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新编大学英语阅读部分第三册Unit12-2

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Unit 12
Public Speaking

After-Class Reading

PASSAGE I Food for Thought[1]

I am very happy to be invited to talk to the International Club this afternoon. This group does so much for our school and community that I couldn't resist accepting your invitation. I'm a firm believer in better international relations. To prove it, I ate pizza with Italian sausage last night, French toast this morning, and tacos for lunch. While I might overdo1 eating sometimes, I'm not too unusual. Americans have a love affair with food. We simply love food in all forms, shapes, and sizes.
You've all heard the remark, "The way to a man's heart is through his stomach."[2] That's probably a few years before modern medicine found that the way to a man's heart is to turn right at the liver. You may have heard Napoleon's famous saying, "An army marches on its stomach."[3] Perhaps that accounts for the slowness of some armies. To these celebrated2 quotations4, I add one more: "The way to express Americanism is through your stomach."[4] My quote probably won't go down in history; nevertheless, it is true.
As a matter of fact, it was a foreign exchange student[5] sponsored by your club who really first convinced me about the importance of food in understanding people. Her name was Carmen Morales, and some of you might remember her. She came from Colombia and spent a year at our school. One winter's day after school, Carmen and I had a conversation. I was having my usual after-school candy bar[6] when I saw her. She looked a little glum5, so I thought I'd cheer her up.

"What's the matter?" I asked, unwrapping my candy bar.
"Isn't it obvious?" she said. "Just look at me!"
"You look fine to me," I said. In fact, she didn't look fine. She looked as if she might cry.
"I've gained fifteen pounds since I've been in this country," she said.
"What's the problem? Are you eating because you miss your folks back home?" She looked at me and shook her head. And I washed the candy bar down with the last swallow of Coke.
"It's you Americans," she exclaimed. "Eat, eat, eat! Wherever you go, you eat! And I'm becoming one of you."
Well, that did surprise me. I thought to be an American you had to take a citizenship6 test, be sworn in, and everything. I didn't know wolfing down a couple of hamburgers would do it. When I told her this, it was some time before I could calm her down. She finally told me, "You Americans love food. There are doughnuts at our club meetings before school. When I go out at night with my American sister, we almost always stop off for a snack. And a snack to her is a hamburger and fries. In my country, we have breakfast, a large afternoon meal, and a light evening meal — without all these snacks."
She was right. It took a foreign exchange student to show me something important about us Americans. We are very much in love with food. It's part of being American. As I began to think about it, I noticed the importance food has for us. What's another word used worldwide for American? Yankee. How do we use it? Yankee pot roast.[7] Southern culture has given us some of our finest authors and our noblest traditions. What do we remember? Southern fried chicken.[8] Why this kind of thing is as American as apple pie![9]
Think about the important American symbols that are closely tied to food. Baseball — America's national pastime. But what's a ballgame without hot dogs, peanuts, and Cracker7 Jacks8?[10] Or think about Hollywood. Hollywood is a symbol the world over of America's glamour9 and excitement, but how often do you watch a movie with your fingers glistening11 in the dim glow of the theater with the extra butter you asked for in the extra large tub of popcorn12?
Even if you watch the movie at home, it's likely that food will be there. We have TV trays[11] from which we eat our TV dinners[12]. And do you really watch those commercials, or are you one of the dozen or so of us who know that commercials are put on TV so we can have a break during which to raid the refrigerator[13]?
Carmen really got me to thinking. Even our nation's most important cultural heroes are identified with food. Popeye[14] eats his spinach13, usually not even stopping to cook it. Dagwood[15] has his "hero" sandwich. Snoopy[16] has his chocolate chip cookies. Even President Reagan had his jelly beans.[17] Our space program promises to "boldly go where no man has gone before", and what goes with them? Instant orange drink![18]
To Americans, food means much more than nutrition, more than the basic three meals a day. The tacos guiltily squeezed in during the trip to the mall. The cupcake that beckoned15 you and pleaded until you put it out of its misery16.[19]
Some of us even have a new hobby — recreational eating. We eat at parties, meetings, brunches17, and coffee breaks. We eat to have a good time. We even have fad18 food with absolutely no purpose other than to pass time. Bubble gum[20] is a kind of food that serves as a toy. Even after the flavor is gone, it's there to pop, snap, stretch, and chomp19.[21]
However, nowhere is our love affair with food more evident than in our passion for the hamburger. There are enough hamburger restaurants to feed us all three meals a day every day. We are told that we "deserve a break today". To do what? To eat, naturally! How big will the hamburger be? Three ounces? Four? A third of a pound? Carmen didn't understand that the simple snack of a burger and fries that her host-sister had at night was more than a snack: it was a display of patriotism20.
Even those of us who diet still love to eat. Dieters find themselves drawn21 toward diet foods and health foods[22] as a substitute for the real thing. A bean curd22[23] sandwich may be a poor substitute for a hot dog, but as Shakespeare said, "Love is blind." I believe that was in Hamlet or maybe Macbeef.[24] American food lovers will fall for anything they can chew and swallow.
But perhaps our love affair with food isn't all bad. After all, it broadens international understanding, something the International Club really cares about. We Americans love all kinds of food: Italian, Chinese, Mexican, Greek, French, Japanese, German, and many others. We are a virtual United Nations of food.
Not only that, did you know eating keeps the crime rate down? Why, if more people were sticking ribs23 in their mouths instead of a gun in someone's ribs, we could solve the crime problem entirely24.
Eating also keeps the farmers in business. If we weren't so intent on consuming so much, many family farms might go under.
Eating keeps teenagers employed. How many of you have worked at a fast food place — building pizzas, stuffing tacos, or flipping26 hamburgers?
And eating is better than fighting.
As I reflect on it, it's a good thing I talked to Carmen that day. She did make me realize something about Americans and food. Eating is part of being American. We eat because it's fun. We eat to be friendly and sociable27. We eat because we are free to do what we want to do. We eat what we want, when we want — and that's American. That's something we can teach the foreign exchange students we look forward to having this year — our eating habits reflect Americ's value on freedom.
By bringing people like Carmen Morales to America, you in the International Club help Americans like me learn about America, as well as about other countries of the world.
Now will you excuse me? I have to grab a snack. After all this talking, I'm just starved. (1320 words)


Proper Names

Americanism
崇美主义(指对美国及其制度、习俗的信仰或效忠感情)

Carmen Morales
(女子名)卡门.莫拉莱斯

Coke
可口可乐

Colombia
哥伦比亚(南美洲西北部国家)

Hollywood
好莱坞(美国电影业中心)

Napoleon
(男子名)拿破仑

Reagan
(男子名)里根

Shakespeare
(男子名)莎士比亚

Yankee
(英口)美国佬


New Words

ballgame
n. (AmE) a baseball game (美)棒球运动

beckon14
v. signal or direct to come near (以点头或打手势)向......示意,召唤
e.g. He beckoned (to) me and I went into his office.

boldly *
adv. courageously28 勇敢地
e.g. One little girl came boldly up to me and held out her hand.

chomp
v. bite food noisily 大声地咀嚼

citizenship *
n. the legal right of belonging to a particular country 公民资格,公民身份
e.g. He holds joint29 citizenship in Sweden and Peru (秘鲁).

cracker
n. a small thin unsweetened biscuit (无甜味的)薄脆饼干

cupcake
n. small round cake for dessert or snack 纸杯蛋糕

curd
n.
1) the thick white substance which is formed when milk turns sour 凝乳
2) something suggesting the curd of milk 凝乳状物

dim
adj. not bright 暗淡的,昏暗的
e.g. They peered into the dim interior of the cave.

doughnut
n. a small round cake with a hole in the middle 炸面圈

fad
n. an interest or activity that is followed very keenly but usually only for a short time 流行一时的嗜好

flavor
n. the particular taste of food or drink 味,味道
e.g. Extra salt would certainly improve the flavor of the soup.

flip25
v. turn something over with a quick, sudden movement 快速翻动
e.g. He was flipping through a magazine in the living room.

glamour
n. attractive or exciting quality 魅力,吸引力
e.g. She enjoys working in Hollywood, with all its glamour.

glisten10
v. shine and look wet or oily 闪亮

glum
adj. sad and not talking much 闷闷不乐的

ounce
n. a unit of weight 盎司
e.g. Do these scales measure in ounces or grams?

overdo
v. (overdid, overdone) do something more than is suitable or natural 把......做得过分
e.g. After a heart attack you have to be careful not to overdo things.

pastime
n. something that you do because you find it enjoyable or interesting 消遣,娱乐
e.g. My favorite pastime is reading.

patriotism
n. love of one's country and readiness to defend it 爱国主义,爱国心,爱国精神
e.g. The politician invoked30 patriotism in his campaign speech.

peanut
n. a nut which grows in a soft shell under the ground and which can be eaten 花生
e.g. Peanuts are usually roasted, but are sometimes eaten green.

popcorn
n. corn that bursts open into a white mass when heated 玉米花
e.g. David put the bag of popcorn in the microwave.

quotation3
n.
1) a word, phrase, sentence, or passage taken from a book, speech, etc. and repeated 引语,引文
e.g. The critic's review of the novel included many quotations from the book itself.
2) a written statement of exactly how much money a piece of work will cost 报价
e.g. They submitted quotations and agreed on prices for the work on the house.

raid
v.
1) take something from a place 劫掠,攫取
e.g. The children raided their mother's purse to get money to buy sweets.
2) make a sudden armed attack against a place 袭击
e.g. Warplanes raided the capital of Croatia (克罗地亚).
3) (police) go to a place suddenly to search for something illegal (警方进行的)突击搜捕,查抄
e.g. Their headquarters in London were raided by the police.
n. a short attack on a place by soldiers, planes, or ships intended to cause damage but not to take control (突然)袭击,侵袭
e.g. The air force has carried out a low-level bombing raid.

roast
n. a large piece of roasted meat 烤肉
e.g. Come into the kitchen. I've got to put the roast in.
v. cook something, such as meat, in an oven or over a fire 烤,烘
e.g. Jane roasted the beef at 350 degrees.

sausage
n. a small tube of skin filled with a mixture of meat, spices, etc. 香肠
e.g. We cooked sausages over an open fire.

spinach
n. a vegetable with large green leaves 菠菜
e.g. Spinach is very rich in iron and vitamins.

taco
n. a type of Mexican food consisting of a flat circle made of corn flour wrapped over meat and vegetables 墨西哥煎玉米卷

tub
n.
1) a small container made of paper or plastic with a lid, in which food is bought or stored 盛食物的桶,塑料杯,纸杯
e.g. Liz set the plates out on the table and Barry went around them dropping a swirl31 of cream in each, out of a plastic tub.
2) (AmE) a bathtub 洗澡盆
e.g. Anne filled the tub with hot water and took a relaxing bath.

worldwide
adv. everywhere in the world 在全世界,在世界各地
e.g. His books have sold more than 20 million copies worldwide.
adj. found in or affecting the whole world 世界范围的,全世界的
e.g. The local battle grew into a worldwide war.

Phrases and Expressions

account for
give or be a satisfactory explanation for 对......作出满意的解释
e.g. How do you account for the missing money?

calm (somebody) down
make calm (使)安静,(使)平静
e.g. I) Calm down for a minute and listen to me.
II) She sat down and took a few deep breaths to calm herself down.

cheer (somebody) up
(cause to) become happier (使)高兴起来,(使)振作起来
e.g. I) When I was ill, several friends sent me flowers to cheer me up.
II) Cheer up, better times may be ahead.

fall for
fall in love with somebody or something 倾心于......,被......迷上
e.g. She fell for him in a big way.

go down
be recorded or remembered in a particular way 被记录下来
e.g. The talks went down as a landmark32 in the peace process.

go under
become unable to continue in operation or in existence (商行等)倒闭,垮掉
e.g. Unless the company's sales improve soon, it will go under.

look forward to
expect with pleasure (欣然)期望,期待
e.g. I'm really looking forward to your party.

stop off
make a short visit to a place or person, especially to rest or to see someone (在旅程中)中途逗留
e.g. Shall we stop off somewhere on the way to London?

wash down
swallow (food or medicine) with the help of liquid (借助水等)吞服(食物或药物)
e.g. We washed down our steak and chips with a glass of wine.


PASSAGE II The Eulogy33[1]

I stand before you today, the representative of a family in grief, in a country in mourning before a world in shock. We are all united not only in our desire to pay our respects to Diana but rather in our need to do so.
For such was her extraordinary appeal that the tens of millions of people taking part in this service all over the world via television and radio who never actually met her feel that they, too, lost someone close to them in the early hours of Sunday morning.[2] It is a more remarkable34 tribute to Diana than I can ever hope to offer her today.
Diana was the very essence of compassion35, of duty, of style, of beauty. All over the world she was a symbol of selfless humanity, a standard-bearer for the rights of the truly downtrodden, a very British girl who transcended37 nationality,[3] someone with a natural nobility who was classless, who proved in the last year that she needed no royal title[4] to continue to generate her particular brand of magic.[5] Today is our chance to say thank you for the way you brightened our lives, even though God granted you but half a life. We will all feel cheated always that you were taken from us so young, and yet we must learn to be grateful that you came along at all.
Only now you are gone do we truly appreciate what we are now without, and we want you to know that life without you is very, very difficult.
We have all despaired at our loss over the past week, and only the strength of the message you gave us through your years of giving has afforded[6] us the strength to move forward.
There is a temptation to rush to canonize your memory.[7] There is no need to do so. You stand tall enough as a human being of unique qualities not to need to be seen as a saint.[8] Indeed, to sanctify your memory[9] would be to miss out on the very core of your being[10], your wonderfully mischievous39 sense of humor[11] with the laugh that bent40 you double[12], your joy for life transmitted wherever you took your smile and the sparkle in those unforgettable eyes, your boundless41 energy, which you could barely contain.[13]
But your greatest gift was your intuition, and it was a gift you used wisely. This is what underpinned43 all your wonderful attributes. And if we look to analyze44 what it was about you that had such a wide appeal, we find it in your instinctive45 feel for what was really important in all our lives.
Without your God-given sensitivity, we would be immersed in greatest ignorance at the anguish46 of AIDS and HIV sufferers, the plight47 of the homeless, the isolation48 of lepers, the random49 destruction of land mines. Diana explained to me once that it was her innermost feelings of suffering that made it possible for her to connect with people rejected by the society.
And here we come to another truth about her. For all the status, the glamour, the applause, Diana remained throughout[14] a very insecure person at heart, almost childlike in her desire to do good for others so she could release herself from deep feelings of unworthiness of which her eating disorders[15] were merely a symptom.
The world sensed this part of her character and cherished her for her vulnerability, whilst admiring her for her honesty. The last time I saw Diana was on July the first, her birthday, in London, when typically she was not taking time to celebrate her special day with friends but was guest of honor at a fund-raising charity evening.
She sparkled, of course, but I would rather cherish the days I spent with her in March, when she came to visit me and my children in our home in South Africa. I am proud of the fact that, apart from when she was on public display, meeting President Mandela,[16] we managed to contrive50 to stop the ever-present paparazzi from getting a single picture of her.
That meant a lot to her.
These are days I will always treasure. It was as if we'd been transported back to our childhood, when we spent such an enormous amount of time together, the two youngest in the family.
Fundamentally she hadn't changed at all from the big sister who mothered me as a baby, fought with me at school and endured those long train journeys between our parents' homes[17] with me at weekends. It is a tribute to her levelheadedness and strength that despite the most bizarre life imaginable after her childhood, she remained intact, true to herself.[18]
There is no doubt that she was looking for a new direction in her life at this time. She talked endlessly of getting away from England, mainly because of the treatment she received at the hands of the newspapers. I don't think she ever understood why her genuinely good intentions were scorned by the media, why there appeared to be a permanent quest on their behalf to bring her down.[19] It is baffling. My own, and only, explanation is that genuine goodness is threatening to those at the opposite end of the moral spectrum51.[20]
It is a point to remember that of all the ironies52 about Diana, perhaps the greatest is this: that a girl given the name of the ancient goddess of hunting was, in the end, the most hunted person of the modern age.[21]
She would want us today to pledge ourselves to protecting her beloved boys, William and Harry53[22], from a similar fate. And I do this here, Diana, on your behalf. We will not allow them to suffer the anguish that used regularly to drive you to tearful despair.
Beyond that, on behalf of your mother and sisters, I pledge that we, your blood family, will do all we can to continue the imaginative and loving way in which you were steering54 these two exceptional young men so that their souls are not simply immersed by duty and tradition but can sing openly as you planned.[23]
We fully38 respect the heritage into which they have both been born, and will always respect and encourage them in their royal role. But we, like you, recognize the need for them to experience as many different aspects of life as possible to arm them spiritually and emotionally for the years ahead. I know you would have expected nothing less from us.[24]
William and Harry, we all care desperately55 for you today. We are all chewed up with sadness at the loss of a woman who wasn't even our mother. How great your suffering is we cannot even imagine.
I would like to end by thanking God for the small mercies he has shown us at this dreadful time: for taking Diana at her most beautiful and radiant and when she had joy in her private life.[25]
Above all, we give thanks for the life of a woman I am so proud to be able to call my sister: the unique, the complex, the extraordinary and irreplaceable Diana, whose beauty both internal and external, will never be extinguished from our minds. (1202 words)


Proper Names

Diana
(女子名)戴安娜

Harry
(男子名)哈里

Mandela
(男子名)曼德拉

William
(男子名)威廉


New Words

anguish
n. mental or physical suffering caused by extreme pain or worry 痛苦
e.g. The Foreign Office said that it understood the anguish of relatives of the hostages (人质).

applause
n. approval expressed especially by clapping one's hands together 喝彩,鼓掌
e.g. The conference greeted the speech with deafening56 applause.

beloved
adj. dearly loved 所钟爱的
e.g. The rich man left each of his beloved grandchildren a large inheritance.

boundless *
adj. having no limit or end 无限的,巨大的
e.g. The work demanded boundless and theatrical57 imagination.

canonize
v. (especially in the Roman Catholic Church) declare (a dead person) officially saint (尤指罗马天主教)把(死者)封为圣人

childlike
adj. having qualities that are typical of a child 天真的,孩子般的
e.g. The woman spoke58 in a childlike voice to her baby.

compassion
n. a strong feeling of sympathy for someone who is suffering, and a desire to help them 同情,怜悯
e.g. Whatever choice they make, they deserve our compassion and full support.

contrive
v. manage to do something in spite of difficulties 设法做到
e.g. One way or another, she contrived59 to make both ends meet.

destruction
n. the action or process of destroying something; the state or fact of being destroyed 破坏,毁灭,毁坏
e.g. We have witnessed in our lifetime both the establishment and destruction of the welfare state.

downtrodden
adj. badly treated and without respect by people who have power over them 受压迫的,被蹂躏的

eulogy
n. (formal) (a speech or piece of writing containing) high praise, usually of the qualities of a person [正式]颂词,颂扬

extinguish
v.
1) destroy an idea or feeling or make it stop existing 压制,压抑
e.g. Nothing could extinguish his love for her.
2) make a fire or light stop burning or shining 熄灭,扑灭(火等)
e.g. A fire on board a cargo60 ferry in the English Channel has been extinguished.

heritage
n. important qualities, customs, and traditions that have been in a society for a long time 遗产,继承物
e.g. The charity aims to preserve old churches which it sees as an invaluable61 part of our national heritage.

imaginable *
adj. capable of being imagined 可想像的
e.g. We tried every imaginable means/every means imaginable, but we couldn't wake her up.

immerse
v.
1) become completely involved in an activity 使沉浸在,使深陷于
e.g. That year I immersed myself totally in my work.
2) put someone or something deep into a liquid so that it is completely covered 使浸没在
e.g. Sally immersed the potatoes in boiling water.

innermost
adj. most personal and secret 内心深处的
e.g. This was the diary to which Gina committed all her innermost thoughts and secrets.

instinctive *
adj. based on an instinct (出于)天性的,(来自)直觉的
e.g. It was hard for me to control my instinctive jealousy62.

intuition
n. the ability to understand or know something by using one's feelings rather than by carefully considering the facts 直觉,直觉力
e.g. He used his intuition, not a map, to find my house.

irony63
n.
1) a state or affairs or an event that seems deliberately64 contrary to what one expects and is often amusing as a result 具有讽刺意味的事
e.g. The irony is that many officials in Washington agree in private that their policy is inconsistent.
2) a subtle form of humor which involves saying what one does not mean 反语
e.g. Did you mean what you wrote, or were you using irony?

leper
n. someone who suffers from the disease of leprosy 麻风病患者

levelheadedness
n. the state of being calm and sensible in making judgments65 or decisions 头脑冷静,清醒

nobility *
n. the quality of being noble in character or appearance 高尚的性格
e.g. Because of his nobility, the diplomat66 was very much respected.

paparazzi
n. (pl.) newspaper writers or photographers who follow famous people 专门追逐名人偷拍照片的摄影者(或记者)

plight
n. a bad, serious, or sad condition or situation 困境,苦境
e.g. I cried when I heard of the refugees' plight.

radiant
adj.
1) full of happiness and love, in a way that shows in one's face, eyes, etc. (面容、目光)洋溢着幸福的
e.g. She was radiant with joy.
2) very bright 明亮照耀的,光辉灿烂的
e.g. Dozens of radiant candle flames lit the room.

random
adj. happening or chosen without any definite plan, aim, or pattern 任意的,随机的
e.g. The magician chose a random volunteer from the audience.

sanctify
v. make holy 使神圣

selfless *
adj. caring about other people more than about oneself 无私的,不考虑自己的
e.g. It was impossible to repay years of selfless devotion.

spiritually *
adv. in the state or quality of relating to people's thoughts rather than to their bodies and physical surroundings 精神上
e.g. Our whole program is spiritually oriented but not religious.

standard-bearer
n. prominent leader in a cause, especially a political one 领导人(尤指政治上的旗手)

tearful *
adj. causing tears; sad or emotional 令人伤心的,使人流泪的
e.g. After a tearful farewell at the station, we went our separate ways.

transcend36
v. (formal) go above or beyond the limits of something 超出,超越
e.g. The underlying67 message of the film is that love transcends68 everything.

tribute
n. something that one says, does, or makes to show one's admiration69 and respect for someone (表示敬意的)颂词,称赞
e.g. He paid tribute to the organizing committee.

underpin42
v. give strength or support 支持,巩固

unworthiness *
n. the quality or state of not deserving something 不值得,无价值

via
prep.
1) using a particular person, machine, etc. to send something 通过,凭借
e.g. I) It was so kind of you to send message via Tony.
II) Reports are coming in via satellite.
2) traveling through a place on the way to another place 经由,经过
e.g. The flight goes via Los Angeles.

vulnerability *
n. the state of being weak and without protection 脆弱(性)
e.g. David accepts his own vulnerability.

whilst
prep. (BrE, formal) while 当......时候


Phrases and Expressions

above all
most important of all 尤其是,最重要的是
e.g. It's too far, too late, and above all, too dangerous.

at the hands of
from or because of 出自某人之手,由于某人
e.g. They suffered terribly at the hands of the invaders70.

be transported back/into
imagine that one is in another place or time because of something one sees or hears 把......带入特定境地(或时间)
e.g. I) In a dream you can be transported back in time.
II) Dr Drummond felt that he had been transported into a world that rivaled the Arabian Nights (天方夜谭).

bring down
cause to lose power 打倒,击败
e.g. They were threatening to bring down the government by withdrawing from the ruling coalition71 (政治联盟).

come along
appear or arrive by chance 偶然出现
e.g. I got the job because I came along at the right time.

chew up
destroy or damage in some way 损害,伤害
e.g. Every spring the ozone72 (臭氧) is chewed up, and the hole appears.

miss out
1) fail to use an opportunity to enjoy or benefit from something 错过机会
e.g. Britain is missing out on the full benefits of the Channel Tunnel (英吉利海峡海底遂道) by failing to build a highspeed link to the rest of the country.
2) not include someone or something 遗漏,略去
e.g. You can miss out a surprising number of words and still be understood.

on behalf of
instead of someone, or as their representative 代表......一方,作为......的代言人
e.g. Wilkins spoke on behalf of the Labor73 Party.

on somebody's behalf
1) instead of someone, or as their representative 代表......一方,作为......的代言人
e.g. Unfortunately, George cannot be with us today so I am pleased to accept this award on his behalf.
2) because of someone 为了某人的利益,为了某人
e.g. Please don't leave me on my behalf.


PASSAGE III The Shame of Hunger
Elie Wiesel[1]

A survivor74 of the concentration camps at Auschwitz and Buchenwald[2], Elie Wiesel has won a congressional medal and the 1986 Nobel Prize for Peace[3]. He delivered the following speech at Brown University on April 5, 1990, at the presentation of the Alan Feinstein Awards for the Prevention and Reduction of World Hunger. Wiesel, whose parents and sister died in the Holocaust75[4], spoke passionately76 on this topic.
I have been obsessed78 with the idea of hunger for years and years because I have seen what hunger can do to human beings. It is the easiest way for a tormenter to dehumanize another human being. When I think of hunger, I see images: emaciated79 bodies, swollen80 bellies81, long bony arms pleading for mercy, motionless skeletons. How can one look at these images without losing sleep?
And eyes, my God, eyes. Eyes that pierce your consciousness and tear your heart. How can one run away from those eyes? The eyes of a mother who carries her dead child in her arms, not knowing where to go, or where to stop. At one moment you think that she would keep on going, going, going — to the end of the world. Except she wouldn't go very far, for the end of the world, for her, is there. Or the eyes of the old grandfather who probably wonders where creation had gone wrong, and whether it was all worthwhile to create a family, to have faith in the future, to transmit misery from generation to generation, whether it was worth it to wager82 on humankind.[5]
And then the eyes of all eyes, the eyes of children, so dark, so immense, so deep, so focused and yet at the same time, so wide and so vague. What do they see? What do hungry children's eyes see? Death? Nothingness? God? And what if their eyes are the eyes of our judges?[6]
Hunger and death, death and starvation, starvation and shame. Poor men and women who yesterday were proud members of their tribes, bearers of ancient traditions and culture, and who are now wandering among corpses84. What is so horrifying85 in hunger is that it makes the individual death an anonymous86 death[7]. In times of hunger, the individual death has lost its uniqueness. Scores of hungry people die daily, and those who mourn for them will die the next day, and the others will have no strength left to mourn.
Hunger in ancient times represented the ultimate curse to society.[8] Rich and poor, young and old, kings and servants, lived in fear of drought. They joined the priests in prayer for rain. Rain meant harvest, harvest meant food, food meant life, just as lack of food meant death. It still does.[9]
Hunger and humiliation87. A hungry person experiences an overwhelming feeling of shame. All desires, all aspirations89, all dreams lose their lofty qualities and relate to food alone. Diminished by hunger, man's spirit is diminished as well. His fantasy wanders in quest of bread. His prayer rises toward a bowl of milk.
Thus the shame.
In Hebrew, the word hunger is linked to shame. Of all the diseases, of all the natural diseases and catastrophes91, the only one that is linked to shame in Scripture92 is hunger — the shame of hunger. Shame is associated neither with sickness nor even with death, only with hunger. For man can live with pain, but no man ought to endure hunger.
Hunger means torture, the worst kind of torture. The hungry person is tortured by more than one sadist alone. He or she is tortured, every minute, by all men, by all women. And by all the elements surrounding him or her. The wind. The sun. The stars. By the rustling93 of trees and the silence of night. The minutes that pass so slowly, so slowly. Can you imagine time, can you imagine time[10], when you are hungry?
And to condone94 hunger means to accept torture, someone else's torture[11].
Hunger is isolating95; it may not and cannot be experienced vicariously[12]. He who never felt hunger can never know its real effects, both tangible96 and intangible. Hunger defies imagination; it even defies memory. Hunger is felt only in the present.
There is a story about the great French-Jewish composer Daniel Halevy who met a poor poet: "Is it true," he asked, "that you endured hunger in your youth?" "Yes," said the poet. "I envy you," said the composer, "I never felt hunger."[13]
And Gaston Bachelard, the famous philosopher, voiced his view on the matter, saying, "My prayer to heaven is not, 'Oh God, give us our daily bread,' but give us our daily hunger."[14]
I don't find these anecdotes97 funny. These anecdotes were told about and by people who were not hungry. There is no romanticism in hunger, there is no beauty in hunger, no creativity in hunger. There is no aspiration88 in hunger. Only shame. And solitude98. Hunger creates its own prison walls; it is impossible to demolish99 them, to avoid them, to ignore them.
Thus, if hunger inspires anything at all, it is, and must be, only the war against hunger.
Perhaps of all of the woes101 that threaten and plague the human condition, hunger alone can be reduced and ultimately conquered, not by destiny, nor by the heavens, but by human beings. We cannot fight earthquakes, but we can fight hunger. Hence our responsibility for its victims. Responsibility is the key word. Our tradition emphasizes the question, rather than the answer. For there is a "quest" in question, but there is "response" in responsibility.[15] And this responsibility is what makes us human, or the lack of it, inhuman102.
Hunger differs from other disasters such as floods in that it can be prevented or stopped so easily. One gesture of generosity103, one act of humanity, may put an end to it, at least for one person. A piece of bread, a bowl of rice or soup makes a difference[16]. And I wonder, what would happen, just imagine, what would happen, if every nation, every industrialized or non-industrialized nation, would simply decide to sell one aircraft, and for the money, feed the hungry. Why shouldn't they? Why shouldn't the next economic summit, which includes the wealthiest, most powerful, the richest nations of the world, why shouldn't they decide that since there are so many aircrafts, why shouldn't they say, "Let's sell just one, just one, to take care of the shame and the hunger and the suffering of millions of people."
So the expression, "the shame of hunger", must be understood differently. When we speak of our responsibility for the hungry, we must go to the next step and say that the expression "shame of hunger" does not apply to the hungry. It applies to those who refuse to help the hungry. Shame on those who could feed the hungry, but are too busy to do so.[17] (1202 words)


Proper Names

Alan Feinstein
(男子名)艾伦.范斯坦

Auschwitz
奥斯维辛(波兰南部一城市)

Buchenwald
布痕瓦尔德(德国一村庄名)

Daniel Halevy
(男子名)丹尼尔.阿莱维

Elie Wiesel
(男子名)倚利.威斯

Gaston Bachelard
(男子名)加斯顿.布切拉德

Hebrew
希伯来语

Jewish
adj. 犹太人的

Nobel
(男子名)诺贝尔


New Words
bearer *
n. (formal) someone who is particularly associated with a tradition, idea, etc. and passes it on to other people 传统的保持者或维护者
e.g. Generally, the lower classes are considered to be the bearers of tradition.

bony *
adj. very thin 瘦削的
e.g. Her long bony hands clasped the book.

catastrophe90
n. a terrible event in which there is a lot of destruction or many people are injured or die 大灾难
e.g. The flood was a major catastrophe that killed thousands.

concentration
n.
1) a large amount of something in one place or area 集中
e.g. The area has one of the world's greatest concentrations of wildlife.
2) the ability to think about something carefully or for a long time 专心,专注
e.g. I found that yoga (瑜珈功) improves my powers of concentration.

condone
v. accept or forgive behavior that most people think is morally wrong 宽恕

congressional
adj. related to the US Congress 美国国会的,议会的
e.g. The president explained his plans to congressional leaders.

corpse83
n. the dead body of a person 尸体
e.g. Her corpse was found floating in the river.

defy
v.
1) make impossible or unsuccessful 使不可能
e.g. I ) The untidiness of the room defies description.
II) The disease has so far defied all attempts to find a cure.
2) refuse to obey a law or rule, or refuse to do what is told by someone in authority (公然)违抗,藐视
e.g. Dad will be really angry if you defy him again.

dehumanize *
v. deprive of human qualities, personality, spirit, etc. 使失去人性
e.g. He said that disabled people are often treated in a dehumanized way.

demolish
v. pull down (a building) 拆毁
e.g. The old prison was demolished104 in 1890.

destiny
n. fate 命运
e.g. He accepted his destiny without complaint.

emaciated
adj. extremely thin from lack of food or illness 消瘦的

holocaust
n. a situation in which there is great destruction, especially by fire, and a lot of people die 大屠杀

inhuman *
adj. very cruel without any normal feelings of pity 残酷的,无人性的
e.g. It's inhuman, the way these children are treated.

lofty
adj.
1) noble and morally admirable 崇高的,高尚的
e.g. Such lofty goals justify105 any means.
2) very high 高耸的,极高的
e.g. The plane flew among the lofty clouds.

obsess77
v. think about something all the time and cannot think of something else 困扰
e.g. I ) He's always been obsessed with making money.
II) They are both obsessed with the fear of getting AIDS.

philosopher
n. a person who creates or studies theories about the nature of existence, knowledge, thought, etc., or about how people should live and behave 哲学家
e.g. Plato was a Greek philosopher.

pierce
v.
1) penetrate106 so as to move or touch the emotions of (忧伤等)强烈地影响,深深地打动
e.g. This sound, like all music, pierced my heart, like a dagger107.
2) make a small hole in or through something in using an object with a sharp point 刺入,刺破
e.g. The spear pierced his leg and he fell.

romanticism *
n. thoughts and feelings which are idealistic rather than realistic 浪漫
e.g. His determined108 romanticism was worrying me.

rustle109
v. (leaves, papers, etc.) make a noise as they rub against each other 沙沙作响
e.g. The fallen leaves rustled110 as they blew by my feet.

sadist
n. someone who enjoys being cruel to other people 虐待狂

skeleton
n.
1) (informal) an extremely thin person 骨瘦如柴的人
e.g. Her long illness reduced her to a skeleton.
2) a structure consisting of all the bones in a human or animal body 骸骨,骨骼
e.g. The police found a skeleton buried in the farmer's field.

starvation *
n. suffering or death caused by lack of food 饥饿,饿死
e.g. Hundreds of thousands of people face possible starvation.

suffering *
n. physical or mental pain and difficulty, or an experience of it 痛苦
e.g. She had to endure years of pain and suffering.

summit
n.
1) a set of meetings between the leaders of several governments 最高级会议
e.g. Western leaders are gathering111 for this week's Ottawa (渥太华) summit.
2) the top of a mountain 最高点,顶点
e.g. Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reached the summit of Everest in 1953.

tormentor112 *
n. one who torments113 折磨者
e.g. A day came when she couldn't tolerate his cruelty anymore-she took a knife and stabbed her tormenter.

torture
n. severe physical or mental suffering 折磨
e.g. Over half of the prisoners were murdered or died after torture or starvation.
v.
1) deliberately cause another person great pain over a period of time 折磨,使痛苦
e.g. Three members of the group had been tortured to death.
2) cause someone to suffer mental pain or anxiety 使苦恼,使为难
e.g. She was tortured by the thought that the accident was her fault.

tribe
n. a group of people of the same race, who share the same customs, religion, language, or land, especially when they are not considered to have reached a very advanced level of civilization 部落
e.g. The tribe held religious ceremonies next to the river.

wager
v. risk or venture on a final result 赌博,打赌
e.g. Golfers had wagered114 a good deal of money on Nick Faldo winning the champion.

woe100
n. (literary) great unhappiness 悲哀,苦恼


Phrases and Expressions

in fear of
always be afraid of 为......提心吊担
e.g. I) The elderly lived in fear of assault and murder.
II) I'm living in fear of dismissal (解雇).

put an end to
stop 使终止
e.g. It's time that they put an end to these abuses.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 overdo 9maz5o     
vt.把...做得过头,演得过火
参考例句:
  • Do not overdo your privilege of reproving me.不要过分使用责备我的特权。
  • The taxi drivers' association is urging its members,who can work as many hours as they want,not to overdo it.出租车司机协会劝告那些工作时长不受限制的会员不要疲劳驾驶。
2 celebrated iwLzpz     
adj.有名的,声誉卓著的
参考例句:
  • He was soon one of the most celebrated young painters in England.不久他就成了英格兰最负盛名的年轻画家之一。
  • The celebrated violinist was mobbed by the audience.观众团团围住了这位著名的小提琴演奏家。
3 quotation 7S6xV     
n.引文,引语,语录;报价,牌价,行情
参考例句:
  • He finished his speech with a quotation from Shakespeare.他讲话结束时引用了莎士比亚的语录。
  • The quotation is omitted here.此处引文从略。
4 quotations c7bd2cdafc6bfb4ee820fb524009ec5b     
n.引用( quotation的名词复数 );[商业]行情(报告);(货物或股票的)市价;时价
参考例句:
  • The insurance company requires three quotations for repairs to the car. 保险公司要修理这辆汽车的三家修理厂的报价单。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • These quotations cannot readily be traced to their sources. 这些引语很难查出出自何处。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
5 glum klXyF     
adj.闷闷不乐的,阴郁的
参考例句:
  • He was a charming mixture of glum and glee.他是一个很有魅力的人,时而忧伤时而欢笑。
  • She laughed at his glum face.她嘲笑他闷闷不乐的脸。
6 citizenship AV3yA     
n.市民权,公民权,国民的义务(身份)
参考例句:
  • He was born in Sweden,but he doesn't have Swedish citizenship.他在瑞典出生,但没有瑞典公民身分。
  • Ten years later,she chose to take Australian citizenship.十年后,她选择了澳大利亚国籍。
7 cracker svCz5a     
n.(无甜味的)薄脆饼干
参考例句:
  • Buy me some peanuts and cracker.给我买一些花生和饼干。
  • There was a cracker beside every place at the table.桌上每个位置旁都有彩包爆竹。
8 jacks 2b0facb0ce94beb5f627e3c22cc18d34     
n.抓子游戏;千斤顶( jack的名词复数 );(电)插孔;[电子学]插座;放弃
参考例句:
  • Hydraulic jacks under the machine produce the movement. 是机器下面的液压千斤顶造成的移动。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The front end is equipped with hydraulic jacks used for grade adjustment. 前瑞安装有液压千斤顶用来调整坡度。 来自辞典例句
9 glamour Keizv     
n.魔力,魅力;vt.迷住
参考例句:
  • Foreign travel has lost its glamour for her.到国外旅行对她已失去吸引力了。
  • The moonlight cast a glamour over the scene.月光给景色增添了魅力。
10 glisten 8e2zq     
vi.(光洁或湿润表面等)闪闪发光,闪闪发亮
参考例句:
  • Dewdrops glisten in the morning sun.露珠在晨光下闪闪发光。
  • His sunken eyes glistened with delight.他凹陷的眼睛闪现出喜悦的光芒。
11 glistening glistening     
adj.闪耀的,反光的v.湿物闪耀,闪亮( glisten的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • Her eyes were glistening with tears. 她眼里闪着晶莹的泪花。
  • Her eyes were glistening with tears. 她眼睛中的泪水闪着柔和的光。 来自《用法词典》
12 popcorn 8lUzJI     
n.爆米花
参考例句:
  • I like to eat popcorn when I am watching TV play at home.当我在家观看电视剧时,喜欢吃爆米花。
  • He still stood behind his cash register stuffing his mouth with popcorn.他仍站在收银机后,嘴里塞满了爆米花。
13 spinach Dhuzr5     
n.菠菜
参考例句:
  • Eating spinach is supposed to make you strong.据说吃菠菜能使人强壮。
  • You should eat such vegetables as carrot,celery and spinach.你应该吃胡萝卜、芹菜和菠菜这类的蔬菜。
14 beckon CdTyi     
v.(以点头或打手势)向...示意,召唤
参考例句:
  • She crooked her finger to beckon him.她勾勾手指向他示意。
  • The wave for Hawaii beckon surfers from all around the world.夏威夷的海浪吸引着世界各地的冲浪者前来。
15 beckoned b70f83e57673dfe30be1c577dd8520bc     
v.(用头或手的动作)示意,召唤( beckon的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • He beckoned to the waiter to bring the bill. 他招手示意服务生把账单送过来。
  • The seated figure in the corner beckoned me over. 那个坐在角落里的人向我招手让我过去。 来自《简明英汉词典》
16 misery G10yi     
n.痛苦,苦恼,苦难;悲惨的境遇,贫苦
参考例句:
  • Business depression usually causes misery among the working class.商业不景气常使工薪阶层受苦。
  • He has rescued me from the mire of misery.他把我从苦海里救了出来。
17 brunches acb72c4ec0123c687ddd20e4fdf286ba     
n.早午餐( brunch的名词复数 )
参考例句:
18 fad phyzL     
n.时尚;一时流行的狂热;一时的爱好
参考例句:
  • His interest in photography is only a passing fad.他对摄影的兴趣只是一时的爱好罢了。
  • A hot business opportunity is based on a long-term trend not a short-lived fad.一个热门的商机指的是长期的趋势而非一时的流行。
19 chomp NrAzV     
v. (人、动物进食时)大声地咬,嚼得很响
参考例句:
  • I lost a tooth while chomping on a French baguette!我啃法棍面包时,崩掉了一颗牙!
  • They just chomp on tundra, nap a few hours and feast again.它们只是在苔原上大嚼特嚼,睡上几小时,接着再吃。
20 patriotism 63lzt     
n.爱国精神,爱国心,爱国主义
参考例句:
  • His new book is a demonstration of his patriotism.他写的新书是他的爱国精神的证明。
  • They obtained money under the false pretenses of patriotism.他们以虚伪的爱国主义为借口获得金钱。
21 drawn MuXzIi     
v.拖,拉,拔出;adj.憔悴的,紧张的
参考例句:
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的风景所吸引。
22 curd oYmzN     
n.凝乳;凝乳状物
参考例句:
  • I'd like to add some pepper to the bean curd.我想在豆腐里加一点辣椒粉。
  • The next one is bean curd with crab roe.下一个是蟹黄豆腐。
23 ribs 24fc137444401001077773555802b280     
n.肋骨( rib的名词复数 );(船或屋顶等的)肋拱;肋骨状的东西;(织物的)凸条花纹
参考例句:
  • He suffered cracked ribs and bruising. 他断了肋骨还有挫伤。
  • Make a small incision below the ribs. 在肋骨下方切开一个小口。
24 entirely entirely     
ad.全部地,完整地;完全地,彻底地
参考例句:
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
25 flip Vjwx6     
vt.快速翻动;轻抛;轻拍;n.轻抛;adj.轻浮的
参考例句:
  • I had a quick flip through the book and it looked very interesting.我很快翻阅了一下那本书,看来似乎很有趣。
  • Let's flip a coin to see who pays the bill.咱们来抛硬币决定谁付钱。
26 flipping b69cb8e0c44ab7550c47eaf7c01557e4     
讨厌之极的
参考例句:
  • I hate this flipping hotel! 我讨厌这个该死的旅馆!
  • Don't go flipping your lid. 别发火。
27 sociable hw3wu     
adj.好交际的,友好的,合群的
参考例句:
  • Roger is a very sociable person.罗杰是个非常好交际的人。
  • Some children have more sociable personalities than others.有些孩子比其他孩子更善于交际。
28 courageously wvzz8b     
ad.勇敢地,无畏地
参考例句:
  • Under the correct leadership of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, the army and civilians in flooded areas fought the floods courageously, reducing the losses to the minimum. 在中共中央、国务院的正确领导下,灾区广大军民奋勇抗洪,把灾害的损失减少到了最低限度。
  • He fought death courageously though his life was draining away. 他虽然生命垂危,但仍然勇敢地与死亡作斗争。
29 joint m3lx4     
adj.联合的,共同的;n.关节,接合处;v.连接,贴合
参考例句:
  • I had a bad fall,which put my shoulder out of joint.我重重地摔了一跤,肩膀脫臼了。
  • We wrote a letter in joint names.我们联名写了封信。
30 invoked fabb19b279de1e206fa6d493923723ba     
v.援引( invoke的过去式和过去分词 );行使(权利等);祈求救助;恳求
参考例句:
  • It is unlikely that libel laws will be invoked. 不大可能诉诸诽谤法。
  • She had invoked the law in her own defence. 她援引法律为自己辩护。 来自《简明英汉词典》
31 swirl cgcyu     
v.(使)打漩,(使)涡卷;n.漩涡,螺旋形
参考例句:
  • The car raced roughly along in a swirl of pink dust.汽车在一股粉红色尘土的漩涡中颠簸着快速前进。
  • You could lie up there,watching the flakes swirl past.你可以躺在那儿,看着雪花飘飘。
32 landmark j2DxG     
n.陆标,划时代的事,地界标
参考例句:
  • The Russian Revolution represents a landmark in world history.俄国革命是世界历史上的一个里程碑。
  • The tower was once a landmark for ships.这座塔曾是船只的陆标。
33 eulogy 0nuxj     
n.颂词;颂扬
参考例句:
  • He needs no eulogy from me or from any other man. 他不需要我或者任何一个人来称颂。
  • Mr.Garth gave a long eulogy about their achievements in the research.加思先生对他们的研究成果大大地颂扬了一番。
34 remarkable 8Vbx6     
adj.显著的,异常的,非凡的,值得注意的
参考例句:
  • She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.她在写作技巧方面有了长足进步。
  • These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.这些汽车因发动机没有噪音而不同凡响。
35 compassion 3q2zZ     
n.同情,怜悯
参考例句:
  • He could not help having compassion for the poor creature.他情不自禁地怜悯起那个可怜的人来。
  • Her heart was filled with compassion for the motherless children.她对于没有母亲的孩子们充满了怜悯心。
36 transcend qJbzC     
vt.超出,超越(理性等)的范围
参考例句:
  • We can't transcend the limitations of the ego.我们无法超越自我的局限性。
  • Everyone knows that the speed of airplanes transcend that of ships.人人都知道飞机的速度快于轮船的速度。
37 transcended a7a0e6bdf6a24ce6bdbaf8c2ffe3d3b7     
超出或超越(经验、信念、描写能力等)的范围( transcend的过去式和过去分词 ); 优于或胜过…
参考例句:
  • He wanted assurance that he had transcended what was inherently ambiguous. 他要证明,他已经超越了本来就是混淆不清的事情。
  • It transcended site to speak to universal human concerns. 它超越了场所的局限,表达了人类共同的心声。
38 fully Gfuzd     
adv.完全地,全部地,彻底地;充分地
参考例句:
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
39 mischievous mischievous     
adj.调皮的,恶作剧的,有害的,伤人的
参考例句:
  • He is a mischievous but lovable boy.他是一个淘气但可爱的小孩。
  • A mischievous cur must be tied short.恶狗必须拴得短。
40 bent QQ8yD     
n.爱好,癖好;adj.弯的;决心的,一心的
参考例句:
  • He was fully bent upon the project.他一心扑在这项计划上。
  • We bent over backward to help them.我们尽了最大努力帮助他们。
41 boundless kt8zZ     
adj.无限的;无边无际的;巨大的
参考例句:
  • The boundless woods were sleeping in the deep repose of nature.无边无际的森林在大自然静寂的怀抱中酣睡着。
  • His gratitude and devotion to the Party was boundless.他对党无限感激、无限忠诚。
42 underpin dkVws     
v.加固,支撑
参考例句:
  • China needs regional stability to underpin its continued economic growth.中国需要地区稳定来巩固其持续的经济增长。
  • These developments are underpinned by solid progress in heavy industry.重工业的稳固发展为这些进展打下了基础。
43 underpinned 9747144b35f8dc5942b30d10108a236e     
v.用砖石结构等从下面支撑(墙等)( underpin的过去式和过去分词 );加固(墙等)的基础;为(论据、主张等)打下基础;加强
参考例句:
  • The report is underpinned by extensive research. 这份报告以广泛的研究为基础。
  • The statue of Diana was underpinned with charred piles. Diana雕像是建造在炭化了的木桩上的。 来自辞典例句
44 analyze RwUzm     
vt.分析,解析 (=analyse)
参考例句:
  • We should analyze the cause and effect of this event.我们应该分析这场事变的因果。
  • The teacher tried to analyze the cause of our failure.老师设法分析我们失败的原因。
45 instinctive c6jxT     
adj.(出于)本能的;直觉的;(出于)天性的
参考例句:
  • He tried to conceal his instinctive revulsion at the idea.他试图饰盖自己对这一想法本能的厌恶。
  • Animals have an instinctive fear of fire.动物本能地怕火。
46 anguish awZz0     
n.(尤指心灵上的)极度痛苦,烦恼
参考例句:
  • She cried out for anguish at parting.分手时,她由于痛苦而失声大哭。
  • The unspeakable anguish wrung his heart.难言的痛苦折磨着他的心。
47 plight 820zI     
n.困境,境况,誓约,艰难;vt.宣誓,保证,约定
参考例句:
  • The leader was much concerned over the plight of the refugees.那位领袖对难民的困境很担忧。
  • She was in a most helpless plight.她真不知如何是好。
48 isolation 7qMzTS     
n.隔离,孤立,分解,分离
参考例句:
  • The millionaire lived in complete isolation from the outside world.这位富翁过着与世隔绝的生活。
  • He retired and lived in relative isolation.他退休后,生活比较孤寂。
49 random HT9xd     
adj.随机的;任意的;n.偶然的(或随便的)行动
参考例句:
  • The list is arranged in a random order.名单排列不分先后。
  • On random inspection the meat was found to be bad.经抽查,发现肉变质了。
50 contrive GpqzY     
vt.谋划,策划;设法做到;设计,想出
参考例句:
  • Can you contrive to be here a little earlier?你能不能早一点来?
  • How could you contrive to make such a mess of things?你怎么把事情弄得一团糟呢?
51 spectrum Trhy6     
n.谱,光谱,频谱;范围,幅度,系列
参考例句:
  • This is a kind of atomic spectrum.这是一种原子光谱。
  • We have known much of the constitution of the solar spectrum.关于太阳光谱的构成,我们已了解不少。
52 ironies cb70cfbfac9e60ff1ec5e238560309fb     
n.反语( irony的名词复数 );冷嘲;具有讽刺意味的事;嘲弄
参考例句:
  • It was one of life's little ironies. 那是生活中的一个小小的嘲弄。
  • History has many ironies. 历史有许多具有讽刺意味的事。 来自《简明英汉词典》
53 harry heBxS     
vt.掠夺,蹂躏,使苦恼
参考例句:
  • Today,people feel more hurried and harried.今天,人们感到更加忙碌和苦恼。
  • Obama harried business by Healthcare Reform plan.奥巴马用医改掠夺了商界。
54 steering 3hRzbi     
n.操舵装置
参考例句:
  • He beat his hands on the steering wheel in frustration. 他沮丧地用手打了几下方向盘。
  • Steering according to the wind, he also framed his words more amicably. 他真会看风使舵,口吻也马上变得温和了。
55 desperately cu7znp     
adv.极度渴望地,绝望地,孤注一掷地
参考例句:
  • He was desperately seeking a way to see her again.他正拼命想办法再见她一面。
  • He longed desperately to be back at home.他非常渴望回家。
56 deafening deafening     
adj. 振耳欲聋的, 极喧闹的 动词deafen的现在分词形式
参考例句:
  • The noise of the siren was deafening her. 汽笛声震得她耳朵都快聋了。
  • The noise of the machine was deafening. 机器的轰鸣声震耳欲聋。
57 theatrical pIRzF     
adj.剧场的,演戏的;做戏似的,做作的
参考例句:
  • The final scene was dismayingly lacking in theatrical effect.最后一场缺乏戏剧效果,叫人失望。
  • She always makes some theatrical gesture.她老在做些夸张的手势。
58 spoke XryyC     
n.(车轮的)辐条;轮辐;破坏某人的计划;阻挠某人的行动 v.讲,谈(speak的过去式);说;演说;从某种观点来说
参考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他们的轮辐螺帽是从我们公司获得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.辐条是轮子上连接外圈与中心的条棒。
59 contrived ivBzmO     
adj.不自然的,做作的;虚构的
参考例句:
  • There was nothing contrived or calculated about what he said.他说的话里没有任何蓄意捏造的成分。
  • The plot seems contrived.情节看起来不真实。
60 cargo 6TcyG     
n.(一只船或一架飞机运载的)货物
参考例句:
  • The ship has a cargo of about 200 ton.这条船大约有200吨的货物。
  • A lot of people discharged the cargo from a ship.许多人从船上卸下货物。
61 invaluable s4qxe     
adj.无价的,非常宝贵的,极为贵重的
参考例句:
  • A computer would have been invaluable for this job.一台计算机对这个工作的作用会是无法估计的。
  • This information was invaluable to him.这个消息对他来说是非常宝贵的。
62 jealousy WaRz6     
n.妒忌,嫉妒,猜忌
参考例句:
  • Some women have a disposition to jealousy.有些女人生性爱妒忌。
  • I can't support your jealousy any longer.我再也无法忍受你的嫉妒了。
63 irony P4WyZ     
n.反语,冷嘲;具有讽刺意味的事,嘲弄
参考例句:
  • She said to him with slight irony.她略带嘲讽地对他说。
  • In her voice we could sense a certain tinge of irony.从她的声音里我们可以感到某种讥讽的意味。
64 deliberately Gulzvq     
adv.审慎地;蓄意地;故意地
参考例句:
  • The girl gave the show away deliberately.女孩故意泄露秘密。
  • They deliberately shifted off the argument.他们故意回避这个论点。
65 judgments 2a483d435ecb48acb69a6f4c4dd1a836     
判断( judgment的名词复数 ); 鉴定; 评价; 审判
参考例句:
  • A peculiar austerity marked his judgments of modern life. 他对现代生活的批评带着一种特殊的苛刻。
  • He is swift with his judgments. 他判断迅速。
66 diplomat Pu0xk     
n.外交官,外交家;能交际的人,圆滑的人
参考例句:
  • The diplomat threw in a joke, and the tension was instantly relieved.那位外交官插进一个笑话,紧张的气氛顿时缓和下来。
  • He served as a diplomat in Russia before the war.战前他在俄罗斯当外交官。
67 underlying 5fyz8c     
adj.在下面的,含蓄的,潜在的
参考例句:
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.这个单词有它潜在的含义。
68 transcends dfa28a18c43373ca174d5387d99aafdf     
超出或超越(经验、信念、描写能力等)的范围( transcend的第三人称单数 ); 优于或胜过…
参考例句:
  • The chemical dilution technique transcends most of the difficulties. 化学稀释法能克服大部分困难。
  • The genius of Shakespeare transcends that of all other English poets. 莎士比亚的才华胜过所有的其他英国诗人。
69 admiration afpyA     
n.钦佩,赞美,羡慕
参考例句:
  • He was lost in admiration of the beauty of the scene.他对风景之美赞不绝口。
  • We have a great admiration for the gold medalists.我们对金牌获得者极为敬佩。
70 invaders 5f4b502b53eb551c767b8cce3965af9f     
入侵者,侵略者,侵入物( invader的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • They prepared to repel the invaders. 他们准备赶走侵略军。
  • The family has traced its ancestry to the Norman invaders. 这个家族将自己的世系追溯到诺曼征服者。
71 coalition pWlyi     
n.结合体,同盟,结合,联合
参考例句:
  • The several parties formed a coalition.这几个政党组成了政治联盟。
  • Coalition forces take great care to avoid civilian casualties.联盟军队竭尽全力避免造成平民伤亡。
72 ozone omQzBE     
n.臭氧,新鲜空气
参考例句:
  • The ozone layer is a protective layer around the planet Earth.臭氧层是地球的保护层。
  • The capacity of ozone can adjust according of requirement.臭氧的产量可根据需要或调节。
73 labor P9Tzs     
n.劳动,努力,工作,劳工;分娩;vi.劳动,努力,苦干;vt.详细分析;麻烦
参考例句:
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
74 survivor hrIw8     
n.生存者,残存者,幸存者
参考例句:
  • The sole survivor of the crash was an infant.这次撞车的惟一幸存者是一个婴儿。
  • There was only one survivor of the plane crash.这次飞机失事中只有一名幸存者。
75 holocaust dd5zE     
n.大破坏;大屠杀
参考例句:
  • The Auschwitz concentration camp always remind the world of the holocaust.奥辛威茨集中营总是让世人想起大屠杀。
  • Ahmadinejad is denying the holocaust because he's as brutal as Hitler was.内贾德否认大屠杀,因为他像希特勒一样残忍。
76 passionately YmDzQ4     
ad.热烈地,激烈地
参考例句:
  • She could hate as passionately as she could love. 她能恨得咬牙切齿,也能爱得一往情深。
  • He was passionately addicted to pop music. 他酷爱流行音乐。
77 obsess QITxu     
vt.使着迷,使心神不定,(恶魔)困扰
参考例句:
  • I must admit that maps obsess me.我得承认我对地图十分着迷。
  • A string of scandals is obsessing America.美国正被一系列丑闻所困扰。
78 obsessed 66a4be1417f7cf074208a6d81c8f3384     
adj.心神不宁的,鬼迷心窍的,沉迷的
参考例句:
  • He's obsessed by computers. 他迷上了电脑。
  • The fear of death obsessed him throughout his old life. 他晚年一直受着死亡恐惧的困扰。
79 emaciated Wt3zuK     
adj.衰弱的,消瘦的
参考例句:
  • A long time illness made him sallow and emaciated.长期患病使他面黄肌瘦。
  • In the light of a single candle,she can see his emaciated face.借着烛光,她能看到他的被憔悴的面孔。
80 swollen DrcwL     
adj.肿大的,水涨的;v.使变大,肿胀
参考例句:
  • Her legs had got swollen from standing up all day.因为整天站着,她的双腿已经肿了。
  • A mosquito had bitten her and her arm had swollen up.蚊子叮了她,她的手臂肿起来了。
81 bellies 573b19215ed083b0e01ff1a54e4199b2     
n.肚子( belly的名词复数 );腹部;(物体的)圆形或凸起部份;腹部…形的
参考例句:
  • They crawled along on their bellies. 他们匍匐前进。
  • starving children with huge distended bellies 鼓着浮肿肚子的挨饿儿童
82 wager IH2yT     
n.赌注;vt.押注,打赌
参考例句:
  • They laid a wager on the result of the race.他们以竞赛的结果打赌。
  • I made a wager that our team would win.我打赌我们的队会赢。
83 corpse JYiz4     
n.尸体,死尸
参考例句:
  • What she saw was just an unfeeling corpse.她见到的只是一具全无感觉的尸体。
  • The corpse was preserved from decay by embalming.尸体用香料涂抹以防腐烂。
84 corpses 2e7a6f2b001045a825912208632941b2     
n.死尸,尸体( corpse的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The living soldiers put corpses together and burned them. 活着的战士把尸体放在一起烧了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Overhead, grayish-white clouds covered the sky, piling up heavily like decaying corpses. 天上罩满了灰白的薄云,同腐烂的尸体似的沉沉的盖在那里。 来自汉英文学 - 中国现代小说
85 horrifying 6rezZ3     
a.令人震惊的,使人毛骨悚然的
参考例句:
  • He went to great pains to show how horrifying the war was. 他极力指出战争是多么的恐怖。
  • The possibility of war is too horrifying to contemplate. 战争的可能性太可怕了,真不堪细想。
86 anonymous lM2yp     
adj.无名的;匿名的;无特色的
参考例句:
  • Sending anonymous letters is a cowardly act.寄匿名信是懦夫的行为。
  • The author wishes to remain anonymous.作者希望姓名不公开。
87 humiliation Jd3zW     
n.羞辱
参考例句:
  • He suffered the humiliation of being forced to ask for his cards.他蒙受了被迫要求辞职的羞辱。
  • He will wish to revenge his humiliation in last Season's Final.他会为在上个季度的决赛中所受的耻辱而报复的。
88 aspiration ON6z4     
n.志向,志趣抱负;渴望;(语)送气音;吸出
参考例句:
  • Man's aspiration should be as lofty as the stars.人的志气应当象天上的星星那么高。
  • Young Addison had a strong aspiration to be an inventor.年幼的爱迪生渴望成为一名发明家。
89 aspirations a60ebedc36cdd304870aeab399069f9e     
强烈的愿望( aspiration的名词复数 ); 志向; 发送气音; 发 h 音
参考例句:
  • I didn't realize you had political aspirations. 我没有意识到你有政治上的抱负。
  • The new treaty embodies the aspirations of most nonaligned countries. 新条约体现了大多数不结盟国家的愿望。
90 catastrophe WXHzr     
n.大灾难,大祸
参考例句:
  • I owe it to you that I survived the catastrophe.亏得你我才大难不死。
  • This is a catastrophe beyond human control.这是一场人类无法控制的灾难。
91 catastrophes 9d10f3014dc151d21be6612c0d467fd0     
n.灾祸( catastrophe的名词复数 );灾难;不幸事件;困难
参考例句:
  • Two of history's worst natural catastrophes occurred in 1970. 1970年发生了历史上最严重两次自然灾害。 来自辞典例句
  • The Swiss deposits contain evidence of such catastrophes. 瑞士的遗址里还有这种灾难的证据。 来自辞典例句
92 scripture WZUx4     
n.经文,圣书,手稿;Scripture:(常用复数)《圣经》,《圣经》中的一段
参考例句:
  • The scripture states that God did not want us to be alone.圣经指出上帝并不是想让我们独身一人生活。
  • They invoked Hindu scripture to justify their position.他们援引印度教的经文为他们的立场辩护。
93 rustling c6f5c8086fbaf68296f60e8adb292798     
n. 瑟瑟声,沙沙声 adj. 发沙沙声的
参考例句:
  • the sound of the trees rustling in the breeze 树木在微风中发出的沙沙声
  • the soft rustling of leaves 树叶柔和的沙沙声
94 condone SnKyI     
v.宽恕;原谅
参考例句:
  • I cannot condone the use of violence.我不能宽恕使用暴力的行为。
  • I will not condone a course of action that will lead us to war.我绝不允许任何导致战争的行为。
95 isolating 44778bf8913bd1ed228a8571456b945b     
adj.孤立的,绝缘的v.使隔离( isolate的现在分词 );将…剔出(以便看清和单独处理);使(某物质、细胞等)分离;使离析
参考例句:
  • Colour filters are not very effective in isolating narrow spectral bands. 一些滤色片不能很有效地分离狭窄的光谱带。 来自辞典例句
  • This became known as the streak method for isolating bacteria. 这个方法以后就称为分离细菌的划线法。 来自辞典例句
96 tangible 4IHzo     
adj.有形的,可触摸的,确凿的,实际的
参考例句:
  • The policy has not yet brought any tangible benefits.这项政策还没有带来任何实质性的好处。
  • There is no tangible proof.没有确凿的证据。
97 anecdotes anecdotes     
n.掌故,趣闻,轶事( anecdote的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • amusing anecdotes about his brief career as an actor 关于他短暂演员生涯的趣闻逸事
  • He related several anecdotes about his first years as a congressman. 他讲述自己初任议员那几年的几则轶事。 来自《简明英汉词典》
98 solitude xF9yw     
n. 孤独; 独居,荒僻之地,幽静的地方
参考例句:
  • People need a chance to reflect on spiritual matters in solitude. 人们需要独处的机会来反思精神上的事情。
  • They searched for a place where they could live in solitude. 他们寻找一个可以过隐居生活的地方。
99 demolish 1m7ze     
v.拆毁(建筑物等),推翻(计划、制度等)
参考例句:
  • They're going to demolish that old building.他们将拆毁那座旧建筑物。
  • He was helping to demolish an underground garage when part of the roof collapsed.他当时正在帮忙拆除一个地下汽车库,屋顶的一部份突然倒塌。
100 woe OfGyu     
n.悲哀,苦痛,不幸,困难;int.用来表达悲伤或惊慌
参考例句:
  • Our two peoples are brothers sharing weal and woe.我们两国人民是患难与共的兄弟。
  • A man is well or woe as he thinks himself so.自认祸是祸,自认福是福。
101 woes 887656d87afcd3df018215107a0daaab     
困境( woe的名词复数 ); 悲伤; 我好苦哇; 某人就要倒霉
参考例句:
  • Thanks for listening to my woes. 谢谢您听我诉说不幸的遭遇。
  • She has cried the blues about its financial woes. 对于经济的困难她叫苦不迭。
102 inhuman F7NxW     
adj.残忍的,不人道的,无人性的
参考例句:
  • We must unite the workers in fighting against inhuman conditions.我们必须使工人们团结起来反对那些难以忍受的工作条件。
  • It was inhuman to refuse him permission to see his wife.不容许他去看自己的妻子是太不近人情了。
103 generosity Jf8zS     
n.大度,慷慨,慷慨的行为
参考例句:
  • We should match their generosity with our own.我们应该像他们一样慷慨大方。
  • We adore them for their generosity.我们钦佩他们的慷慨。
104 demolished 3baad413d6d10093a39e09955dfbdfcb     
v.摧毁( demolish的过去式和过去分词 );推翻;拆毁(尤指大建筑物);吃光
参考例句:
  • The factory is due to be demolished next year. 这个工厂定于明年拆除。
  • They have been fighting a rearguard action for two years to stop their house being demolished. 两年来,为了不让拆除他们的房子,他们一直在进行最后的努力。
105 justify j3DxR     
vt.证明…正当(或有理),为…辩护
参考例句:
  • He tried to justify his absence with lame excuses.他想用站不住脚的借口为自己的缺席辩解。
  • Can you justify your rude behavior to me?你能向我证明你的粗野行为是有道理的吗?
106 penetrate juSyv     
v.透(渗)入;刺入,刺穿;洞察,了解
参考例句:
  • Western ideas penetrate slowly through the East.西方观念逐渐传入东方。
  • The sunshine could not penetrate where the trees were thickest.阳光不能透入树木最浓密的地方。
107 dagger XnPz0     
n.匕首,短剑,剑号
参考例句:
  • The bad news is a dagger to his heart.这条坏消息刺痛了他的心。
  • The murderer thrust a dagger into her heart.凶手将匕首刺进她的心脏。
108 determined duszmP     
adj.坚定的;有决心的
参考例句:
  • I have determined on going to Tibet after graduation.我已决定毕业后去西藏。
  • He determined to view the rooms behind the office.他决定查看一下办公室后面的房间。
109 rustle thPyl     
v.沙沙作响;偷盗(牛、马等);n.沙沙声声
参考例句:
  • She heard a rustle in the bushes.她听到灌木丛中一阵沙沙声。
  • He heard a rustle of leaves in the breeze.他听到树叶在微风中发出的沙沙声。
110 rustled f68661cf4ba60e94dc1960741a892551     
v.发出沙沙的声音( rustle的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • He rustled his papers. 他把试卷弄得沙沙地响。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Leaves rustled gently in the breeze. 树叶迎着微风沙沙作响。 来自《简明英汉词典》
111 gathering ChmxZ     
n.集会,聚会,聚集
参考例句:
  • He called on Mr. White to speak at the gathering.他请怀特先生在集会上讲话。
  • He is on the wing gathering material for his novels.他正忙于为他的小说收集资料。
112 tormentor tormentor     
n. 使苦痛之人, 使苦恼之物, 侧幕 =tormenter
参考例句:
  • He was the tormentor, he was the protector, he was the inquisitor, he was the friend. 他既是拷打者,又是保护者;既是审问者,又是朋友。 来自英汉文学
  • The tormentor enlarged the engagement garment. 折磨者加大了订婚服装。
113 torments 583b07d85b73539874dc32ae2ffa5f78     
(肉体或精神上的)折磨,痛苦( torment的名词复数 ); 造成痛苦的事物[人]
参考例句:
  • He released me from my torments. 他解除了我的痛苦。
  • He suffered torments from his aching teeth. 他牙痛得难受。
114 wagered b6112894868d522e6463e9ec15bdee79     
v.在(某物)上赌钱,打赌( wager的过去式和过去分词 );保证,担保
参考例句:
  • She always wagered on an outsider. 她总是把赌注押在不大可能获胜的马上。
  • They wagered on the flesh, but knowing they were to lose. 他们把赌注下在肉体上,心里却明白必输无疑。 来自互联网
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TAG标签:   大学英语  阅读  第四册  unit
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