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时间:2006-10-27 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:toad   字体: [ ]

Social Problems

In-Class Reading

Latchkey Children--Knock, Knock, Is Anybody Home?

I. Word List
Directions: Memorize the words and phrases before class. You will benefit from your effort when you get the passage from your teacher and read it in class.

New Words

n. 可以得到,容易得到

advisable *
adj. sensible 明智的,可取的
e.g. It's advisable to reserve a seat on this train.

assistance *
n. help or support 帮助,援助

athletic1 *
adj. physically2 strong and good at sports 运动的

basis *
n. (plural bases) 基础
e.g. on a daily/weekly basis 每天/周

burden *
n. a heavy load that you carry 负担
e.g. Concern was expressed about the greater burden of work being imposed on teachers.

adv. not hiding one's thoughts; frankly4 and honestly 坦率地,直率而诚恳地

adj. extremely interesting or exciting so that one has to pay attention to 使人非注意不可的
e.g. My second and more compelling reason for going to Dearborn was to see the Henry Ford5 Museum.

concern *
n. worry, anxiety 忧虑,焦虑
e.g. The European Union has expressed concern about reports of political violence in Africa.

confident *
adj. sure that one can do something or deal with a situation successfully 自信的;有信心的
e.g. She was confident of winning a prize.

conversely *
adv. 相反地
e.g. Running can strengthen your heart and muscles, but conversely, it can also damage your knee joints7 and the bones in your feet.

cope *
v. succeed in dealing8 with a difficult problem or situation 对付,处理
e.g. It must be difficult to cope with three small children and a job.

n. a period of ten years 十年

determination *
n. The quality of being firmly committed to doing something 决心
e.g. I couldn't help admiring her courage and determination.

v. sleep lightly (打)瞌睡
e.g. I dozed10 off during the film.

adv. 有效地
e.g. The tablets work effectively if you take them with a hot drink.

emergency *
n. 紧急情况
e.g. How will disabled people escape in an emergency?

emotional *
adj. of the emotions 情感的
e.g. The meeting was an emotional moment for both of them.

enable *
v. give someone the ability to do something 使(某人)能够做某事
e.g. The new test should enable doctors to detect the disease early.

exhausted11 *
adj. extremely tired and having no energy 极其疲倦的
e.g. I was absolutely exhausted when I got back.

expense *
n. the amount of money spent on something 花费
e.g. Nine dollars for a complete dinner is a small expense.

fee *
n. the regular payments one makes for one's course of instruction 费用
e.g. My parents couldn't afford the fees for me to study music.

foster *
v. encourage the development or growth of
e.g. These sessions are designed to foster better working relationships.

fulfillment *
n. satisfaction after successful effort 满意;满足
e.g. He gets a great sense of fulfillment from his work.

furthermore *
adv. in addition, moreover 此外,再者
e.g. I suggest we go to the Italian restaurant--it's very good and furthermore it's very cheap.

guilty *
adj. feeling very ashamed and sad because you have done something wrong 内疚的
e.g. I feel so guilty, leaving all this to you.

n. a person who takes care of the home and raises children rather than working for money 主妇,操持家务者

interview *
n. a formal meeting at which someone is asked questions in order to find out if they are suitable for a job or a course of study 面试

invaluable13 *
adj. extremely useful 价值高得无法估量的;极宝贵的
e.g. Such data will prove invaluable to researchers studying fish populations.

isolate14 *
v. cause to lose one's friends or supporters 使隔离,使孤立
e.g. Political influence is being used to shape public opinion and isolate critics.

n. isolating16 or being isolated17 隔离,脱离

n. 钥匙

maturity18 *
n. 成熟
e.g. Only half of the young birds may live to maturity.

necessity *
n. 必要性
e.g. Most women, like men, work from economic necessity.

optimum *
adj. the best or most suitable 最佳的,最适宜的
e.g. The balloonists (乘气球的人) are waiting for optimum weather conditions before taking off.

overwhelming *
adj. having such a great effect on you that you are confused and do not know how to react 势不可挡的;巨大的

phenomenon *
n. (plural phenomena) 现象

priority *
n. the thing that you think is the most important and needs attention before anything else 优先考试的事
e.g. Earning enough money to keep his family is a high priority.

relax *
v. (make something) become less tight, stiff, etc. (使某事物)松弛,放松等
e.g. Let your muscles relax slowly.

resentful *
adj. feeling angry and upset about something that you think is unfair 充满忿恨的,怨恨的
e.g. At first I felt very resentful and angry about losing my job.

resentment19 *
n. 愤恨,怨恨

secure *
adj. safe and happy 安心的,无忧虑的
e.g. She felt secure and protected when she was with him.

steadily20 *
adv. 持续地;不断地
e.g. Her condition got steadily worse.

stimulate21 *
v. encourage an activity to begin or develop further 鼓励,激励
e.g. The discussions stimulated22 a free exchange of ideas.

adv. 成功地

suppress *
v. stop yourself from showing your feelings 抑制(感情、思想等)
e.g. She suppressed a strong desire to scream.

supreme23 *
adj. the greatest possible 最大(程度)的,极度的
e.g. He showed supreme courage in the face of terrible danger.

tuition *
1) teaching or instruction 教学,讲授
2) payment for instruction 学费

v. unfasten the lock on a door (用钥匙)开(门等的)锁
e.g. He unlocked the car and threw the coat on to the back seat.

adj. unwatched 无人照看(监督)的

void *
n. 空虚感

widespread *
adj. existing or happening in many places or situations, or among many people 普遍的,广泛的
e.g. Food shortages are widespread.

Latchkey Children-Knock, Knock, Is Anybody Home?

1 In the United States the cost of living has been steadily rising for the past few decades. Food prices, clothing costs, housing expenses, and tuition fees are constantly getting higher and higher. Partly because of financial need, and partly because of career choices for personal fulfillment, mothers have been leaving the traditional role of full-time24 homemaker. Increasingly they have been taking salaried jobs outside the home.
2 Making such a significant role change affects the entire family, especially the children. Some consequences are obvious. For example, dinnertime is at a later hour. The emotional impact, on the other hand, can be more subtle. Mothers leave home in the morning, feeling guilty because they will not be home when their children return from school. They suppress their guilt12 since they believe that their work will benefit everyone in the long run. The income will enable the family to save for college tuition, take an extended vacation, buy a new car, and so on.
3 The emotional impact on the children can be significant. It is quite common for children to feel hurt and resentful. After all, they are alone several hours, and they feel that their mothers should "be there" for them. They might need assistance with their homework or want to share the day's activities. All too often, however, the mothers arrive home exhausted and face the immediate25 task of preparing dinner. Their priority is making the evening meal for the family, not engaging in relaxed conversation.
4 Latchkey children range in age from six to thirteen. On a daily basis they return from school and unlock the door to their home with the key hanging around their necks. They are now on their own, alone, in quiet, empty rooms. For some youngsters, it is a productive period of private time, while for others it is a frightening, lonely void. For reasons of safety, many parents forbid their children to go out to play or to have visitors at home. The youngsters, therefore, feel isolated.
5 Latchkey children who were interviewed reported diverse reactions. Some latchkey children said that being on their own for a few hours each day fostered, or stimulated, a sense of independence and responsibility. They felt loved and trusted, and this feeling encouraged them to be self-confident. Latchkey girls, by observing how their mothers coped with the demands of a family and a job, learned the role model of a working mother. Some children stated that they used their unsupervised free time to perfect their athletic skills, such as playing basketball. Others read books or practiced a musical instrument. These children looked upon their free time after school as an opportunity for personal development. It led to positive, productive, and valuable experiences.
6 Conversely, many latchkey children expressed much bitterness, resentment, and anger for being made to live in this fashion. Many claimed that too much responsibility was placed on them at an early age; it was an overwhelming burden. They were little people who really wanted to be protected, encouraged, and cared for through attention from their mothers. Coming home to an empty house was disappointing, lonely, and often frightening. They felt abandoned by their mothers. After all, it seemed to them that most other children had "normal" families whose mothers were "around," whereas their own mothers were never home. Many children turned on the television for the whole afternoon day after day, in order to diminish feelings of isolation; furthermore, the voices were comforting. Frequently, they would doze off.
7 Because of either economic necessity or strong determination for personal fulfillment, or both, the phenomenon of latchkey children is widespread in our society. Whatever the reason, it is a compelling situation with which families must cope. The question to ask is not whether or not mothers should work full-time. Given the reality of the situation, the question to ask is: how can an optimum plan be worked out to deal effectively with the situation.
8 It is advisable for all members of the family to express their feelings and concerns about the inevitable26 change candidly. These remarks should be discussed fully6. Many factors must be taken into consideration: the children's personality and maturity, the amount of time the children will be alone, the safety of the neighborhood, accessibility of help in case of an emergency. Of supreme importance is the quality of the relationship between parents and children. It is most important that the children be secure in the knowledge that they are loved. Feeling loved provides invaluable emotional strength to cope successfully with almost any difficulty that arises in life. (760 words)

Time taken: _____ minutes

Phrases and Expressions

after all 毕竟,终究
It is a sentence modifier used to emphasize something to be taken into consideration.
e.g. I don't know why you're so concerned. It isn't your problem after all.

all too often
something sad, disappointing, or annoying happens too much
e.g. All too often victims of bullying27 (欺负) are too frightened to ask for help.

cope with
succeed in dealing with a difficult problem or situation 对付;妥善处理(棘手之事)
e.g. Young as she was, she could cope with the difficulties wonderfully well.

doze off
fall into a light sleep, especially during the daytime 打瞌睡;打盹
e.g. I was just dozing28 off when the phone rang.

in case of
in the event that something happens 在......情况下
e.g. In case of fire, break the glass.

in the long run
later in the future, not immediately; eventually 从长远来看
e.g. The less you rely on pain killers29 now, the better it will be for your health in the long run.

look (up) on... as
think of... as
e.g. A lot of people looked (up) on him as an authority.

on a daily (weekly, yearly) basis
every day (week, year)
e.g. All rooms are cleaned on a daily basis.

on one's own
alone 独自
e.g. I've been living on my own for four years now.

take...into consideration
remember to think about something important when you are making a decision or judgment30 考虑某事物
e.g. Taking everything into consideration, they ought to be given another chance.

work out
devise or plan something 设计
e.g. The general worked out a new plan of attack.


1 athletic sOPy8     
  • This area has been marked off for athletic practice.这块地方被划出来供体育训练之用。
  • He is an athletic star.他是一个运动明星。
2 physically iNix5     
  • He was out of sorts physically,as well as disordered mentally.他浑身不舒服,心绪也很乱。
  • Every time I think about it I feel physically sick.一想起那件事我就感到极恶心。
3 candidly YxwzQ1     
  • He has stopped taking heroin now,but admits candidly that he will always be a drug addict.他眼下已经不再吸食海洛因了,不过他坦言自己永远都是个瘾君子。
  • Candidly,David,I think you're being unreasonable.大卫,说实话我认为你不讲道理。
4 frankly fsXzcf     
  • To speak frankly, I don't like the idea at all.老实说,我一点也不赞成这个主意。
  • Frankly speaking, I'm not opposed to reform.坦率地说,我不反对改革。
5 Ford KiIxx     
  • They were guarding the bridge,so we forded the river.他们驻守在那座桥上,所以我们只能涉水过河。
  • If you decide to ford a stream,be extremely careful.如果已决定要涉过小溪,必须极度小心。
6 fully Gfuzd     
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
7 joints d97dcffd67eca7255ca514e4084b746e     
接头( joint的名词复数 ); 关节; 公共场所(尤指价格低廉的饮食和娱乐场所) (非正式); 一块烤肉 (英式英语)
  • Expansion joints of various kinds are fitted on gas mains. 各种各样的伸缩接头被安装在煤气的总管道上了。
  • Expansion joints of various kinds are fitted on steam pipes. 各种各样的伸缩接头被安装在蒸气管道上了。
8 dealing NvjzWP     
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
9 doze IsoxV     
  • He likes to have a doze after lunch.他喜欢午饭后打个盹。
  • While the adults doze,the young play.大人们在打瞌睡,而孩子们在玩耍。
10 dozed 30eca1f1e3c038208b79924c30b35bfc     
v.打盹儿,打瞌睡( doze的过去式和过去分词 )
  • He boozed till daylight and dozed into the afternoon. 他喝了个通霄,昏沉沉地一直睡到下午。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • I dozed off during the soporific music. 我听到这催人入睡的音乐,便不知不觉打起盹儿来了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 exhausted 7taz4r     
  • It was a long haul home and we arrived exhausted.搬运回家的这段路程特别长,到家时我们已筋疲力尽。
  • Jenny was exhausted by the hustle of city life.珍妮被城市生活的忙乱弄得筋疲力尽。
12 guilt 9e6xr     
  • She tried to cover up her guilt by lying.她企图用谎言掩饰自己的罪行。
  • Don't lay a guilt trip on your child about schoolwork.别因为功课责备孩子而使他觉得很内疚。
13 invaluable s4qxe     
  • A computer would have been invaluable for this job.一台计算机对这个工作的作用会是无法估计的。
  • This information was invaluable to him.这个消息对他来说是非常宝贵的。
14 isolate G3Exu     
  • Do not isolate yourself from others.不要把自己孤立起来。
  • We should never isolate ourselves from the masses.我们永远不能脱离群众。
15 isolation 7qMzTS     
  • The millionaire lived in complete isolation from the outside world.这位富翁过着与世隔绝的生活。
  • He retired and lived in relative isolation.他退休后,生活比较孤寂。
16 isolating 44778bf8913bd1ed228a8571456b945b     
adj.孤立的,绝缘的v.使隔离( isolate的现在分词 );将…剔出(以便看清和单独处理);使(某物质、细胞等)分离;使离析
  • Colour filters are not very effective in isolating narrow spectral bands. 一些滤色片不能很有效地分离狭窄的光谱带。 来自辞典例句
  • This became known as the streak method for isolating bacteria. 这个方法以后就称为分离细菌的划线法。 来自辞典例句
17 isolated bqmzTd     
  • His bad behaviour was just an isolated incident. 他的不良行为只是个别事件。
  • Patients with the disease should be isolated. 这种病的患者应予以隔离。
18 maturity 47nzh     
  • These plants ought to reach maturity after five years.这些植物五年后就该长成了。
  • This is the period at which the body attains maturity.这是身体发育成熟的时期。
19 resentment 4sgyv     
  • All her feelings of resentment just came pouring out.她一股脑儿倾吐出所有的怨恨。
  • She cherished a deep resentment under the rose towards her employer.她暗中对她的雇主怀恨在心。
20 steadily Qukw6     
  • The scope of man's use of natural resources will steadily grow.人类利用自然资源的广度将日益扩大。
  • Our educational reform was steadily led onto the correct path.我们的教学改革慢慢上轨道了。
21 stimulate wuSwL     
  • Your encouragement will stimulate me to further efforts.你的鼓励会激发我进一步努力。
  • Success will stimulate the people for fresh efforts.成功能鼓舞人们去作新的努力。
22 stimulated Rhrz78     
  • The exhibition has stimulated interest in her work. 展览增进了人们对她作品的兴趣。
  • The award has stimulated her into working still harder. 奖金促使她更加努力地工作。
23 supreme PHqzc     
  • It was the supreme moment in his life.那是他一生中最重要的时刻。
  • He handed up the indictment to the supreme court.他把起诉书送交最高法院。
24 full-time SsBz42     
  • A full-time job may be too much for her.全天工作她恐怕吃不消。
  • I don't know how she copes with looking after her family and doing a full-time job.既要照顾家庭又要全天工作,我不知道她是如何对付的。
25 immediate aapxh     
  • His immediate neighbours felt it their duty to call.他的近邻认为他们有责任去拜访。
  • We declared ourselves for the immediate convocation of the meeting.我们主张立即召开这个会议。
26 inevitable 5xcyq     
  • Mary was wearing her inevitable large hat.玛丽戴着她总是戴的那顶大帽子。
  • The defeat had inevitable consequences for British policy.战败对英国政策不可避免地产生了影响。
27 bullying f23dd48b95ce083d3774838a76074f5f     
v.恐吓,威逼( bully的现在分词 );豪;跋扈
  • Many cases of bullying go unreported . 很多恐吓案件都没有人告发。
  • All cases of bullying will be severely dealt with. 所有以大欺小的情况都将受到严肃处理。 来自《简明英汉词典》
28 dozing dozing     
v.打瞌睡,假寐 n.瞌睡
  • The economy shows no signs of faltering. 经济没有衰退的迹象。
  • He never falters in his determination. 他的决心从不动摇。
29 killers c1a8ff788475e2c3424ec8d3f91dd856     
凶手( killer的名词复数 ); 消灭…者; 致命物; 极难的事
  • He remained steadfast in his determination to bring the killers to justice. 他要将杀人凶手绳之以法的决心一直没有动摇。
  • They were professional killers who did in John. 杀死约翰的这些人是职业杀手。
30 judgment e3xxC     
  • The chairman flatters himself on his judgment of people.主席自认为他审视人比别人高明。
  • He's a man of excellent judgment.他眼力过人。
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