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The Acropolis

时间:2005-06-09 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:幽幽草   字体: [ ]
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The 1)boldness and ambition of the Acropolis was funded by the 2)spoils of war, a war that determined1 the fate of Greece. In 480 BC, 3)Athens 4)lay in ruins conquered by the 5)seemingly 6)unstoppable Persian Empire. At sea the Persian 7)armada of 800 8)vessels 9)bore down on the retreating Greek fleet who were hopelessly outnumbered. On the night before the inevitable3 battle, an owl4, symbol of their protective goddess Athena, was seen flying through the night sky. Inspired by this good 10)omen5, the Greek navy daringly engaged and defeated the Persian fleet at the battle of Salamis. In one of the great 11)naval6 victories of history, the Greeks sank 200 enemy ships while losing only 40 of their own. The Persian threat had been overcome. The unexpected victory heralded7 a new period of stability for Athens and her allies. The Golden Age of Greece was born.

A permanent 12)alliance of Agean city-states was formed called the Delian League to defend Greece’s new found independence from the Persian 13)menace. One man, Heracles of Athens emerged as its 14)undisputed leader. His ambition was simple: to make Athens a political and cultural capital, effectively creating the Athenian Empire. The Acropolis was to be the master 15)stroke of Heracles’ power broking, a monumental declaration of Athens’ dominance in the New World order.

 In 447 BC, he committed the new empire and its wealth to its construction. He brought together three unique artistic8 talents, Phidias the sculptor9, and architects Ictinus and Callicrates. Together they imagined a 16)complex of temples and public places to be built along classical ideals but 17)exceeding them in scale and perfection. Amazingly they worked without architectural plans or drawings as we understand them today. Instead they were guided by a set of 18)codes and principles dictated10 by the art of 19)geometry. For the architects of Athens’ Golden Age, the mastery of geometry was a magical discovery that revealed the glories of nature. The Acropolis of Callicrates and Ictinus is a 20)startling celebration of their new intellectual power.

The Acropolis shows a maturity11 of Greek mathematics and also an appreciation12 of geometrical ideas. This is a work of 21)utmost importance in that it lays the foundations of logic13 into mathematics and enables us to use this as a tool to explore the unknown.

Every detail of the Acropolis, its 22)masonry14, sculptures and painted decorations were to be the finest ever created.CE

 

12、雅典卫城

 

建造雅典卫城的大胆想法和雄图来自一场纷扰的战事,一场决定了希腊命运的战事。公元前480年,锐不可挡的波斯帝国大军攻克雅典,雅典夷为废墟。汪洋大海上,800艘波斯战舰穷追猛打希腊战船,数量远远落后的希腊战船步步后退。就在不可避免即将开战的前夜,象征着希腊人守护女神雅典娜的猫头鹰在夜空中飞翔出现。在此吉兆的鼓舞下,希腊海军军心大振,在撒拉米斯战役中一举击败波斯舰队。在历史上一次获得伟大胜利的海战中,希腊军队击沉200艘敌船,己方只损失40艘。击败了入侵的波斯军队。意想不到的胜利令雅典及其盟国得到新的安定。希腊进入了黄金时期。

爱琴海各城邦组成德利安联盟,携手永久保卫脱离波斯魔掌、新获独立的希腊。一个名叫赫拉克利斯的人众望所归成为雅典领袖。他的抱负很明确,就是令雅典成为政治文化中心,有效地创建起一个雅典人的王国。雅典卫城便是在赫拉克利斯的大力策划下兴建起来的,它具有非常的意义,宣告雅典在世界新秩序中的统治地位。

公元前447年,他全力建设新帝国,由聚敛财富到兴建土木。他请来了三位不同凡响的艺术天才-雕刻家斐迪亚斯,建筑师艾士提努、卡利克拉提斯。他们一起设想如何将神殿和公共场所组合到一起,并决定沿用古典设计,但将在规模和美学上进行突破。神奇的是,他们当时既没有诸如我们今天的建筑计划也没有蓝图,而是依据一套几何学的符号和法则来施工。雅典黄金时期的建筑师认为,掌握几何学是发掘自然美的魔法。卫城使卡利克拉提斯和艾士提努有机会一展杰出的智慧与身手。

雅典卫城显示了希腊人对数学的精通以及对几何学的推崇。这项工程至关重要,它奠定了将逻辑引入数学的基石,令后人得以借此途径探索未知世界。

雅典卫城在每一处细节上,无论石匠技术、雕刻艺术,还是绘画装饰,都是前无古人的精美绝伦。CE

 

1) boldness [bEuldnis] n. 大胆,勇敢

2) spoil [spCil] n. 摧毁,扰乱

3) Athens [5AWinz] n.雅典,希腊首都

4) lie in ruins 成为废墟

5) seemingly [5si:miNli] adv. 表面上地

6) unstoppable [5Qn5stCpEhEl] a.不可挡的

7) armada [a:5ma:dE] n.舰队

8) vessel2 [5vesEl] n.

9) bear down on 逼近

10) omen [5Eumen] n.预示,征兆

11) naval [5neivEl] a. 海军的

12) alliance [E5laiEns] n. 联盟,联合

13) menace [5menEs] n. 威胁,恐吓 

14) undisputed [Qndi5spju:tid] a. 无可置辩的

15) stroke [strEuk] n. 笔画,努力

16) complex [5kCmpleks] n. 综合体

17) exceed [ik5si:d] v. 超越,胜过

18) code [kEud] n. 代码,密码,编码

19) geometry [dVi5Cmitri] n. 几何

20) startling [5sta:tliN] a. 令人吃惊的

21) utmost [5QtmEust] a. 极度的,最远的

22) masonry [5meisnri] n. 石工术

 


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 determined duszmP     
adj.坚定的;有决心的
参考例句:
  • I have determined on going to Tibet after graduation.我已决定毕业后去西藏。
  • He determined to view the rooms behind the office.他决定查看一下办公室后面的房间。
2 vessel 4L1zi     
n.船舶;容器,器皿;管,导管,血管
参考例句:
  • The vessel is fully loaded with cargo for Shanghai.这艘船满载货物驶往上海。
  • You should put the water into a vessel.你应该把水装入容器中。
3 inevitable 5xcyq     
adj.不可避免的,必然发生的
参考例句:
  • Mary was wearing her inevitable large hat.玛丽戴着她总是戴的那顶大帽子。
  • The defeat had inevitable consequences for British policy.战败对英国政策不可避免地产生了影响。
4 owl 7KFxk     
n.猫头鹰,枭
参考例句:
  • Her new glasses make her look like an owl.她的新眼镜让她看上去像只猫头鹰。
  • I'm a night owl and seldom go to bed until after midnight.我睡得很晚,经常半夜后才睡觉。
5 omen N5jzY     
n.征兆,预兆;vt.预示
参考例句:
  • The superstitious regard it as a bad omen.迷信的人认为那是一种恶兆。
  • Could this at last be a good omen for peace?这是否终于可以视作和平的吉兆了?
6 naval h1lyU     
adj.海军的,军舰的,船的
参考例句:
  • He took part in a great naval battle.他参加了一次大海战。
  • The harbour is an important naval base.该港是一个重要的海军基地。
7 heralded a97fc5524a0d1c7e322d0bd711a85789     
v.预示( herald的过去式和过去分词 );宣布(好或重要)
参考例句:
  • The singing of the birds heralded in the day. 鸟鸣报晓。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • A fanfare of trumpets heralded the arrival of the King. 嘹亮的小号声宣告了国王驾到。 来自《简明英汉词典》
8 artistic IeWyG     
adj.艺术(家)的,美术(家)的;善于艺术创作的
参考例句:
  • The picture on this screen is a good artistic work.这屏风上的画是件很好的艺术品。
  • These artistic handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends.外国朋友很喜欢这些美术工艺品。
9 sculptor 8Dyz4     
n.雕刻家,雕刻家
参考例句:
  • A sculptor forms her material.雕塑家把材料塑造成雕塑品。
  • The sculptor rounded the clay into a sphere.那位雕塑家把黏土做成了一个球状。
10 dictated aa4dc65f69c81352fa034c36d66908ec     
v.大声讲或读( dictate的过去式和过去分词 );口授;支配;摆布
参考例句:
  • He dictated a letter to his secretary. 他向秘书口授信稿。
  • No person of a strong character likes to be dictated to. 没有一个个性强的人愿受人使唤。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 maturity 47nzh     
n.成熟;完成;(支票、债券等)到期
参考例句:
  • These plants ought to reach maturity after five years.这些植物五年后就该长成了。
  • This is the period at which the body attains maturity.这是身体发育成熟的时期。
12 appreciation Pv9zs     
n.评价;欣赏;感谢;领会,理解;价格上涨
参考例句:
  • I would like to express my appreciation and thanks to you all.我想对你们所有人表达我的感激和谢意。
  • I'll be sending them a donation in appreciation of their help.我将送给他们一笔捐款以感谢他们的帮助。
13 logic j0HxI     
n.逻辑(学);逻辑性
参考例句:
  • What sort of logic is that?这是什么逻辑?
  • I don't follow the logic of your argument.我不明白你的论点逻辑性何在。
14 masonry y21yI     
n.砖土建筑;砖石
参考例句:
  • Masonry is a careful skill.砖石工艺是一种精心的技艺。
  • The masonry of the old building began to crumble.旧楼房的砖石结构开始崩落。
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