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新编大学英语阅读部分第四册Unit10-2

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Unit 10
Medical Ethics1

After-Class Reading

PASSAGE I Required Course: Bedside Manner 101[1]

Connie Cronin is the kind of nurse who loves to work the overnight shift on Christmas Eve to usher2 in the holiday with her patients. That's why she was so troubled one morning when she realized on her way home from work that she had all but ignored a patient ravaged4 with infections and confined to isolation5.[2] Cronin was the only person the patient would see all night, but because she was also the only nurse on duty, she avoided his gaze in her rush to finish her tasks. The next evening she headed straight to his room only to learn that he had died. "I abandoned that man during his last hours on Earth," she says.
Virtually every health worker has a story of regret over care not given to a needy6 patient. Such events were once the exception, but today, caregivers say, they are becoming the rule.[3] One CEO of a large health and hospital system in Dallas, Texas, believes that doctors get pressure from all sides to reduce costs and it takes their focus off the patient. His opinion was echoed by other doctors, nurses and administrators7, who attended the first national conference on "relationship-centered" care[4] in December 1998.
As the conference title suggests, most health professionals agree on the need for doctors and nurses alike to practice better bedside manners during increasingly short sessions with patients. Studies show that the more comfortable patients feel with a caregiver, the more likely they are to reveal key medical facts and to follow medical instructions. Yet, 6 out of 10 doctors surveyed said that medical school had poorly prepared them to talk with patients. Also 7 out of 10 doctors surveyed said that insufficient8 time with patients was a serious problem.
Still, health care workers can take a number of steps to improve their talks with patients, according to Aaron Lazare, Dean of the University of Massachusetts Medical School. For example, after asking, "What brings you here today? "a doctor; should try not to interrupt the patient's reply. A recent study showed that a doctor usually breaks in after just 18 seconds, but a patient who is allowed to speak freely will finish in two and a half minutes. A second key question, the Dean says, is, "What were you hoping I could do for you?" Doctors and nurses are often amazed by the answer. Patients want to be told that they don't have cancer. Other times they say, "Tell my wife not to leave me" or "Tell my boss I can't work."
A doctor's biggest mistake, researchers say, is intimidating9 patients into silence by tapping a pencil impatiently or keeping one hand on the exam room door handle. Dean Lazare says, "No visit should end without a doctor asking, 'Is there anything else you'd like to tell me?'" For their part, patients must speak up.[5] Many people suffer from what medical professionals call the "good-patient syndrome10", a reluctance11 to take up a nurse's time or a fear that a complaint isn't worth mentioning. One thing that frustrates12 doctors is that a number of patients wait until they are halfway13 out the door to bring up their most urgent concern.
To prevent these problems, Dean Lazare and others are helping14 medical and nursing schools create a list of communication "competencies", such as helping a patient discuss worries and delivering bad news gently. A few schools now require future health professionals to take a course each year to practice with actors simulating difficult cases. Students are videotaped so that they can see themselves backing away from a prostitute, sighing as an elderly man talks on and on, or glaring angrily when challenged.[6] Soon students may conduct mock physicals[7] and be graded on bedside manner as part of medical licensing15 exams.
No matter what formal training is offered, nurses and doctors will always find their own ways of meeting a patient's needs. Connie Cronin set up a network of nurses who were willing to cover for one another when the need arose. Thanks to that system, she was able to spend 45 minutes with a dying cancer patient while the woman waited for her husband in the middle of the night. He didn't arrive in time, but the patient had Cronin there to hold her hand through her final breath[8].
Dr. Bernie Siegel, a surgeon at Yale Medical School, has developed his own way for relating to[9] his patients more effectively. He recently wrote a book called Love, Medicine, and Miracles, which tells of his life and experience in healing. In the 1970s he was a surgeon at Yale, had a wonderful wife and five beautiful children, but he was terribly unhappy. Like most doctors of his generation, he had been trained to keep an emotional distance from sick people and their families. He treated people's diseases and kept himself apart from their lives, but he was miserable17 behind the wall he had built between his patients and himself. He considered leaving medicine.
Then he decided18 that before he quit he would try a different way of doctoring. He would allow himself to care about the patients he was treating. Once he did this, he began to see that it was very strange to think of medicine as a profession where doctors stand apart from their patients. He knew that he had to deal with cancer but that cancers were growing inside of people. So he shaved his head, moved his desk against the wall, sat down by his patients, and asked them to call him by his first name, Bernie.
As Bernie, he now talks with his patients and tries to help them with their fears. One thing he tells everyone is that it is important to show appreciation19 to others. He often tells people to give a reminder20 of their love to their family that day-a note, flowers, a card, a hug, or just say it out loud because everyone in the family needs reminders21. He recommends that his patient say "I love you" to someone that day, starting with the one to whom it is the hardest to say, and who often needs it" the most. He strongly believes that this "prescription22" works well and has no side effects. It is helpful to the person who is ill as well as to those people who are not. Bernie is convinced that if people are to heal physically23 they must also heal emotionally.[10] When his cancer patients are undergoing unpleasant treatments such as chemotherapy, expressions of love help both them and those who are close to them. His patients believe him because he takes the time to show his love and concern to them. Not all doctors can become Bernie Siegel, but all can learn to become more caring. (1130 words)



Proper Names

Aaron Lazare
(男子名)艾伦.拉扎尔

Bernie Siegel
(男子名)伯尼.西格尔

Connie Cronin
(女子名)康妮.克罗宁

University of Massachusetts Medical School
马萨诸塞大学医学院

Yale Medical School
耶鲁大学医学院


New Words

bedside *
n. the area beside a bed 床边
e.g. I) She sat by her son's bedside all night, watching for signs of recovery.
II) I keep a bedside lamp on all night.

caregiver
n. someone who is responsible for looking after another person, especially one who is disabled, ill, or very young 照顾者
e.g. The role of caregiver in this society is often taken on by women.

CEO
n. chief executive officer 首席执行官

doctoring
n. treating someone who is sick 医治,治疗

mock
adj. not real or genuine, but similar to the real thing 非真实的,模拟的
e.g. I) The general wanted to conduct a mock battle to train the soldiers.
II) The film set is made from mock facades24 (门面) with no real buildings behind them.

prostitute
n. someone, usually a woman, who has sex with men for money 娼妓,妓女

ravage3
v. destroy, ruin, or damage very badly 毁坏,使遭蹂躏
e.g. An incurable25 (不能治愈的) skin disease has ravaged his once-handsome face.


Phrases and Expressions

all but
almost 几乎,差不多
e.g. The game was all but over by the time we arrived.

back away from
move backwards26 away from someone in fear or dislike (由于恐惧或厌恶等)后退,躲开
e.g. I) James got to his feet and started to come over, but the girls hastily backed away.
II) The little boy backed away from the fierce dog.

break in
interrupt someone's conversation or activity 插嘴,打断
e.g. I) Please don't break in on our conversation.
II) As she was talking, he suddenly broke in, saying, "That's a lie."

bring up
introduce a particular subject into a discussion or conversation 谈到,提出
e.g. I) Don't bring up that old subject again.
II) I want to bring this matter up for a vote.

cover for
do the work that someone else usually does because they are ill or not present 代替,代......工作
e.g. She did not have enough nurses to cover for those who went ill or took holiday.

intimidate27 someone into (doing) something
frighten or threaten someone in order to make them do something against their wishes 恐吓某人做......,威胁某人做......
e.g. The shooter intimidated28 a witness into silence by pointing at him with a gun.

keep someone apart/away from
cause someone not to go near 使某人不靠近
e.g. Police warned bystanders to keep apart/away from the blazing buildings.

side effect
an unwanted effect which happens in addition to an intended effect 副作用
e.g. Reported side effects of this drug are heightened blood pressure and headaches.

speak up
state clearly and freely what one thinks 明确而坦率地说出想法
e.g. Those who are suffering from distress29 should speak up.

take up
fill or occupy the specified30 space or time 填满,占据(空间或时间)
e.g. I) Her time is fully31 taken up with writing.
II) The entire memo32 (备忘录) took up all of two pages.

thanks to
because of 由于,因为
e.g. Thanks to fine acting33 by all the cast (演员阵容), the play succeeded.

usher in
bring something into existence, introduce something new 迎接,宣告,开创
e.g. I) Children ushered34 in the First of June.
II) The new government ushered in a period of prosperity.


PASSAGE II Human Cloning, Don't just Say No!

That scientists have cloned a sheep sends academics[1] and the public into a panic at the prospect35 that humans might be next. That's an understandable reaction. Cloning is a radical36 challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, so it's not unreasonable37 to be concerned that it might threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the ethical38 opposition39 seems also to grow out of an unthinking disgust.[2] And that makes it hard for even trained scientists and ethicists to see the matter clearly. While human cloning might not offer great benefits to humanity[3], no one has yet made a persuasive41 case[4] that it would do any real harm, either.
Theologians contend that to clone a human would violate human dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a lesser42 being,[5] with fewer rights or lower stature[6]. But why suppose that cloned persons wouldn't share the same rights and dignity as the rest of us? A leading ethicist40 has suggested that cloning would violate the "right to genetic43 identity"[7]. Where did he come up with such a right? It makes perfect sense to say that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent[8]. But if such consent is given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated?
Many of the science-fiction scenarios45 prompted by the prospect of human cloning turn out, upon reflection, to be absurdly improbable. There's the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a child to have "spare parts"[9] in case the original child needs an organ transplant. But parents of identical twins don't view one child as an organ farm[10] for the other. Why should cloned children's parents be any different?
Another disturbing thought is that cloning will lead to efforts to breed individuals with genetic qualities perceived as exceptional (math geniuses, basketball players). Such ideas are repulsive46 because of the atrocities47 committed by the Nazis48 in the name of eugenics. But there's a vast difference between "selective breeding" as practiced by totalitarian regimes (where the urge to produce certain types of people leads to efforts to eradicate49 other types) and the immeasurably more benign50 forms already practiced in democratic societies (where, say, lawyers freely choose to marry other lawyers).[11] Banks stocked with the frozen sperm51 of geniuses already exist. They haven't created a master race[12] because only a tiny number of women have wanted to impregnate themselves this way. Why would it be different if human cloning became available?
So who will likely take advantage of cloning? Perhaps a grieving couple whose child is dying. This might seem psychologically twisted. But a cloned child born to such dubious52 parents stands no greater or lesser chance of being loved, or rejected, or warped54 than a child normally conceived.[13] Infertile55 couples are also likely to seek out cloning. That such couples have other options (in vitro fertilization or adoption56) is not an argument for denying them the right to clone.[14] Or consider an example raised by Judge Richard Posner: a couple in which the husband has some tragic57 genetic defect. Currently, if this couple wants a genetically58 related child, they have four not altogether pleasant[15] options. They can reproduce naturally and risk passing on the disease to the child. They can go to a sperm bank and take a chance on unknown genes59. They can try in vitro fertilization and dispose of any afflicted60 embryo-though that might be objectionable, too. Or they can get a male relative of the father to donate sperm, if such a relative exists. This is one case where even people unnerved by cloning might see it[16] as not the worst option.
Even if human cloning offers no obvious benefits to humanity, why ban it? In a democratic society we don't usually pass laws outlawing62 something before there is actual or probable evidence of harm.[17] A moratorium63 on further research into human cloning might make sense, in order to consider calmly the grave questions it raises, If the moratorium is then lifted, human cloning should remain a research activity for an extended period[18]. And if it is ever attempted, it should-and no doubt will-take place only with careful scrutiny64 and layers of legal oversight65. Most important, human cloning should be governed by the same laws that now protect human rights. A world not safe for cloned humans would be a world not safe for the rest of us. (740 words)

Proper Name

Richard Posner
(男子名)理查德.鲍斯奈

New Words

adoption *
n. the legal process where non-biological parents or a non-biological parent becomes the legal guardian66 of a child 收养,领养
e.g. I) The dying mother had to offer her child for adoption.
II) Adoption can provide homes for many children without parents.

atrocity67
n. a very cruel, shocking action 暴行
e.g. The killing68 was cold-blooded, and those who committed this atrocity should be tried and punished.

breeding *
n. producing of young by animals 繁殖
e.g. April is the breeding season for this kind of deer.

clone
v. make an exact copy of a plant or animal by taking a cell from it and developing it artificially 无性繁殖,克隆
e.g. The idea of cloning extinct (灭绝的) life forms still belongs to science fiction.

cloning *
n. the act or process of producing an animal or plant from the cells of another animal or plant artificially 无性繁殖,克隆

disgust
1) n. a feeling of very strong dislike or disapproval69 厌恶
e.g. The execution of political opponents aroused widespread disgust.
2) v. make someone feel a strong sense of dislike and disapproval 使厌恶
e.g. The candidate's dirty joke disgusted many voters.

eradicate
v. get rid of something completely 摆脱,消灭
e.g. We should take positive efforts to eradicate every trace of discrimination.

ethicist
n. someone who studies questions about what is morally right and wrong 伦理学家,道德学家

eugenics
n. the study of methods to improve the human race by carefully selecting parents who will produce the strongest children 优生学

extended *
adj. continued or prolonged 延长的,延续的
e.g. What I need is an extended vacation on a tropical island.

fertilization *
n. an act, process, or instance of making sperm join an egg so that a young baby or animal develops or joining particles of pollen70 so that a new plant develops 受精

immeasurably *
adv. infinitely71, limitlessly 无法计量地,无限地

impregnate
v. make a woman or animal pregnant 使怀孕

infertile
adj.
1) unable to breed or reproduce, barren 不孕的
2) (of soil) of poor quality so that plants cannot grow in it 不肥沃的,贫瘠的
e.g. The polluted waste is often dumped, making the surrounding land infertile.

layer
n.
1) different levels or parts of something, such as a system or an idea, and the way they are added together or hide each other 层次,层面
e.g. The study looked at ways to eliminate the present layers of bureaucracy.
2) a thickness of some material laid on or spread over a surface 一层
e.g. I) A fine layer of dust covers everything in the room.
II) There was a thin layer of oil on the surface of the water.

moratorium
n. a stopping of an activity for a period of time 暂停(活动)
e.g. The House (议院) voted to impose a one-year moratorium on nuclear testing.

outlaw61
v. make something illegal or unacceptable 禁止,取缔
e.g. Last week the government warned that it would consider legislation to outlaw smoking in public places.

oversight
n. the act of overseeing, supervision72 监督,看管
e.g. The president entrusted73 (委托) him with the oversight of agricultural reform.

reproduce
v.
1) (of living things) produce offspring by natural means 生育,繁殖
e.g. I) Most plants reproduce by seeds.
II) Some creatures were better at surviving and reproducing themselves than others, so they thrived at the others' expense.
2) produce a copy of something or show or do something again 复制,重做
e.g. I) This copier (复印机) can reproduce color photographs.
II) The car design unfortunately reproduced some of the problems of the earlier model.

repulsive
adj. very unpleasant 令人厌恶的
e.g. I think rats and snakes are repulsive and disgusting.

scenario44
n. a description of the characters, place, and things that will happen in a film, play, etc. 脚本,剧情说明

scrutiny
n. careful and thorough examination 详尽的查验
e.g. His work looks good, but it will not bear close scrutiny.

theologian
n. someone who studies the nature of God, religion, and religious beliefs 神学家,神学研究者

twisted *
adj. warped, strange in an unpleasant way 扭曲的
e.g. The letter showed horribly clearly the workings of a twisted mind.

unnerve *
v. worry or trouble someone 使紧张不安,使心慌意乱
e.g. His encounter with the guard dog had completely unnerved him.

vitro
used in "in vitro", meaning "happening outside the body in artificial conditions, often in a test tube" 在体外,在试管内

warp53
v. have a bad effect on someone so that they think strangely about things 使(性格等)不正常,使乖戾


Phrases and Expressions

dispose of
1) get rid of 去除,舍弃
e.g. I) All the old furniture has been disposed of.
II) Engine oil cannot be disposed of down the drain.
2) deal with 处理,处置
e.g. You did us a great favor by the manner in which you disposed of that problem.

make sense
1) be sensible, be reasonable 合情合理,有道理,很明智
e.g. It doesn't make sense to buy that expensive coat when these cheaper ones are just as good.
2) have an understandable meaning 有意义,讲得通
e.g. What you say makes no sense.

pass on...to...
hand or give something to someone else 将......传递给另一人
e.g. Pass the book on to me when you have finished with it.

seek out
look for someone or something until you find them 搜寻,找出
e.g. Now is the time for local companies to seek out business opportunities in Europe.

stand a chance of doing...
be likely to do... 有可能
e.g. She didn't stand a chance of winning.

take a chance (on something)
attempt to do something in spite of the possibility of failure, take a risk 冒险,投机,碰运气
e.g. After a sleepless74 night, he decided to take a chance on opening his own company selling computer components75.


PASSAGE III How the Gene16 Test Can Affect Your Insurance

Jamie Stephenson has seen first-hand what modern genetic science can do for a family. When her son David was 2 years old, a pediatrician noticed signs of mental retardation76 and developmental delays[1]. A lab test confirmed the diagnosis77, and the Stephensons spent several years learning to live with it. When David was 6, he visited a neurologist, who scribbled78 "hereditary79 mental retardation" on an insurance-company claim form[2]. The company responded promptly-by canceling coverage80[3] for the entire family of six. There is no medical treatment for his mental retardation, and none of David's siblings81 had been diagnosed with the condition. "The company didn't care," Stephenson says. "They just saw a positive[4] genetic test and said, 'You're out[5]'".
No one would argue that genetic tests are worthless. Used properly, they can give people unprecedented82 power over their lives. Prospective83 parents who discover they're silent carriers[6] of the gene for a disease like Tay-Sachs, which causes death by the age of 3, can make better-informed decisions about whether and how to have kids. Some genetic maladies can be managed through medication and lifestyle changes once they're identified. And while knowing that you're at special risk for cancer may be an emotional burden, it can also alert you to the need for intensive monitoring.
The catch[7] is that no one can guarantee the privacy of genetic information. Outside of large group plans[8], insurance companies often scour84 people's medical records before extending coverage. And though employers face some restrictions85, virtually any company with a benefits program can get access to workers' health data. So can schools, adoption agencies and the military.
How often is genetic information used against people? No one knows, but there are signs that discrimination is fairly common. In one recent study, more than 200 instances were documented in which people experienced genetic discrimination. Many participants told of losing their health and life insurance. But that wasn't their only problem. One respondent was denied a job selling insurance after he disclosed that he had a hereditary disease that can be treated for about $ 1,200 a year. A social worker who had excelled during her first year at a Wisconsin healthcare company was quickly forced out after mentioning that her uncle had Huntington's, a brain disease that victims' offspring have a 50 percent chance of developing. A woman in the early stages of Huntington's disease was unable to place her child with a private adoption agency.[9] A public agency took the child, eventually matching her with a couple who had previously86 been rejected themselves[10]-because one partner carried the Huntington's gene. "It's a stark87 commentary on how society regards people at risk," they said.
Not surprisingly, people from high-risk families have come to fear tests almost as much as the disease. It is estimated that only 15 percent of the people with a Huntington's afflicted parent choose to learn their own status[11]. Discrimination isn't their only concern; virtually everyone testing positive for the Huntington's gene develops symptoms during middle age, and doctors can do nothing to help. But people who might benefit from genetic tests are almost as leery.[12] When researchers surveyed 279 people from families plagued by[13] lung cancer, only 43 percent wanted to have gene tests that might gauge88 their own susceptibility. Many said the prospect of discrimination scared them off.
Besides depriving people of potentially useful information, the fear of discrimination can hamper89 scientific progress. Barbara Weber, a geneticist, often asks those who learn they carry the Huntington's gene to take part in confidential90 follow-up studies[14]. She wants to know which strategies are most effective for preserving their health. "We have the tools to answer these questions," she says. "All they have to do s is tell us how they're doing every six months." Yet 75 percent of the people she approaches say no.
The federal government is now taking steps to make genetic information less threatening. A recently enacted92 health insurance act bars insurers from treating genetic mutations as "pre-existing conditions" unless they are causing illness. The act also guarantees coverage to anyone leaving one group plan for another, whatever his pre-existing conditions. That will make switching jobs easier for many people, but ethicists say the act is only a first step. Because it covers only group plans and doesn't deal with disability insurance, the act won't do much for people like Theresa Morelli, who applied94 for independent coverage several years ago. Morelli was 28 and in perfect health when she met with an insurance agent and paid her first premium[15]. A month later, she got her check back, along with a letter saying her application had been denied because her father had Huntington's disease. Morelli's father had in fact received that diagnosis-erroneously, it turned out-and her doctor had made a note of it in her chart.
The restrictions on employers are also full of holes[16]. A disabilities act bars companies from discrimination against people with disabilities-and it defines that term broadly enough to include genetic mutations that have yet to cause symptoms[17]. But the act does nothing to prevent employers from gathering95 medical information. As long as employers have access to genetic information, they'll have an irresistible96 incentive97 to use it.
Lawmakers are now racing98 to strengthen the protections. At least 15 states in the U. S. have recently placed restrictions on insurers or employers, and Congress will consider several bills in the new session[18]. The insurance industry argues that it should be free to charge people rates that reflect their risks, at least when dealing99 with individuals and small companies. But most ethicists contend that where health coverage is concerned, people shouldn't be penalized101 for risks they can't modify.
Discrimination isn't the only potential downside to genetic testing. Some of the new susceptibility tests can only vaguely102 predict illness-and no one forces the companies that offer them[19] to counsel patients about what the results actually mean. Even when the tests are sound and the results secure, the knowledge they create can dash hopes[20] and divide families. (1001 words)

Proper Names

Barbara Weber
(女子名)芭芭拉.韦伯

Jamie Stephenson
(女子名)杰米.斯蒂芬森

Theresa Morelli
(女子名)特里萨.莫雷里

New Words

alert
1) v. cause to be on guard, warn 使警觉,使警惕
e.g. The general manager alerted the staff to the crisis facing the company.
2) adj. paying full attention to things around you and able to deal with anything that might happen 警惕的,警觉的
e.g. We are very alert to the dangers of operating a nuclear power station.

carrier
n.
1) the bearer of a defective103 gene 带有缺陷基因的人
e.g. His mother must be a carrier of color-blindness.
2) a vehicle that is used for carrying people, especially soldiers, or things 运输工具
e.g. There were armored personnel carrier and tanks on the streets.

commentary
n.
1) anything serving to illustrate104 a point, prompt a realization105, or exemplify 说明,写照
e.g. I) The dropout106 rate is a sad commentary on our school system.
II) His life was a fitting commentary on his teaching. 他的一生恰当地说明了他的教诲
2) a description of an event on radio or television while the event is taking place 实况报道
e.g. That program will include live commentary on the England-Ireland game.

developmental *
adj. relating to the development of someone or something 发育的,发展的
e.g. The first year is a vital period of developmental growth.

diagnosis
n. the discovery and identification of what is wrong with someone who is ill or with something that is not working properly 诊断
e.g. Symptoms may not appear for some weeks, so diagnosis can be difficult.

disclose
v. make something known 透露
e.g. I) Neither side would disclose details of the transaction.
II) The government disclosed that another diplomat107 has been arrested for spying.

downside
n. the negative aspect of something 消极面,负面
e.g. The downside of this approach is a lack of clear leadership.

enact91
v. make a proposal into a law 制定(法律等),通过(法案等)
e.g. The authorities have failed so far to enact a law allowing unrestricted (无限制的) emigration.

gauge
v. appraise108, estimate, or judge 估计,判定
e.g. I) It was difficult to gauge how people would respond to this policy.
II) His mood can be gauged109 by his reaction to the most trivial of incidents.

geneticist
n. a person who studies or specializes in genetics 遗传学家

healthcare
n. any field or enterprise concerned with supplying services, equipment, information, etc., for the maintenance or restoration of health 保健,保健事业

hereditary
adj. passed on to a child from its parents before it is born 遗传的
e.g. Cystic fibrosis (囊肿性纤维化) is the most common fatal hereditary disease.

high-risk
adj. involving a risk of death, injury, failure, etc. 高风险的

Huntington
n. (used in Huntington's chorea) a hereditary chorea, appearing in middle age, characterized by gradual deterioration110 of the brain and gradual loss of voluntary movement 遗传性慢性舞蹈病

insurer
n. a company that sells insurance 保险公司,承保方

lawmaker
n. a person who makes or enacts111 laws, legislator 立法者

leery
adj. cautious and suspicious about something and tending to avoid it 猜疑的,有戒心的
e.g. They were leery about investing in a company controlled by a single individual.

lung
n. either of the two organs in the chest with which people and some animals breathe 肺
e.g. I) She breathed deeply to fill her lungs with the fresh sea air.
II) Smoking causes lung cancer.

malady112
n. an illness or disease 病,疾病(通常做比喻)
e.g. I) All the rose bushes seem to be suffering from the same mysterious malady.
II) Violent crime is only one of the maladies afflicting113 modern society.

mutation93
n. a change in the genetic structure of an animal or plant that makes it different from others of the same type 基因突变
e.g. It is well-known that radiation can cause mutations.

offspring
n. (both singular and plural) someone's child or children 子女,后代
e.g. How do parents pass genes on to their offspring?

penalize100
v. treat someone unfairly or make them have a disadvantage 对待......不公平,使处于不利地位
e.g. They thought it was unfair that some people who served on juries were penalized by not being paid by the employer.

pre-existing
adj. that exists beforehand 先存在的,先发生的

retardation
n. slowness or limitation in intellectual understanding and awareness114, emotional development, academic progress, etc. 智力迟钝,精神发育迟缓
e.g. The principles of care for people with mental retardation have undergone radical changes over the past 20 years.

scour
v. search very carefully and thoroughly115 through an area, a document, etc. 仔细搜索
e.g. We scoured116 the room for clues regarding the identity of the burglar.

stark
adj. unpleasantly clear, harsh 严酷的,赤裸裸的
e.g. The stark reality is that we are operating at a huge loss.

Tay-Sachs
n. (used in Tay-Sachs disease) a degenerative brain disorder117 caused by lack of or deficiency in an essential enzyme118, usually resulting in mental and physical deterioration and death in early childhood 家族性黑蒙性白痴症

unprecedented
adj. never before known or experienced, unparalleled 前所未有的,绝无仅有的
e.g. This century has witnessed environmental destruction on an unprecedented scale.

worthless
adj. having no value or usefulness 无价值的,没用的
e.g. The goods are often worthless by the time they arrive.


Phrases and Expressions

alert someone to something
make someone aware of something, especially a dangerous or unpleasant situation 使......警觉,使......警惕
e.g. An anonymous119 letter alerted police to the possibility of a terrorist attack at the airport.

at risk
threatened by the possibility of loss, failure, etc., in danger 有危险的,危机四伏的
e.g. I) A young woman out alone at night is at risk.
II) His job is at risk, that is, he may be made redundant120 (被解雇的).

bar someone from (doing) something
prevent someone from doing or using something 阻止......做......,排斥......
e.g. I) She was barred from (entering) the competition because of her age.
II) The incident led to him being barred from playing for England.

deprive someone of something
take something away from someone, prevent someone from enjoying or using something 剥夺某人某物
e.g. As a punishment, the naughty boy was temporarily deprived of his friends' company.

live with...
accept or tolerate something 接受,容忍
e.g. I'm sorry your tooth is hurting but you'll just have to live with it until we get you to the dentist.

outside of
except for, apart from 除了......之外
e.g. I) Outside of us three, no one knows anything about the problem.
II) Outside of strawberries (草莓), I have no allergies121 (强烈反感).

scare someone off
make someone leave, stay away, etc. by frightening or alarming them 将......吓跑
e.g. I) He scared people off by being so rude.
II) The high price is scaring off possible buyers.

take steps to do something
take a series of actions in order to achieve a desired result 采取行动以达到某目的
e.g. I) The government is taking steps to control the rising crime rate.
II) She is not content with her present lot (命运) and wishes to take steps to improve it.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 ethics Dt3zbI     
n.伦理学;伦理观,道德标准
参考例句:
  • The ethics of his profession don't permit him to do that.他的职业道德不允许他那样做。
  • Personal ethics and professional ethics sometimes conflict.个人道德和职业道德有时会相互抵触。
2 usher sK2zJ     
n.带位员,招待员;vt.引导,护送;vi.做招待,担任引座员
参考例句:
  • The usher seated us in the front row.引座员让我们在前排就座。
  • They were quickly ushered away.他们被迅速领开。
3 ravage iAYz9     
vt.使...荒废,破坏...;n.破坏,掠夺,荒废
参考例句:
  • Just in time to watch a plague ravage his village.恰好目睹了瘟疫毁灭了他的村庄。
  • For two decades the country has been ravaged by civil war and foreign intervention.20年来,这个国家一直被内战外侵所蹂躏。
4 ravaged 0e2e6833d453fc0fa95986bdf06ea0e2     
毁坏( ravage的过去式和过去分词 ); 蹂躏; 劫掠; 抢劫
参考例句:
  • a country ravaged by civil war 遭受内战重创的国家
  • The whole area was ravaged by forest fires. 森林火灾使整个地区荒废了。
5 isolation 7qMzTS     
n.隔离,孤立,分解,分离
参考例句:
  • The millionaire lived in complete isolation from the outside world.这位富翁过着与世隔绝的生活。
  • He retired and lived in relative isolation.他退休后,生活比较孤寂。
6 needy wG7xh     
adj.贫穷的,贫困的,生活艰苦的
参考例句:
  • Although he was poor,he was quite generous to his needy friends.他虽穷,但对贫苦的朋友很慷慨。
  • They awarded scholarships to needy students.他们给贫苦学生颁发奖学金。
7 administrators d04952b3df94d47c04fc2dc28396a62d     
n.管理者( administrator的名词复数 );有管理(或行政)才能的人;(由遗嘱检验法庭指定的)遗产管理人;奉派暂管主教教区的牧师
参考例句:
  • He had administrators under him but took the crucial decisions himself. 他手下有管理人员,但重要的决策仍由他自己来做。 来自辞典例句
  • Administrators have their own methods of social intercourse. 办行政的人有他们的社交方式。 来自汉英文学 - 围城
8 insufficient L5vxu     
adj.(for,of)不足的,不够的
参考例句:
  • There was insufficient evidence to convict him.没有足够证据给他定罪。
  • In their day scientific knowledge was insufficient to settle the matter.在他们的时代,科学知识还不能足以解决这些问题。
9 intimidating WqUzKy     
vt.恐吓,威胁( intimidate的现在分词)
参考例句:
  • They were accused of intimidating people into voting for them. 他们被控胁迫选民投他们的票。
  • This kind of questioning can be very intimidating to children. 这种问话的方式可能让孩子们非常害怕。
10 syndrome uqBwu     
n.综合病症;并存特性
参考例句:
  • The Institute says that an unidentified virus is to blame for the syndrome. 该研究所表示,引起这种综合症的是一种尚未确认的病毒。
  • Results indicated that 11 fetuses had Down syndrome. 结果表明有11个胎儿患有唐氏综合征。
11 reluctance 8VRx8     
n.厌恶,讨厌,勉强,不情愿
参考例句:
  • The police released Andrew with reluctance.警方勉强把安德鲁放走了。
  • He showed the greatest reluctance to make a reply.他表示很不愿意答复。
12 frustrates a7f255a8ec8493925f0ac3baf0c48660     
v.使不成功( frustrate的第三人称单数 );挫败;使受挫折;令人沮丧
参考例句:
  • What frustrates him is that there's too little money to spend on the project. 使他懊恼的是,可用于这个项目的资金太少。
  • His trouble is that he frustrates much easily. 他的毛病是很容易泄气。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
13 halfway Xrvzdq     
adj.中途的,不彻底的,部分的;adv.半路地,在中途,在半途
参考例句:
  • We had got only halfway when it began to get dark.走到半路,天就黑了。
  • In study the worst danger is give up halfway.在学习上,最忌讳的是有始无终。
14 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
15 licensing 7352ce0b4e0665659ae6466c18decb2a     
v.批准,许可,颁发执照( license的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • A large part of state regulation consists of occupational licensing. 大部分州的管理涉及行业的特许批准。 来自英汉非文学 - 行政法
  • That licensing procedures for projects would move faster. 这样的工程批准程序一定会加快。 来自辞典例句
16 gene WgKxx     
n.遗传因子,基因
参考例句:
  • A single gene may have many effects.单一基因可能具有很多种效应。
  • The targeting of gene therapy has been paid close attention.其中基因治疗的靶向性是值得密切关注的问题之一。
17 miserable g18yk     
adj.悲惨的,痛苦的;可怜的,糟糕的
参考例句:
  • It was miserable of you to make fun of him.你取笑他,这是可耻的。
  • Her past life was miserable.她过去的生活很苦。
18 decided lvqzZd     
adj.决定了的,坚决的;明显的,明确的
参考例句:
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
19 appreciation Pv9zs     
n.评价;欣赏;感谢;领会,理解;价格上涨
参考例句:
  • I would like to express my appreciation and thanks to you all.我想对你们所有人表达我的感激和谢意。
  • I'll be sending them a donation in appreciation of their help.我将送给他们一笔捐款以感谢他们的帮助。
20 reminder WkzzTb     
n.提醒物,纪念品;暗示,提示
参考例句:
  • I have had another reminder from the library.我又收到图书馆的催还单。
  • It always took a final reminder to get her to pay her share of the rent.总是得发给她一份最后催缴通知,她才付应该交的房租。
21 reminders aaaf99d0fb822f809193c02b8cf69fba     
n.令人回忆起…的东西( reminder的名词复数 );提醒…的东西;(告知该做某事的)通知单;提示信
参考例句:
  • The film evokes chilling reminders of the war. 这部电影使人们回忆起战争的可怕场景。
  • The strike has delayed the mailing of tax reminders. 罢工耽搁了催税单的投寄。
22 prescription u1vzA     
n.处方,开药;指示,规定
参考例句:
  • The physician made a prescription against sea- sickness for him.医生给他开了个治晕船的药方。
  • The drug is available on prescription only.这种药只能凭处方购买。
23 physically iNix5     
adj.物质上,体格上,身体上,按自然规律
参考例句:
  • He was out of sorts physically,as well as disordered mentally.他浑身不舒服,心绪也很乱。
  • Every time I think about it I feel physically sick.一想起那件事我就感到极恶心。
24 facades 4181fbc91529cee0be1596dded899433     
n.(房屋的)正面( facade的名词复数 );假象,外观
参考例句:
  • Terraces of asphalt are placed by the building's south and west facades. 沥青露台位于建筑的南面和西面。 来自互联网
  • Preserving historic buildings or keeping only their facades (or fronts) grew common. 保存历史建筑或是保持它们普通的正面增长。 来自互联网
25 incurable incurable     
adj.不能医治的,不能矫正的,无救的;n.不治的病人,无救的人
参考例句:
  • All three babies were born with an incurable heart condition.三个婴儿都有不可治瘉的先天性心脏病。
  • He has an incurable and widespread nepotism.他们有不可救药的,到处蔓延的裙带主义。
26 backwards BP9ya     
adv.往回地,向原处,倒,相反,前后倒置地
参考例句:
  • He turned on the light and began to pace backwards and forwards.他打开电灯并开始走来走去。
  • All the girls fell over backwards to get the party ready.姑娘们迫不及待地为聚会做准备。
27 intimidate 5Rvzt     
vt.恐吓,威胁
参考例句:
  • You think you can intimidate people into doing what you want?你以为你可以威胁别人做任何事?
  • The first strike capacity is intended mainly to intimidate adversary.第一次攻击的武力主要是用来吓阻敌方的。
28 intimidated 69a1f9d1d2d295a87a7e68b3f3fbd7d5     
v.恐吓;威胁adj.害怕的;受到威胁的
参考例句:
  • We try to make sure children don't feel intimidated on their first day at school. 我们努力确保孩子们在上学的第一天不胆怯。
  • The thief intimidated the boy into not telling the police. 这个贼恫吓那男孩使他不敢向警察报告。 来自《简明英汉词典》
29 distress 3llzX     
n.苦恼,痛苦,不舒适;不幸;vt.使悲痛
参考例句:
  • Nothing could alleviate his distress.什么都不能减轻他的痛苦。
  • Please don't distress yourself.请你不要忧愁了。
30 specified ZhezwZ     
adj.特定的
参考例句:
  • The architect specified oak for the wood trim. 那位建筑师指定用橡木做木饰条。
  • It is generated by some specified means. 这是由某些未加说明的方法产生的。
31 fully Gfuzd     
adv.完全地,全部地,彻底地;充分地
参考例句:
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
32 memo 4oXzGj     
n.照会,备忘录;便笺;通知书;规章
参考例句:
  • Do you want me to send the memo out?您要我把这份备忘录分发出去吗?
  • Can you type a memo for me?您能帮我打一份备忘录吗?
33 acting czRzoc     
n.演戏,行为,假装;adj.代理的,临时的,演出用的
参考例句:
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.别理她,她只是假装的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
34 ushered d337b3442ea0cc4312a5950ae8911282     
v.引,领,陪同( usher的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • The secretary ushered me into his office. 秘书把我领进他的办公室。
  • A round of parties ushered in the New Year. 一系列的晚会迎来了新年。 来自《简明英汉词典》
35 prospect P01zn     
n.前景,前途;景色,视野
参考例句:
  • This state of things holds out a cheerful prospect.事态呈现出可喜的前景。
  • The prospect became more evident.前景变得更加明朗了。
36 radical hA8zu     
n.激进份子,原子团,根号;adj.根本的,激进的,彻底的
参考例句:
  • The patient got a radical cure in the hospital.病人在医院得到了根治。
  • She is radical in her demands.她的要求十分偏激。
37 unreasonable tjLwm     
adj.不讲道理的,不合情理的,过度的
参考例句:
  • I know that they made the most unreasonable demands on you.我知道他们对你提出了最不合理的要求。
  • They spend an unreasonable amount of money on clothes.他们花在衣服上的钱太多了。
38 ethical diIz4     
adj.伦理的,道德的,合乎道德的
参考例句:
  • It is necessary to get the youth to have a high ethical concept.必须使青年具有高度的道德观念。
  • It was a debate which aroused fervent ethical arguments.那是一场引发强烈的伦理道德争论的辩论。
39 opposition eIUxU     
n.反对,敌对
参考例句:
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
40 ethicist Ki8z4     
n.伦理学家,道德学家
参考例句:
  • They are used to resolving conflicting principles, says Dick Willems, a Dutch doctor and ethicist. 荷兰的医生,伦理学家DickWillems说,他们惯于解决相冲突的原则。
  • They are used to resolving conflicting principles, says Dick Willems gold, a Dutch doctor and ethicist. 一个荷兰医生与道德家,认为他们习惯了解决有冲突的原则。
41 persuasive 0MZxR     
adj.有说服力的,能说得使人相信的
参考例句:
  • His arguments in favour of a new school are very persuasive.他赞成办一座新学校的理由很有说服力。
  • The evidence was not really persuasive enough.证据并不是太有说服力。
42 lesser UpxzJL     
adj.次要的,较小的;adv.较小地,较少地
参考例句:
  • Kept some of the lesser players out.不让那些次要的球员参加联赛。
  • She has also been affected,but to a lesser degree.她也受到波及,但程度较轻。
43 genetic PgIxp     
adj.遗传的,遗传学的
参考例句:
  • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
  • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
44 scenario lZoxm     
n.剧本,脚本;概要
参考例句:
  • But the birth scenario is not completely accurate.然而分娩脚本并非完全准确的。
  • This is a totally different scenario.这是完全不同的剧本。
45 scenarios f7c7eeee199dc0ef47fe322cc223be88     
n.[意]情节;剧本;事态;脚本
参考例句:
  • Further, graphite cores may be safer than non-graphite cores under some accident scenarios. 再者,根据一些事故解说,石墨堆芯可比非石墨堆芯更安全一些。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
  • Again, scenarios should make it clear which modes are acceptable to users in various contexts. 同样,我们可以运用场景剧本来搞清楚在不同情境下哪些模式可被用户接受。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
46 repulsive RsNyx     
adj.排斥的,使人反感的
参考例句:
  • She found the idea deeply repulsive.她发现这个想法很恶心。
  • The repulsive force within the nucleus is enormous.核子内部的斥力是巨大的。
47 atrocities 11fd5f421aeca29a1915a498e3202218     
n.邪恶,暴行( atrocity的名词复数 );滔天大罪
参考例句:
  • They were guilty of the most barbarous and inhuman atrocities. 他们犯有最野蛮、最灭绝人性的残暴罪行。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The enemy's atrocities made one boil with anger. 敌人的暴行令人发指。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
48 Nazis 39168f65c976085afe9099ea0411e9a5     
n.(德国的)纳粹党员( Nazi的名词复数 );纳粹主义
参考例句:
  • The Nazis worked them over with gun butts. 纳粹分子用枪托毒打他们。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The Nazis were responsible for the mass murder of Jews during World War Ⅱ. 纳粹必须为第二次世界大战中对犹太人的大屠杀负责。 来自《简明英汉词典》
49 eradicate Ui1zn     
v.根除,消灭,杜绝
参考例句:
  • These insects are very difficult to eradicate.这些昆虫很难根除。
  • They are already battling to eradicate illnesses such as malaria and tetanus.他们已经在努力消灭疟疾、破伤风等疾病。
50 benign 2t2zw     
adj.善良的,慈祥的;良性的,无危险的
参考例句:
  • The benign weather brought North America a bumper crop.温和的气候给北美带来大丰收。
  • Martha is a benign old lady.玛莎是个仁慈的老妇人。
51 sperm jFOzO     
n.精子,精液
参考例句:
  • Only one sperm fertilises an egg.只有一个精子使卵子受精。
  • In human reproduction,one female egg is usually fertilized by one sperm.在人体生殖过程中,一个精子使一个卵子受精。
52 dubious Akqz1     
adj.怀疑的,无把握的;有问题的,靠不住的
参考例句:
  • What he said yesterday was dubious.他昨天说的话很含糊。
  • He uses some dubious shifts to get money.他用一些可疑的手段去赚钱。
53 warp KgBwx     
vt.弄歪,使翘曲,使不正常,歪曲,使有偏见
参考例句:
  • The damp wood began to warp.这块潮湿的木材有些翘曲了。
  • A steel girder may warp in a fire.钢梁遇火会变弯。
54 warped f1a38e3bf30c41ab80f0dce53b0da015     
adj.反常的;乖戾的;(变)弯曲的;变形的v.弄弯,变歪( warp的过去式和过去分词 );使(行为等)不合情理,使乖戾,
参考例句:
  • a warped sense of humour 畸形的幽默感
  • The board has warped. 木板翘了。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
55 infertile u71xE     
adj.不孕的;不肥沃的,贫瘠的
参考例句:
  • Plants can't grow well in the infertile land.在贫瘠的土地上庄稼长不好。
  • Nobody is willing to till this infertile land.这块薄田没有人愿意耕种。
56 adoption UK7yu     
n.采用,采纳,通过;收养
参考例句:
  • An adoption agency had sent the boys to two different families.一个收养机构把他们送给两个不同的家庭。
  • The adoption of this policy would relieve them of a tremendous burden.采取这一政策会给他们解除一个巨大的负担。
57 tragic inaw2     
adj.悲剧的,悲剧性的,悲惨的
参考例句:
  • The effect of the pollution on the beaches is absolutely tragic.污染海滩后果可悲。
  • Charles was a man doomed to tragic issues.查理是个注定不得善终的人。
58 genetically Lgixo     
adv.遗传上
参考例句:
  • All the bees in the colony are genetically related. 同一群体的蜜蜂都有亲缘关系。
  • Genetically modified foods have already arrived on American dinner tables. 经基因改造加工过的食物已端上了美国人的餐桌。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 基因与食物
59 genes 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0     
n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
60 afflicted aaf4adfe86f9ab55b4275dae2a2e305a     
使受痛苦,折磨( afflict的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • About 40% of the country's population is afflicted with the disease. 全国40%左右的人口患有这种疾病。
  • A terrible restlessness that was like to hunger afflicted Martin Eden. 一阵可怕的、跟饥饿差不多的不安情绪折磨着马丁·伊登。
61 outlaw 1J0xG     
n.歹徒,亡命之徒;vt.宣布…为不合法
参考例句:
  • The outlaw hid out in the hills for several months.逃犯在山里隐藏了几个月。
  • The outlaw has been caught.歹徒已被抓住了。
62 outlawing bc9155128204715d2903dd817d475afe     
宣布…为不合法(outlaw的现在分词形式)
参考例句:
  • Regulations are outlawing certain refrigerants, such as chlorofluorocarbons, which contain ozone-depleting chemicals. 随后出台的政策禁用了部分制冷剂,如破坏臭氧层的氟氯碳化合物。
  • An amendment outlawing sale of intoxicating liquors(1920)was repealed in 1933. 规定售卖酒类为非法的一个宪法修正案(一九二○年)在一九三三年被废止。
63 moratorium K6gz5     
n.(行动、活动的)暂停(期),延期偿付
参考例句:
  • The government has called for a moratorium on weapons testing.政府已要求暂停武器试验。
  • We recommended a moratorium on two particular kinds of experiments.我们建议暂禁两种特殊的实验。
64 scrutiny ZDgz6     
n.详细检查,仔细观察
参考例句:
  • His work looks all right,but it will not bear scrutiny.他的工作似乎很好,但是经不起仔细检查。
  • Few wives in their forties can weather such a scrutiny.很少年过四十的妻子经得起这么仔细的观察。
65 oversight WvgyJ     
n.勘漏,失察,疏忽
参考例句:
  • I consider this a gross oversight on your part.我把这件事看作是你的一大疏忽。
  • Your essay was not marked through an oversight on my part.由于我的疏忽你的文章没有打分。
66 guardian 8ekxv     
n.监护人;守卫者,保护者
参考例句:
  • The form must be signed by the child's parents or guardian. 这张表格须由孩子的家长或监护人签字。
  • The press is a guardian of the public weal. 报刊是公共福利的卫护者。
67 atrocity HvdzW     
n.残暴,暴行
参考例句:
  • These people are guilty of acts of great atrocity.这些人犯有令人发指的暴行。
  • I am shocked by the atrocity of this man's crimes.这个人行凶手段残忍狠毒使我震惊。
68 killing kpBziQ     
n.巨额利润;突然赚大钱,发大财
参考例句:
  • Investors are set to make a killing from the sell-off.投资者准备清仓以便大赚一笔。
  • Last week my brother made a killing on Wall Street.上个周我兄弟在华尔街赚了一大笔。
69 disapproval VuTx4     
n.反对,不赞成
参考例句:
  • The teacher made an outward show of disapproval.老师表面上表示不同意。
  • They shouted their disapproval.他们喊叫表示反对。
70 pollen h1Uzz     
n.[植]花粉
参考例句:
  • Hummingbirds have discovered that nectar and pollen are very nutritious.蜂鸟发现花蜜和花粉是很有营养的。
  • He developed an allergy to pollen.他对花粉过敏。
71 infinitely 0qhz2I     
adv.无限地,无穷地
参考例句:
  • There is an infinitely bright future ahead of us.我们有无限光明的前途。
  • The universe is infinitely large.宇宙是无限大的。
72 supervision hr6wv     
n.监督,管理
参考例句:
  • The work was done under my supervision.这项工作是在我的监督之下完成的。
  • The old man's will was executed under the personal supervision of the lawyer.老人的遗嘱是在律师的亲自监督下执行的。
73 entrusted be9f0db83b06252a0a462773113f94fa     
v.委托,托付( entrust的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • He entrusted the task to his nephew. 他把这任务托付给了他的侄儿。
  • She was entrusted with the direction of the project. 她受委托负责这项计划。 来自《简明英汉词典》
74 sleepless oiBzGN     
adj.不睡眠的,睡不著的,不休息的
参考例句:
  • The situation gave her many sleepless nights.这种情况害她一连好多天睡不好觉。
  • One evening I heard a tale that rendered me sleepless for nights.一天晚上,我听说了一个传闻,把我搞得一连几夜都不能入睡。
75 components 4725dcf446a342f1473a8228e42dfa48     
(机器、设备等的)构成要素,零件,成分; 成分( component的名词复数 ); [物理化学]组分; [数学]分量; (混合物的)组成部分
参考例句:
  • the components of a machine 机器部件
  • Our chemistry teacher often reduces a compound to its components in lab. 在实验室中化学老师常把化合物分解为各种成分。
76 retardation zjZzyh     
n.智力迟钝,精神发育迟缓
参考例句:
  • Asbestos reinforcement confers excellent flame retardation properties on a composite. 石棉增强材料使复合材料具有优异的防火性能。
  • The theory confirms the increase in the retardation effect with decrease in particle size. 理论证实,随着颗粒尺寸的减小,这一减速效应将增大。
77 diagnosis GvPxC     
n.诊断,诊断结果,调查分析,判断
参考例句:
  • His symptoms gave no obvious pointer to a possible diagnosis.他的症状无法作出明确的诊断。
  • The engineer made a complete diagnosis of the bridge's collapse.工程师对桥的倒塌做一次彻底的调查分析。
78 scribbled de374a2e21876e209006cd3e9a90c01b     
v.潦草的书写( scribble的过去式和过去分词 );乱画;草草地写;匆匆记下
参考例句:
  • She scribbled his phone number on a scrap of paper. 她把他的电话号码匆匆写在一张小纸片上。
  • He scribbled a note to his sister before leaving. 临行前,他给妹妹草草写了一封短信。
79 hereditary fQJzF     
adj.遗传的,遗传性的,可继承的,世袭的
参考例句:
  • The Queen of England is a hereditary ruler.英国女王是世袭的统治者。
  • In men,hair loss is hereditary.男性脱发属于遗传。
80 coverage nvwz7v     
n.报导,保险范围,保险额,范围,覆盖
参考例句:
  • There's little coverage of foreign news in the newspaper.报纸上几乎没有国外新闻报道。
  • This is an insurance policy with extensive coverage.这是一项承保范围广泛的保险。
81 siblings 709961e45d6808c7c9131573b3a8874b     
n.兄弟,姐妹( sibling的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • A triplet sleeps amongst its two siblings. 一个三胞胎睡在其两个同胞之间。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • She has no way of tracking the donor or her half-siblings down. 她没办法找到那个捐精者或她的兄弟姐妹。 来自时文部分
82 unprecedented 7gSyJ     
adj.无前例的,新奇的
参考例句:
  • The air crash caused an unprecedented number of deaths.这次空难的死亡人数是空前的。
  • A flood of this sort is really unprecedented.这样大的洪水真是十年九不遇。
83 prospective oR7xB     
adj.预期的,未来的,前瞻性的
参考例句:
  • The story should act as a warning to other prospective buyers.这篇报道应该对其他潜在的购买者起到警示作用。
  • They have all these great activities for prospective freshmen.这会举办各种各样的活动来招待未来的新人。
84 scour oDvzj     
v.搜索;擦,洗,腹泻,冲刷
参考例句:
  • Mother made me scour the family silver.母亲让我擦洗家里的银器。
  • We scoured the telephone directory for clues.我们仔细查阅电话簿以寻找线索。
85 restrictions 81e12dac658cfd4c590486dd6f7523cf     
约束( restriction的名词复数 ); 管制; 制约因素; 带限制性的条件(或规则)
参考例句:
  • I found the restrictions irksome. 我对那些限制感到很烦。
  • a snaggle of restrictions 杂乱无章的种种限制
86 previously bkzzzC     
adv.以前,先前(地)
参考例句:
  • The bicycle tyre blew out at a previously damaged point.自行车胎在以前损坏过的地方又爆开了。
  • Let me digress for a moment and explain what had happened previously.让我岔开一会儿,解释原先发生了什么。
87 stark lGszd     
adj.荒凉的;严酷的;完全的;adv.完全地
参考例句:
  • The young man is faced with a stark choice.这位年轻人面临严峻的抉择。
  • He gave a stark denial to the rumor.他对谣言加以完全的否认。
88 gauge 2gMxz     
v.精确计量;估计;n.标准度量;计量器
参考例句:
  • Can you gauge what her reaction is likely to be?你能揣测她的反应可能是什么吗?
  • It's difficult to gauge one's character.要判断一个人的品格是很困难的。
89 hamper oyGyk     
vt.妨碍,束缚,限制;n.(有盖的)大篮子
参考例句:
  • There are some apples in a picnic hamper.在野餐用的大篮子里有许多苹果。
  • The emergence of such problems seriously hamper the development of enterprises.这些问题的出现严重阻碍了企业的发展。
90 confidential MOKzA     
adj.秘(机)密的,表示信任的,担任机密工作的
参考例句:
  • He refused to allow his secretary to handle confidential letters.他不让秘书处理机密文件。
  • We have a confidential exchange of views.我们推心置腹地交换意见。
91 enact tjEz0     
vt.制定(法律);上演,扮演
参考例句:
  • The U.S. Congress has exclusive authority to enact federal legislation.美国国会是唯一有权颁布联邦法律的。
  • For example,a country can enact laws and economic policies to attract foreign investment fairly quickly.例如一个国家可以很快颁布吸引外资的法令和经济政策。
92 enacted b0a10ad8fca50ba4217bccb35bc0f2a1     
制定(法律),通过(法案)( enact的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • legislation enacted by parliament 由议会通过的法律
  • Outside in the little lobby another scene was begin enacted. 外面的小休息室里又是另一番景象。 来自英汉文学 - 嘉莉妹妹
93 mutation t1PyM     
n.变化,变异,转变
参考例句:
  • People who have this mutation need less sleep than others.有这种突变的人需要的睡眠比其他人少。
  • So far the discussion has centered entirely around mutation in the strict sense.到目前为止,严格来讲,讨论完全集中于围绕突变问题上。
94 applied Tz2zXA     
adj.应用的;v.应用,适用
参考例句:
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算学习应用语言学课程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.这种乳霜最好晚上擦脸用。
95 gathering ChmxZ     
n.集会,聚会,聚集
参考例句:
  • He called on Mr. White to speak at the gathering.他请怀特先生在集会上讲话。
  • He is on the wing gathering material for his novels.他正忙于为他的小说收集资料。
96 irresistible n4CxX     
adj.非常诱人的,无法拒绝的,无法抗拒的
参考例句:
  • The wheel of history rolls forward with an irresistible force.历史车轮滚滚向前,势不可挡。
  • She saw an irresistible skirt in the store window.她看见商店的橱窗里有一条叫人着迷的裙子。
97 incentive j4zy9     
n.刺激;动力;鼓励;诱因;动机
参考例句:
  • Money is still a major incentive in most occupations.在许多职业中,钱仍是主要的鼓励因素。
  • He hasn't much incentive to work hard.他没有努力工作的动机。
98 racing 1ksz3w     
n.竞赛,赛马;adj.竞赛用的,赛马用的
参考例句:
  • I was watching the racing on television last night.昨晚我在电视上看赛马。
  • The two racing drivers fenced for a chance to gain the lead.两个赛车手伺机竞相领先。
99 dealing NvjzWP     
n.经商方法,待人态度
参考例句:
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
100 penalize nSfzm     
vt.对…处以刑罚,宣告…有罪;处罚
参考例句:
  • It would be unfair to penalize those without a job.失业人员待遇低下是不公平的。
  • The association decided not to penalize you for the race.赛马协会决定对你不予处罚。
101 penalized c88c37e7a177d0a347c36794aa587e91     
对…予以惩罚( penalize的过去式和过去分词 ); 使处于不利地位
参考例句:
  • You will be penalized for poor spelling. 你拼写不好将会受到处罚。
  • Team members will be penalized for lateness. 队员迟到要受处罚。
102 vaguely BfuzOy     
adv.含糊地,暖昧地
参考例句:
  • He had talked vaguely of going to work abroad.他含糊其词地说了到国外工作的事。
  • He looked vaguely before him with unseeing eyes.他迷迷糊糊的望着前面,对一切都视而不见。
103 defective qnLzZ     
adj.有毛病的,有问题的,有瑕疵的
参考例句:
  • The firm had received bad publicity over a defective product. 该公司因为一件次品而受到媒体攻击。
  • If the goods prove defective, the customer has the right to compensation. 如果货品证明有缺陷, 顾客有权索赔。
104 illustrate IaRxw     
v.举例说明,阐明;图解,加插图
参考例句:
  • The company's bank statements illustrate its success.这家公司的银行报表说明了它的成功。
  • This diagram will illustrate what I mean.这个图表可说明我的意思。
105 realization nTwxS     
n.实现;认识到,深刻了解
参考例句:
  • We shall gladly lend every effort in our power toward its realization.我们将乐意为它的实现而竭尽全力。
  • He came to the realization that he would never make a good teacher.他逐渐认识到自己永远不会成为好老师。
106 dropout yuRzLn     
n.退学的学生;退学;退出者
参考例句:
  • There is a high dropout rate from some college courses.有些大学课程的退出率很高。
  • In the long haul,she'll regret having been a school dropout.她终归会后悔不该中途辍学。
107 diplomat Pu0xk     
n.外交官,外交家;能交际的人,圆滑的人
参考例句:
  • The diplomat threw in a joke, and the tension was instantly relieved.那位外交官插进一个笑话,紧张的气氛顿时缓和下来。
  • He served as a diplomat in Russia before the war.战前他在俄罗斯当外交官。
108 appraise JvLzt     
v.估价,评价,鉴定
参考例句:
  • An expert came to appraise the value of my antiques.一位专家来对我的古玩作了估价。
  • It is very high that people appraise to his thesis.人们对他的论文评价很高。
109 gauged 6f854687622bacc0cb4b24ec967e9983     
adj.校准的;标准的;量规的;量计的v.(用仪器)测量( gauge的过去式和过去分词 );估计;计量;划分
参考例句:
  • He picked up the calipers and gauged carefully. 他拿起卡钳仔细测量。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Distance is gauged by journey time rather than miles. 距离以行程时间而非英里数来计算。 来自辞典例句
110 deterioration yvvxj     
n.退化;恶化;变坏
参考例句:
  • Mental and physical deterioration both occur naturally with age. 随着年龄的增长,心智和体力自然衰退。
  • The car's bodywork was already showing signs of deterioration. 这辆车的车身已经显示出了劣化迹象。
111 enacts 7d22d722abb7dcba4659fab292c4cf32     
制定(法律),通过(法案)( enact的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • The legislative branch enacts laws; the executive branch enforces them, and the judicial branch interprets them. 立法部门制订法律,行政部门执行法律,司法部门解释法律。
  • Hold phasic characteristic correctly, ability enacts the policy with an actual suit, measure. 正确地把握形势特点,才能制定出切合实际的政策、措施。
112 malady awjyo     
n.病,疾病(通常做比喻)
参考例句:
  • There is no specific remedy for the malady.没有医治这种病的特效药。
  • They are managing to control the malady into a small range.他们设法将疾病控制在小范围之内。
113 afflicting ozfzfp     
痛苦的
参考例句:
  • Violent crime is only one of the maladies afflicting modern society. 暴力犯罪仅仅是困扰现代社会的严重问题之一。
  • Violent crime is only one of the maladies afflicting modern society. 暴力犯罪仅仅是危害社会的弊病之一。
114 awareness 4yWzdW     
n.意识,觉悟,懂事,明智
参考例句:
  • There is a general awareness that smoking is harmful.人们普遍认识到吸烟有害健康。
  • Environmental awareness has increased over the years.这些年来人们的环境意识增强了。
115 thoroughly sgmz0J     
adv.完全地,彻底地,十足地
参考例句:
  • The soil must be thoroughly turned over before planting.一定要先把土地深翻一遍再下种。
  • The soldiers have been thoroughly instructed in the care of their weapons.士兵们都系统地接受过保护武器的训练。
116 scoured ed55d3b2cb4a5db1e4eb0ed55b922516     
走遍(某地)搜寻(人或物)( scour的过去式和过去分词 ); (用力)刷; 擦净; 擦亮
参考例句:
  • We scoured the area for somewhere to pitch our tent. 我们四处查看,想找一个搭帐篷的地方。
  • The torrents scoured out a channel down the hill side. 急流沿着山腰冲刷出一条水沟。
117 disorder Et1x4     
n.紊乱,混乱;骚动,骚乱;疾病,失调
参考例句:
  • When returning back,he discovered the room to be in disorder.回家后,他发现屋子里乱七八糟。
  • It contained a vast number of letters in great disorder.里面七零八落地装着许多信件。
118 enzyme cPozF     
n.酵素,酶
参考例句:
  • Above a certain temperature,the enzyme molecule will become unfolded.超过一定温度,酶分子将会展开。
  • An enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots.能溶解血凝块中的纤维的酶。
119 anonymous lM2yp     
adj.无名的;匿名的;无特色的
参考例句:
  • Sending anonymous letters is a cowardly act.寄匿名信是懦夫的行为。
  • The author wishes to remain anonymous.作者希望姓名不公开。
120 redundant Tt2yO     
adj.多余的,过剩的;(食物)丰富的;被解雇的
参考例句:
  • There are too many redundant words in this book.这本书里多余的词太多。
  • Nearly all the redundant worker have been absorbed into other departments.几乎所有冗员,都已调往其他部门任职。
121 allergies 2c527dd68e63f119442f4352f2a0b950     
n.[医]过敏症;[口]厌恶,反感;(对食物、花粉、虫咬等的)过敏症( allergy的名词复数 );变态反应,变应性
参考例句:
  • Food allergies can result in an enormous variety of different symptoms. 食物过敏会引发很多不同的症状。 来自辞典例句
  • Let us, however, examine one of the most common allergies; hayfever. 现在让我们来看看最常见的变态反应的一种--枯草热。 来自辞典例句
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TAG标签:   大学英语  阅读 
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