于运动着的物体,并使其停止。
3 consensus epMzA     
n.(意见等的)一致,一致同意,共识
参考例句:
  • Can we reach a consensus on this issue?我们能在这个问题上取得一致意见吗?
  • What is the consensus of opinion at the afternoon meeting?下午会议上一致的意见是什么?
4 smokers d3e72c6ca3bac844ba5aa381bd66edba     
吸烟者( smoker的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Many smokers who are chemically addicted to nicotine cannot cut down easily. 许多有尼古丁瘾的抽烟人不容易把烟戒掉。
  • Chain smokers don't care about the dangers of smoking. 烟鬼似乎不在乎吸烟带来的种种危害。
5 lighting CpszPL     
n.照明,光线的明暗,舞台灯光
参考例句:
  • The gas lamp gradually lost ground to electric lighting.煤气灯逐渐为电灯所代替。
  • The lighting in that restaurant is soft and romantic.那个餐馆照明柔和而且浪漫。
6 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
7 blindfolded a9731484f33b972c5edad90f4d61a5b1     
v.(尤指用布)挡住(某人)的视线( blindfold的过去式 );蒙住(某人)的眼睛;使不理解;蒙骗
参考例句:
  • The hostages were tied up and blindfolded. 人质被捆绑起来并蒙上了眼睛。
  • They were each blindfolded with big red handkerchiefs. 他们每个人的眼睛都被一块红色大手巾蒙住了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
8 dense aONzX     
a.密集的,稠密的,浓密的;密度大的
参考例句:
  • The general ambushed his troops in the dense woods. 将军把部队埋伏在浓密的树林里。
  • The path was completely covered by the dense foliage. 小路被树叶厚厚地盖了一层。
9 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不变的,准备好的;(计算机)固定的
参考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
10 automobile rP1yv     
n.汽车,机动车
参考例句:
  • He is repairing the brake lever of an automobile.他正在修理汽车的刹车杆。
  • The automobile slowed down to go around the curves in the road.汽车在路上转弯时放慢了速度。
11 uneven akwwb     
adj.不平坦的,不规则的,不均匀的
参考例句:
  • The sidewalk is very uneven—be careful where you walk.这人行道凹凸不平—走路时请小心。
  • The country was noted for its uneven distribution of land resources.这个国家以土地资源分布不均匀出名。
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