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新编大学英语阅读部分第四册Unit1-1

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Unit 1
Happiness

In-Class Reading
Finding Happiness

1 Does happiness favor those of a particular age, sex, or income level? Does happiness come with satisfying close relationships? What attitudes, activities, and priorities engender1 a sense of well-being3?
2 Although the scientific pursuit of happiness has recently mushroomed, speculations4 about happiness are age-old. Ancient philosophers believed that happiness accompanied a life of intelligent reflection. "There is no fool who is happy, and no wise man who is not," said the Roman philosopher Cicero. In later centuries, some sages6 have suggested that happiness comes from living a virtuous7 life, and others, from indulging pleasures; some that it comes from knowing the truth, and others, from preserving illusions; some that it comes from restraint, and others, from getting rid of rage and misery8. The list goes on, but the implication is clear: To discover the truth about happiness, we must ask how these competing ideas relate to reality. In short, we must study happiness scientifically.
3 Social scientists have exploded some myths about who's happy and who's not by identifying predictors of happiness and life satisfaction.
4 Many people believe there are unhappy times of life-typically the stress-filled teen years, the "mid-life crisis" years, or the declining years of old age. But interviews with people of all ages reveal that no time of life is notably9 happier or unhappier. Emotions do change with age: Satisfaction with social relations and health becomes more important in later life. And teens, unlike adults, typically rebound10 from either gloom or joy within an hour's time. Yet knowing someone's age gives no clue to the person's lasting11 sense of well-being. Moreover, rates of depression, suicide, and divorce show no increase during the mythical12 "mid-life crisis" years.
5 Does happiness have a favorite sex? Are men happier because of their greater incomes and social power? Are women happier because of their supposedly greater capacity for intimacy13 and social connection? Like age, gender2 gives no clue to subjective14 well-being. There are gender gaps in misery: When troubled, men more often become alcoholic15, while women more often think deeply and get depressed16 or anxious. Yet men and women are equally likely to declare themselves "very happy" and "satisfied" with life. This conclusion is grounded in scores of studies around the world.
6 Living standards have soared during the twentieth century and are expected to continue rising in the decades ahead. Does that mean that we humans can look forward to increasing happiness? Not necessarily. Steady improvements in the economy are not accompanied by a steady increase in people's assessments18 of their own happiness. It seems that people become less satisfied over time with a given level of income.
7 In study after study, four traits are typical of happy people. First, happy people, especially in individualistic Western cultures, like themselves. On self-esteem tests, they agree with statements such as "I'm a lot of fun to be with" and "I have good ideas". As we might expect of people who are usually happy, they report that they have positive self-esteem. Indeed, they usually have good opinions of themselves: They believe themselves to be more ethical19, more intelligent, less prejudiced, better able to get along with others, and healthier than the average person.
8 Second, happy people typically feel personal control. Feeling empowered rather than helpless, they also do better in school, achieve more at work, and cope better with stress. Deprived of control over one's life-a phenomenon studied in prisoners, nursing-home patients, etc. -people suffer lower morale20 and worse health. Severe poverty is depressing if it destroys people's sense of control over their life.
9 Third, happy people are usually optimistic. One could reason that pessimists21, whose low expectations are so often exceeded, would constantly be surprised by joy. "Blessed is he who expects nothing, for he shall never be disappointed," wrote poet Alexander Pope in a 1727 letter. Nevertheless, positive-thinking optimists--those who agree, for example, that "when I undertake something new, I expect to succeed" -- tend to be more successful, healthier, and happier.
10 Fourth, happy people tend to be extroverted23. Although we might have expected that introverts25 might live more happily in the serenity26 of their less-stressed contemplative lives, extroverts27 are happier--whether living and working alone or with others and whether living in rural or metropolitan28 areas.
11 With each of these trait-happiness correlations29, the causal arrows are uncertain. For example, does happiness make people more outgoing? Or are outgoing people more enthusiastic and less anxious about reaching out to others? Such tendencies may explain their marrying sooner, getting better jobs, and making more friends. If these traits indeed produce happiness, people might become happier by acting30 as if they had the desired traits. In experiments, people who act as if they had high self-esteem begin feeling better about themselves, and people who are urged to smile feel happier.
12 Yet happiness seems changeable only within limits imposed by our genetic31 makeup32. From their study of 254 identical and fraternal twins, psychologists David Lykken and Auke Tellegen estimate that 50% of the difference among people's happiness ratings is inherited. Even identical twins raised apart often are similarly happy. Depending on our outlooks and recent experiences, our happiness fluctuates around our happiness set point, which disposes some people to be ever cheerful and others gloomy.
13 Close relationships also mark happy lives. One could easily imagine why the stress of close relationships might further increase illness and misery. "Hell is other people," stated Jean-Paul Sartre. Thankfully, however, the benefits of close relationships with friends and family usually outweigh33 the strains. Compared with people lacking such relationships, those who can name several intimate friends are healthier, less likely to die prematurely34, and happier. Psychologist William Pavot has found that people report happier feelings when with others.
14 For more than nine in ten people, the most significant alternative to aloneness is marriage. Although broken marital35 relationships are a source of much misery, a supportive, intimate, committed relationship is among life's greatest satisfactions. To quote Henry Ward17 Beecher, "Well-married a person is winged; ill-matched, shackled37." Fortunately, national surveys reveal that three in four married Americans say their spouse38 is their best friend, and four out of five say they would marry the same person again. Such feelings help explain why, during the 1970s and 1980s, more married adults said they were "very happy" than did those who never married (39% versus39 24%).
15 Is marriage, as is so often supposed, more strongly associated with men's happiness than women's? In both European and North American national surveys, the happiness gap between the married and never-married is similar for women and men. The results of nearly a hundred such studies confirm this: Although a bad marriage may be more depressing to a woman than to a man, the myth that single women report greater happiness than married women can be ignored.
16 So, knowing people's age, sex, and income (assuming they have enough to afford life's necessities) hardly tells us if they are happy. William Cowper's 1782 hunch40 has proven right: "Happiness depends, as Nature shows, less on exterior41 things than most suppose." Better clues come from knowing what traits a person has and whether the person enjoys a supportive network of close relationships. (1198 words)

Time taken: ______ minutes


Proper Names

Alexander Pope
(男子名) 亚历山大·蒲柏(1688-1744,英国诗人,著有长篇讽刺诗《夺发记》、《群愚史诗》等,并翻译荷马史诗《伊利亚特》和《奥德赛》)

Auke Tellegen
(男子名) 奥克·泰利根

Cicero
(男子名)西塞罗(106--43 BC,古罗马政治家、律师、哲学家、作家。他徒劳地维护共和政体,却以罗马最大的演说家而名垂史册,著有《论演说术》、《论共和国》、《论法律》等)

David Lykken
(男子名)戴维·利肯

Henry Ward Beecher
(男子名)亨利·沃德·比彻(1813-1887,美国基督教公理会自由派牧师、废奴运动领袖,主张妇女参政,赞成进化论)

Jean-Paul Sartre
(男子名)让-保尔·萨特(1905-1980,法国哲学家、剧作家、小说家。法国存在主义的首倡者。他的《话语》获1964年诺贝尔文学奖,但他未接受。他的著作颇丰,如哲学著作《存在与虚无》、小说《自由之路》、剧作《魔鬼与上帝》等)

Roman
adj.罗马的

William Cowper
(男子名)威廉·柯珀(1731-1800,英国诗人,赞美乡村生活和自然风光,代表作为长诗《任务》和抒情短诗《白杨树》)

William Pavot
(男子名)威廉·派弗特


New Words

causal*
adj. of or forming a cause; relating to cause and effect 原因的,关于因果的
e.g. No causal relationship has been established between violence on television and violent behavior.

changeable*
adj. likely to change or changing often 易变的,不定的
e.g. She knew how impulsive42 (易冲动的) and changeable Sophie could be.

committed*
adj. feeling great dedication43 and loyalty44 to something 坚定的,献身的,忠诚的
e.g. I ) Law student Libby Brooks45 has been a committed socialist46 since the age of 18.
II ) She is committed to artistically47 and politically provocative48 (令人振奋的) work, not financial gain.

competing
adj. that cannot all be right or satisfied at the same time 抵触的,相互矛盾的
e.g. They talked about the competing theories of the origin of life.

contemplative
adj. Deeply thoughtful in a serious and quiet way (好)沉思的,(爱)思考的
e.g. The beautiful sunset and the peaceful atmosphere left him feeling very contemplative.

engender
v. (formal) cause to happen 造成,引起
e.g. Her latest book has engendered49 a lot of controversy50.

ethical
adj. morally good or correct 道德的,合乎道德标准的
e.g. The article questioned the ethical conduct of certain journalists, who are claimed to have used threats in order to obtain interviews.

Exterior
1) adj. on or coming from the outside, outer 外部的,外面的
e.g. Jim wants to see the whole exterior structure of the building first before going inside, as this is how he writes poetry.
2) n. the outside, the outer appearance or surface外部,外表,外貌 e.g. I) The rooms in the town hall were as grand as the exterior.
II) She maintained a calm exterior, though really she was furious (非常生气).

extrovert22
n. a person who is active and confident, and enjoys spending time with other people 性格外向的人
e.g. If you are an extrovert, you are quite likely to enjoy working as a receptionist (接待员).

extroverted
adj. active, lively, and sociable51 性格外向的
e.g. You should be energetic, conscientious52, uncomplaining, cheerful and fairly extroverted.

fluctuate
v. change or vary, especially continuously and between one level or thing and another 起伏,波动,涨落
e.g. Prices of fruits and vegetables fluctuate according to the season.

fraternal
adj.
1) (of twins) born from two eggs, not identical 异卵双生的
2) relating to brothers or like brothers, friendly 兄弟(般)的,友爱的

gloom
n.
1) a feeling of unhappiness or despair 忧郁,沮丧
e.g. Bergman's films are often full of gloom and despair.
2) a state of partial darkness 昏暗,阴暗
e.g. It was not the gloom of the hotel but the uninteresting food that he chiefly complained about.

gloomy
adj.
1) sad because you think the situation will not improve 忧郁的,沮丧的
e.g. He is gloomy about the state of his financial situation.
2) almost dark so that you cannot see very well 昏暗的,阴暗的
e.g. He has to spend 10 years in the gloomy mud-walled prison.

hunch
n. a feeling or guess about the future, a suspicion 预感,直觉
e.g. "How did you know that horse was going to win?" "It was just a hunch."

individualistic
adj.
1) showing independence or individuality in thought or action 显示个人独立性和个性的
2) pursuing individual rather than common or collective interests 利己主义的,个人主义的

introvert24
n. a shy, quiet and typically self-centered person 性格内向的人
e.g. He used to be very sociable, but he's been an introvert since his wife's death.

lasting *
adj. existing or continuing a long while, enduring 持久的,永久的,耐久的
e.g. Few observers believe that the treaty (协定) will bring a lasting peace to the region.

metropolitan
adj. connected with or belonging to a very large city 大都会的,大城市的
e.g. His clients include the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (纽约大都会美术博物馆), Elton John and his future father-in-law.

mushroom
1) v. grow and develop very quickly 迅速生长,迅速发展
e.g. I) Our sales have begun to mushroom.
II) The organization was founded in 1955 and quickly mushroomed into a mass movement of the middle class.
2) n. a fast-growing fungus53 with a round top and short stem 蘑菇
e.g. I liked helping54 to pick mushrooms in the wet fields.

mythical
adj. imaginary, not real 想像的,虚构的
e.g. He keeps talking about all these mythical "job prospects55 (前景)".

prematurely
adv. in a way of occurring, coming or being done too soon 过早地,比预期时间早地
e.g. She has been forced to retire prematurely because of health problems.

pursuit
n. an activity to which someone gives his time 从事的事务,研究
e.g. His scientific pursuits made him a very observant (观察力敏锐的) man.

rating
n. classification or ranking of someone or something 评定结果,品级
e.g. I) The critics' rating of the novel was very low.
II) The company has a good credit rating, so it is allowed to borrow a lot of money.

rebound
v. recover in value, amount, strength, etc. 恢复,振作,回升

restraint
n.
1) calm, controlled, and unemotional behavior 克制,抑制,限制
e.g. He showed admirable restraint, and refused to be provoked (激怒).
2) rules or conditions that limit or restrict someone or something 约束措施,约束条件
e.g. The Prime Minister is calling for new restraints on trade unions.

sage5
n. a very wise man 圣贤之人,哲人

serenity
n. calmness, tranquility 安祥,宁静

shackle36
1) v. prevent someone from acting or speaking freely 束缚
e.g. The young people should not be shackled by outdated56 attitudes.
2) n. one of a pair of metal rings linked by a chain, used for fastening a prisoner's wrists or ankles together 手铐,脚镣
e.g. He unbolted (打开) the shackles57 on Billy's hands.

spouse
n. a person's husband or wife 配偶
e.g. In 60% of the households surveyed both spouses58 went out to work.

subjective
adj. based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or opinions 主观的,个人的
e.g. I think my husband is the most handsome man in the world, but I realize my judgment59 is rather subjective.

supportive*
adj. giving help or encouragement, especially to someone who is in a difficult situation 起支持作用的,支援的
e.g. I) His boss has never been very supportive of him.
II) The staff in this company are extremely supportive of each other.

totalitarian
adj. of or being a political system in which those in power have complete control and do not allow people freely to oppose them 极权主义的

virtuous*
adj. possessing good moral qualities 有道德的,善良的,正直的
e.g. He described them as virtuous and hard-working people.


Phrases and Expressions

be grounded in
give (something abstract) a firm theoretical or practical basis 以......为基础,以......为根据
e.g. I ) He acquired an understanding of psychological behavior grounded in facts.
II ) The study of history must be grounded in a thorough knowledge of the past.

in short
in a few words, briefly60 总之,简而言之
e.g. I ) She was surrounded by doctors, lawyers, housewives-people, in short, like herself.
II ) He's disorganized, he's inefficient61, he's never there when you want him-in short, the man's hopeless.

scores of
a lot of, a large number of
e.g. I ) There were five deaths and scores of injuries in the traffic accident yesterday.
II ) There were scores of tourists at the memorial (纪念馆) when we visited it.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 engender 3miyT     
v.产生,引起
参考例句:
  • A policy like that tends to engender a sense of acceptance,and the research literature suggests this leads to greater innovation.一个能够使员工产生认同感的政策,研究表明这会走向更伟大的创新。
  • The sense of injustice they engender is a threat to economic and political security.它们造成的不公平感是对经济和政治安全的威胁。
2 gender slSyD     
n.(生理上的)性,(名词、代词等的)性
参考例句:
  • French differs from English in having gender for all nouns.法语不同于英语,所有的名词都有性。
  • Women are sometimes denied opportunities solely because of their gender.妇女有时仅仅因为性别而无法获得种种机会。
3 well-being Fe3zbn     
n.安康,安乐,幸福
参考例句:
  • He always has the well-being of the masses at heart.他总是把群众的疾苦挂在心上。
  • My concern for their well-being was misunderstood as interference.我关心他们的幸福,却被误解为多管闲事。
4 speculations da17a00acfa088f5ac0adab7a30990eb     
n.投机买卖( speculation的名词复数 );思考;投机活动;推断
参考例句:
  • Your speculations were all quite close to the truth. 你的揣测都很接近于事实。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • This possibility gives rise to interesting speculations. 这种可能性引起了有趣的推测。 来自《用法词典》
5 sage sCUz2     
n.圣人,哲人;adj.贤明的,明智的
参考例句:
  • I was grateful for the old man's sage advice.我很感激那位老人贤明的忠告。
  • The sage is the instructor of a hundred ages.这位哲人是百代之师。
6 sages 444b76bf883a9abfd531f5b0f7d0a981     
n.圣人( sage的名词复数 );智者;哲人;鼠尾草(可用作调料)
参考例句:
  • Homage was paid to the great sages buried in the city. 向安葬在此城市的圣哲们表示敬意。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Confucius is considered the greatest of the ancient Chinese sages. 孔子被认为是古代中国最伟大的圣人。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
7 virtuous upCyI     
adj.有品德的,善良的,贞洁的,有效力的
参考例句:
  • She was such a virtuous woman that everybody respected her.她是个有道德的女性,人人都尊敬她。
  • My uncle is always proud of having a virtuous wife.叔叔一直为娶到一位贤德的妻子而骄傲。
8 misery G10yi     
n.痛苦,苦恼,苦难;悲惨的境遇,贫苦
参考例句:
  • Business depression usually causes misery among the working class.商业不景气常使工薪阶层受苦。
  • He has rescued me from the mire of misery.他把我从苦海里救了出来。
9 notably 1HEx9     
adv.值得注意地,显著地,尤其地,特别地
参考例句:
  • Many students were absent,notably the monitor.许多学生缺席,特别是连班长也没来。
  • A notably short,silver-haired man,he plays basketball with his staff several times a week.他个子明显较为矮小,一头银发,每周都会和他的员工一起打几次篮球。
10 rebound YAtz1     
v.弹回;n.弹回,跳回
参考例句:
  • The vibrations accompanying the rebound are the earth quake.伴随这种回弹的振动就是地震。
  • Our evil example will rebound upon ourselves.我们的坏榜样会回到我们自己头上的。
11 lasting IpCz02     
adj.永久的,永恒的;vbl.持续,维持
参考例句:
  • The lasting war debased the value of the dollar.持久的战争使美元贬值。
  • We hope for a lasting settlement of all these troubles.我们希望这些纠纷能获得永久的解决。
12 mythical 4FrxJ     
adj.神话的;虚构的;想像的
参考例句:
  • Undeniably,he is a man of mythical status.不可否认,他是一个神话般的人物。
  • Their wealth is merely mythical.他们的财富完全是虚构的。
13 intimacy z4Vxx     
n.熟悉,亲密,密切关系,亲昵的言行
参考例句:
  • His claims to an intimacy with the President are somewhat exaggerated.他声称自己与总统关系密切,这有点言过其实。
  • I wish there were a rule book for intimacy.我希望能有个关于亲密的规则。
14 subjective mtOwP     
a.主观(上)的,个人的
参考例句:
  • The way they interpreted their past was highly subjective. 他们解释其过去的方式太主观。
  • A literary critic should not be too subjective in his approach. 文学评论家的看法不应太主观。
15 alcoholic rx7zC     
adj.(含)酒精的,由酒精引起的;n.酗酒者
参考例句:
  • The alcoholic strength of brandy far exceeds that of wine.白兰地的酒精浓度远远超过葡萄酒。
  • Alcoholic drinks act as a poison to a child.酒精饮料对小孩犹如毒药。
16 depressed xu8zp9     
adj.沮丧的,抑郁的,不景气的,萧条的
参考例句:
  • When he was depressed,he felt utterly divorced from reality.他心情沮丧时就感到完全脱离了现实。
  • His mother was depressed by the sad news.这个坏消息使他的母亲意志消沉。
17 ward LhbwY     
n.守卫,监护,病房,行政区,由监护人或法院保护的人(尤指儿童);vt.守护,躲开
参考例句:
  • The hospital has a medical ward and a surgical ward.这家医院有内科病房和外科病房。
  • During the evening picnic,I'll carry a torch to ward off the bugs.傍晚野餐时,我要点根火把,抵挡蚊虫。
18 assessments 7d0657785d6e5832f8576c61c78262ef     
n.评估( assessment的名词复数 );评价;(应偿付金额的)估定;(为征税对财产所作的)估价
参考例句:
  • He was shrewd in his personal assessments. 他总能对人作出精明的评价。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Surveys show about two-thirds use such assessments, while half employ personality tests. 调查表明,约有三分之二的公司采用了这种测评;而一半的公司则采用工作人员个人品质测试。 来自百科语句
19 ethical diIz4     
adj.伦理的,道德的,合乎道德的
参考例句:
  • It is necessary to get the youth to have a high ethical concept.必须使青年具有高度的道德观念。
  • It was a debate which aroused fervent ethical arguments.那是一场引发强烈的伦理道德争论的辩论。
20 morale z6Ez8     
n.道德准则,士气,斗志
参考例句:
  • The morale of the enemy troops is sinking lower every day.敌军的士气日益低落。
  • He tried to bolster up their morale.他尽力鼓舞他们的士气。
21 pessimists 6c14db9fb1102251ef49856c57998ecc     
n.悲观主义者( pessimist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Pessimists tell us that the family as we know it is doomed. 悲观主义者告诉我们说,我们现在的这种家庭注定要崩溃。 来自辞典例句
  • Experts on the future are divided into pessimists and optimists. 对未来发展进行预测的专家可分为悲观主义者和乐观主义者两类。 来自互联网
22 extrovert Pl5xo     
n.性格外向的人
参考例句:
  • A good salesman is usually an extrovert,who likes to mingle with people.一个好的推销员通常很外向,喜欢和人们交往。
  • Do you think you're an extrovert or introvert?你认为你是个性外向的人还是个性内向的人?
23 extroverted FtQzAK     
a.性格外向的
参考例句:
  • Do you think you are introverted or extroverted? 你认为你性格内向还是外向?
  • Are you introverted or extroverted? 你个性内向还是外向? 来自轻松英语会话---联想2000词(上)
24 introvert W4Jxl     
n.性格内向的人
参考例句:
  • You are very much an introvert.你是一位地道的内向性格者。
  • The same conversation that energizes the extravert also drains the introvert.同样的交谈能让外向者荣光焕发,却让内向者精神颓靡。
25 introverts b81c5949c0b0faaba404851f8303d872     
性格内向的人( introvert的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Extroverts tend to lack self-discipline while introverts lack courage. 性格外向的人缺乏自我约束力,而性格内向的人则缺乏勇气。
  • I an introvert and introverts get drawn in. 我是个内向的人而且内向是天生的。
26 serenity fEzzz     
n.宁静,沉着,晴朗
参考例句:
  • Her face,though sad,still evoked a feeling of serenity.她的脸色虽然悲伤,但仍使人感觉安详。
  • She escaped to the comparative serenity of the kitchen.她逃到相对安静的厨房里。
27 extroverts a46f953cfa5b544774535b054c022a8f     
性格外向的人( extrovert的名词复数 ); 活跃、愉快、爱交际的人
参考例句:
  • In the second half, the students were criticized. Extroverts were unfazed. 在后半部分,举不动时学生要受批评,外向性格的学生表现出不满。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 大脑与疾病
  • Extroverts prefer lively conversation to brooding on the meaning of life. 性格外向的人喜欢高谈阔论,而不愿思索人生的意义。
28 metropolitan mCyxZ     
adj.大城市的,大都会的
参考例句:
  • Metropolitan buildings become taller than ever.大城市的建筑变得比以前更高。
  • Metropolitan residents are used to fast rhythm.大都市的居民习惯于快节奏。
29 correlations 4a9b6fe1ddc2671881c9aa3d6cc07e8e     
相互的关系( correlation的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • One would expect strong and positive correlations between both complexes. 人们往往以为这两个综合体之间有紧密的正相关。
  • The correlations are of unequal value. 这些对应联系的价值并不相同。
30 acting czRzoc     
n.演戏,行为,假装;adj.代理的,临时的,演出用的
参考例句:
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.别理她,她只是假装的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
31 genetic PgIxp     
adj.遗传的,遗传学的
参考例句:
  • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
  • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
32 makeup 4AXxO     
n.组织;性格;化装品
参考例句:
  • Those who failed the exam take a makeup exam.这次考试不及格的人必须参加补考。
  • Do you think her beauty could makeup for her stupidity?你认为她的美丽能弥补她的愚蠢吗?
33 outweigh gJlxO     
vt.比...更重,...更重要
参考例句:
  • The merits of your plan outweigh the defects.你制定的计划其优点胜过缺点。
  • One's merits outweigh one's short-comings.功大于过。
34 prematurely nlMzW4     
adv.过早地,贸然地
参考例句:
  • She was born prematurely with poorly developed lungs. 她早产,肺部未发育健全。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • His hair was prematurely white, but his busy eyebrows were still jet-black. 他的头发已经白了,不过两道浓眉还是乌黑乌黑的。 来自辞典例句
35 marital SBixg     
adj.婚姻的,夫妻的
参考例句:
  • Her son had no marital problems.她的儿子没有婚姻问题。
  • I regret getting involved with my daughter's marital problems;all its done is to bring trouble about my ears.我后悔干涉我女儿的婚姻问题, 现在我所做的一切将给我带来无穷的烦恼。
36 shackle NEkzq     
n.桎梏,束缚物;v.加桎梏,加枷锁,束缚
参考例句:
  • He's too young to shackle himself with the responsibilities of a family.他还太年轻,不能用家庭责任来束缚自己。
  • This issue always is a shackle which confines the brand building of industry product.这个问题一直是限制工业品品牌塑造的桎梏。
37 shackled 915a38eca61d93140d07ef091110dab6     
给(某人)带上手铐或脚镣( shackle的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • The hostage had been shackled to a radiator. 当时人质被铐在暖气片上。
  • He was shackled and in darkness of torment. 他被困在黑暗中备受煎熬。
38 spouse Ah6yK     
n.配偶(指夫或妻)
参考例句:
  • Her spouse will come to see her on Sunday.她的丈夫星期天要来看她。
  • What is the best way to keep your spouse happy in the marriage?在婚姻中保持配偶幸福的最好方法是什么?
39 versus wi7wU     
prep.以…为对手,对;与…相比之下
参考例句:
  • The big match tonight is England versus Spain.今晚的大赛是英格兰对西班牙。
  • The most exciting game was Harvard versus Yale.最富紧张刺激的球赛是哈佛队对耶鲁队。
40 hunch CdVzZ     
n.预感,直觉
参考例句:
  • I have a hunch that he didn't really want to go.我有这么一种感觉,他并不真正想去。
  • I had a hunch that Susan and I would work well together.我有预感和苏珊共事会很融洽。
41 exterior LlYyr     
adj.外部的,外在的;表面的
参考例句:
  • The seed has a hard exterior covering.这种子外壳很硬。
  • We are painting the exterior wall of the house.我们正在给房子的外墙涂漆。
42 impulsive M9zxc     
adj.冲动的,刺激的;有推动力的
参考例句:
  • She is impulsive in her actions.她的行为常出于冲动。
  • He was neither an impulsive nor an emotional man,but a very honest and sincere one.他不是个一冲动就鲁莽行事的人,也不多愁善感.他为人十分正直、诚恳。
43 dedication pxMx9     
n.奉献,献身,致力,题献,献辞
参考例句:
  • We admire her courage,compassion and dedication.我们钦佩她的勇气、爱心和奉献精神。
  • Her dedication to her work was admirable.她对工作的奉献精神可钦可佩。
44 loyalty gA9xu     
n.忠诚,忠心
参考例句:
  • She told him the truth from a sense of loyalty.她告诉他真相是出于忠诚。
  • His loyalty to his friends was never in doubt.他对朋友的一片忠心从来没受到怀疑。
45 brooks cdbd33f49d2a6cef435e9a42e9c6670f     
n.小溪( brook的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Brooks gave the business when Haas caught him with his watch. 哈斯抓到偷他的手表的布鲁克斯时,狠狠地揍了他一顿。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Ade and Brooks exchanged blows yesterday and they were severely punished today. 艾德和布鲁克斯昨天打起来了,今天他们受到严厉的惩罚。 来自《简明英汉词典》
46 socialist jwcws     
n.社会主义者;adj.社会主义的
参考例句:
  • China is a socialist country,and a developing country as well.中国是一个社会主义国家,也是一个发展中国家。
  • His father was an ardent socialist.他父亲是一个热情的社会主义者。
47 artistically UNdyJ     
adv.艺术性地
参考例句:
  • The book is beautifully printed and artistically bound. 这本书印刷精美,装帧高雅。
  • The room is artistically decorated. 房间布置得很美观。
48 provocative e0Jzj     
adj.挑衅的,煽动的,刺激的,挑逗的
参考例句:
  • She wore a very provocative dress.她穿了一件非常性感的裙子。
  • His provocative words only fueled the argument further.他的挑衅性讲话只能使争论进一步激化。
49 engendered 9ea62fba28ee7e2bac621ac2c571239e     
v.产生(某形势或状况),造成,引起( engender的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • The issue engendered controversy. 这个问题引起了争论。
  • The meeting engendered several quarrels. 这次会议发生了几次争吵。 来自《简明英汉词典》
50 controversy 6Z9y0     
n.争论,辩论,争吵
参考例句:
  • That is a fact beyond controversy.那是一个无可争论的事实。
  • We ran the risk of becoming the butt of every controversy.我们要冒使自己在所有的纷争中都成为众矢之的的风险。
51 sociable hw3wu     
adj.好交际的,友好的,合群的
参考例句:
  • Roger is a very sociable person.罗杰是个非常好交际的人。
  • Some children have more sociable personalities than others.有些孩子比其他孩子更善于交际。
52 conscientious mYmzr     
adj.审慎正直的,认真的,本着良心的
参考例句:
  • He is a conscientious man and knows his job.他很认真负责,也很懂行。
  • He is very conscientious in the performance of his duties.他非常认真地履行职责。
53 fungus gzRyI     
n.真菌,真菌类植物
参考例句:
  • Mushrooms are a type of fungus.蘑菇是一种真菌。
  • This fungus can just be detected by the unaided eye.这种真菌只用肉眼就能检查出。
54 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
55 prospects fkVzpY     
n.希望,前途(恒为复数)
参考例句:
  • There is a mood of pessimism in the company about future job prospects. 公司中有一种对工作前景悲观的情绪。
  • They are less sanguine about the company's long-term prospects. 他们对公司的远景不那么乐观。
56 outdated vJTx0     
adj.旧式的,落伍的,过时的;v.使过时
参考例句:
  • That list of addresses is outdated,many have changed.那个通讯录已经没用了,许多地址已经改了。
  • Many of us conform to the outdated customs laid down by our forebears.我们许多人都遵循祖先立下的过时习俗。
57 shackles 91740de5ccb43237ed452a2a2676e023     
手铐( shackle的名词复数 ); 脚镣; 束缚; 羁绊
参考例句:
  • a country struggling to free itself from the shackles of colonialism 为摆脱殖民主义的枷锁而斗争的国家
  • The cars of the train are coupled together by shackles. 火车的车厢是用钩链连接起来的。
58 spouses 3fbe4097e124d44af1bc18e63e898b65     
n.配偶,夫或妻( spouse的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Jobs are available for spouses on campus and in the community. 校园里和社区里有配偶可做的工作。 来自辞典例句
  • An astonishing number of spouses-most particularly in the upper-income brackets-have no close notion of their husbands'paychecks. 相当大一部分妇女——特别在高收入阶层——并不很了解他们丈夫的薪金。 来自辞典例句
59 judgment e3xxC     
n.审判;判断力,识别力,看法,意见
参考例句:
  • The chairman flatters himself on his judgment of people.主席自认为他审视人比别人高明。
  • He's a man of excellent judgment.他眼力过人。
60 briefly 9Styo     
adv.简单地,简短地
参考例句:
  • I want to touch briefly on another aspect of the problem.我想简单地谈一下这个问题的另一方面。
  • He was kidnapped and briefly detained by a terrorist group.他被一个恐怖组织绑架并短暂拘禁。
61 inefficient c76xm     
adj.效率低的,无效的
参考例句:
  • The inefficient operation cost the firm a lot of money.低效率的运作使该公司损失了许多钱。
  • Their communication systems are inefficient in the extreme.他们的通讯系统效率非常差。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  阅读  第四册  unit
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