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大学英语精读第四册 Unit Nine:Journey West

时间:2005-04-20 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:鱼尾巴   字体: [ ]
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Text
In 1976, during America's bicetennial celebration, a family decided1 to travel to the American West instead of joining the majority of people that were celebrating on the East Coast. They wanted to follow the trails that the pioneers had made when they began to settle the West. The family was looking forward to making their own discoveries.

JOURNEY WEST

Jim Doherty
We began our trip out West on June 19, 1976, a time when millions of other American families were preparing to crowd into the Bicentennial shrines2 of the East. We sized up America's 200th birthday celebration a bit differently. Although the Republic may have been born in the East, it had spent most of its time and energies since then moving west. So we resolved to head in the same direction in 1976, following the old pioneer trails and the famous rivers. Concentrating primarily on Wyoming and Montana, we would explore such legendary4 mountain ranges as the Big Horns, the Bitterroots and the Swan.
There was one problem though, I was sure our four kids -- educated about the West through the movies -- would be disappointed. As an environmental editor, I knew that strip mining was tearing up many scenic5 areas and that clear-cutting was causing widespread damage in the mountains. I was well aware that draining and damming were making a mess of many rivers and wetlands. The grasslands7 were overgrazed and coal-burning power were befouling the air. Wildlife was on the run everywhere and tourists were burning the national parks into slums.
I was prepared for the worst. But how to prepare the kids?
The answer, we decided, was to undertake our journey not just as tourists on a holiday, but as reporters on the trail of "the real West." So all of us, from my kids to my wife, pledged to do our homework before we left and to record on the way everything we did, saw, hear, felt or thought.
Predictably, we did not uncover any new truths about the West in three short weeks. But there were plenty of surprises on that 5,200-mile journey and the biggest one was this: I had been wrong. Some of the troubles we saw were every bit as bad as I had dreaded8. But by and large, the country was as glorious, as vast and as overwhelmingly spectacular as those know-nothing kids had expected!
Half the fun of going west is discovering, along the way, how much the past is still with us. Old wives'tales. Little old farm towns shaded from the summer heat by enormous maple9 trees on streets. White-haired folks reading the paper on their farmhouse10 porches at sunset. Worn-out windmills standing11 alone in pasture… All in all, we did not see much evidence that small-town America is vanishing as we traveled through rural Wisconsin, Minnesota and South Dakota. It's true that many new homes are rising in many old cornfields. But for the most part, life in vast areas of the American heartland remains12 pretty much the same as it was 30 and 40 years ago.
In the hilly farmlands of southern Wisconsin and Minnesota, we found the fields and forests green and the creeks14 still flowing. The farms, with their "eggs for sale" signs and enormous "grandma's gardens" in the front yards, looked prosperous and secure. Not much further north, though, a drought was threatening the land.
In South Dakota, the situation was far worse. "Haven't seen anything like this since the dirty thirties," one farmer told us. Even in normal times, most of South Dakota is dry. Now it was being burned to a crisp. The water holes were dried up and we saw dead cattle lying here and there on the treeless, rolling range. Some farmers were hauling water out to their thirsty stock daily; others were trying to drill deep wells.
We saw two distinctly different Wyomings. We crossed the first Wyoming between the Black Hills and the Big Horns. Wide-open grassland6, fenced and colorless, with red rocks and sweet-smelling shrubs15 scattered16 about, it was typical of a hard-used land. Cattle grazed on it. Oil rigs pumped on it and power lines zigzagged18 all over it. Freight trains labored19 across it, hauling coal from strip mine to power plant, hauling uranium and other minerals to refineries20. This Wyoming, clearly, was booming.
The other Wyoming started some miles east of Buffalo21, an unexpectedly graceful22 community in the foothills of the Big Horns. On one side of town, antelope23 abounded24 by fours and fives in the hills, and yellow wild flowers lined the roads. On the other side rose the Big Horns and nearly 10,000 feet up, Powder River Pass cut through them.
The Big Horn canons were incredible, with four and five distinct layers of pine trees somehow clinging to the steep, rocky walls. Far, far below, Ten Sleep Creek13 was a thin, white torrent25 on the rampage. In some of the less wild terrain26, we saw deer on the high green hillsides and, as we climbed up toward our picnic spot, we flushed two does and two fawns27. That night, we fell asleep with the roar of Ten Sleep in our ears.
We had picked by chance for our stopping place an area rich in western lore3. At one time, Ten Sleep -- a small village at the western base of the Big Horns -- lay midway between two great Indian camps. In those days, the Indians measured distances by the number of sleeps and the halfway28 mark between those two camps was exactly ten sleeps.
We crossed the Continental29 Divide for the first time on a cool morning, cutting through the Rockies in northwestern Wyoming at a place called Togwatee Pass (at a height of 9,656 feet). Our van had just leveled off and we were rounding a downhill bend when, all at once, there they were, stretched out before us in a spectacular procession of massive white peaks: the Tetons. My wife gasped31 and, behind us, the kids began to yell. In truth, it was a startling sight—— a sight none of us will ever forget.
We had seen mountains before, but we had never experienced anything even remotely like that initial impact of the Tetons. It was exactly what we had in mind when we decided to take our first trip "out West."

New Words
bicentennial
a. happening once in 200 years; of a 200th anniversary
n. 200th anniversary

shrine
n. a building or place associated with sth. or sb. deeply respected 神殿,圣地

resolve
vt. make up one's mind (to do sth); decide 决心;决定

trail
n. a path across rough country made by the passing of people or animals 小径,小道

legendary
a. of, like or told in a legend 传奇(似)的

mountain range
a row of connected mountains 山脉

disappointed
a. sad at not getting what was hoped for 失望的

environmental
a. having to do with environment 环境的

environment n.

editor
n. 编辑

strip mine
n. a mine which is operated from the surface by removing the overlying layers of earth 露天矿
vt. take (a mineral or ore) from a strip mine 露天开采(矿物)

scenic
a. of or having to do with natural scenery 天然风景的

clear-cut
vt. cut all the trees in (a given area or forest) 将……的树木砍伐光

drain
vt. carry away the surface water of 排(水等)

dam
n. a wall or bank built to keep back water 坝,水闸
vt. build a dam across

mess
n. staate of confusion, dirt or disorder32 混乱、肮脏

wetland
n. land or areas containing much soil moisture; swamp 沼泽地

grassland
n. land covered with grass, esp. wild open land for cattle to feed on 草地;牧场

overgraze
vt. allow animals to graze to the point of damaging the grass cover 在……上过度放牧

power plant
发电厂 befoul
vt. make dirty 弄脏

wildlife
n. animals and plants which live ad grow in natural conditions 野生动植物

tourist
n. a person making a tour for pleasure 游客

slum
n. (often pl.) street, alley33, or building in a crowded, run-down, dirty part of a city or town, where the poorest people live 贫民窟

undertake
vt. take up (a duty, etc.); start on (work) 承担;从事

pledge
vt. make a solemn promise or agreement 发誓,保证

predictably
ad. as one may predict

uncover
vt. remove a cover from; find out, discover 揭开……盖子;发现

know-nothing
a. ignorant
n. ignoramus

shade
vt. shelter from direct light or heat 荫蔽

maple
n. 槭树,枫树

folk (AmE folks)
n. people

worn-out
a. used until no longer fit for use; very tired 破旧的;精疲力尽的

windmill
n. a mill operated by the action of the wind on sails which revolve34 风车

pasture
n. grassland for cattle; grass on such land 牧场;牧草

rural
a. of or relating to the country, country people or life, or agriculture 农村的

cornfield
n. (AmE) 玉米田;(BrE)小麦田,谷物田

heartland
n. any area or region that is the center of, or vital to , a country 心脏地带,中心地带

hilly
a. full of hills

grandma
n. (informal) grandmother

secure
a. safe; having no doubt, fear, or anxiety 安全的

drought
n. a long period of dry weather, when there is not enough water干旱

crisp
a. dry; hard; easily broken 脆的;易碎的
n. something crisp

rolling
a. rising and falling in long gentle slopes 绵延起伏的

haul
vt. pull or drag with force 拖曳

stock
vt. farm animals, usu. cattle 牲畜

distinctly
ad. clearly

graze
v. feed on growing grass (in) 吃(……的)草

rig
n. 钻塔

pump
vt. force (water, etc.) out by using a pump 泵

zigzag17
vi. go in a zigzag 弯弯曲曲地行走,蜿蜒曲折
n. a line shaped like a row of z's

freight
n. the goods carried from place by water or by land 货物

fright train
n. (AmE) goods train

uranium
n. 铀

refinery
n. a building and apparatus35 for refining sth. (metals, oil, or sugar) 精炼厂,提炼厂

boom
vi. grow rapidly; develop rapidly in population and importance 迅速发展,兴盛

graceful
a. (of shape or movement) pleasing to the eye 优雅的

grace n.

foothill
n. a low hill at the foot of a mountain 山麓小丘

antelope
n. a deer-like, fast-running animal with thin legs 羚羊

abound
vi. have or exist in great numbers or quantities (物产)丰富

canyon
n. a deep narrow steep-sided valley (usu. with a river flowing through) 峡谷

distinct
a. easily seen, heard, understood; plain; clearly different or separate 明显的;不同的

pine
n. 松树;松木

cling
vi hold tightly; remain close 紧握着;粘着

steep
a. rising or falling sharply or at a large angle 陡峭的

torrent
n. a violently rushing stream of water 激流

rampage
n. excited and violent behavior 横冲直撞,狂暴行径

terrain
n. a stretch of land, esp. when considered in relation to its nature 地带,地形

hillside
n. the sloping side of a hill 山腰

picnic
n. 野餐

roar
n. a deep loud sound as of a lion, or thunder, etc. 吼叫,轰鸣

western
a. of, in, from, characteristic of the west.

lore
n. tradition and knowlege, esp. handed down from past times (口头)传说

midway
a.& ad. in a middle position

continental
a. (typical) of a very large mass of land; (AmE) of or in the North American continent 大陆(性)的;北美大陆的

van
n. a covered motor-vehicle for carrying goods and sometimes people 客货两用车

level
v. bring or come into a horizontal plane

downhill
a. (sloping or going) towards the bottom of a hill

stretch
v. (cause to) become wider or longer; spread out 伸延

procession
n. a line of people, vehicles, etc. moving forward in an orderly way 行列,队伍

massive
a. large, heavy and solid; huge 粗大的,巨大的

gasp30
v. struggle for breath with open mouth, esp. because of surprise, chock, etc. 喘息
n. catching36 of the breath through surprise, pain, etc.

yell
v. make a loud sharp cry or shout, as of pain, excitement, etc.; say or shout loudly

remotely
ad. to a very small degree; far away 很少地,极小地;遥远地

remote a.

initial
a. occurring at the beginning; first 最初的,开始的

impact
n. a strong effect; the striking of one thing against another 影响;冲击

Phrases & Expressions
size up
form an opinion or judgment about 估计;品评

a bit
to some degree; rather 有点儿,相当

tear up
destroy completely by tearing 撕毁,毁掉

make a mess of
disorder, spoil or ruin 把……弄脏;把……弄糟

on the run
running or hurrying from place to place; in flight 奔跑着;奔逃着

do one's homework
make necessary preparations before taking part in an important activity 作必要的准备

by and large
on the whole; in general

all in all
(informal) on the whole

here and there
scattered about; in various places 零星分散,在各处

burn to a crisp
burn black or dry 烤焦

cut through
穿过,穿透

cling to
keep a firm hold on 紧紧抓住

be/go on the / a rampage
go about in an excited, mad and violent manner 横冲直撞

by chance
unintentionally; by accident 偶然地;意外地

at one time
formerly 从前,曾经

level off/out
move horizontally (after climbing); remain steady (after a rise) (爬高后)水平移动;(上升后)达到平稳

stretch out
extend prolong 延伸,延续

in truth
truly; really 的确

have in mind
be considering, intend 考虑,打算

Proper Names
Wyoming
怀俄明(美国州名)

Montana
蒙大拿(美国州名)

the Big Horns
大霍恩山脉(美国山名)

the Bitterroots
比特鲁特山脉(美国山名)

the Swan
斯旺山(美国山名)

Wisconsin
威斯康星(美国州名)

South Dakota
南达科地(美国州名)

the Black Hills
布莱克山(美国山名)

Buffalo
布法罗(美国城市名)

Powder River
波德河(美国河流名)

Ten Sleep Creek
十眠河(美国河流名)

the Rockies
洛矶山脉(美国山名)

Togwatee Pass
托格瓦堤关(美国地名)

the Tetons
提腾山脉(美国山名)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 decided lvqzZd     
adj.决定了的,坚决的;明显的,明确的
参考例句:
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
2 shrines 9ec38e53af7365fa2e189f82b1f01792     
圣地,圣坛,神圣场所( shrine的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • All three structures dated to the third century and were tentatively identified as shrines. 这3座建筑都建于3 世纪,并且初步鉴定为神庙。
  • Their palaces and their shrines are tombs. 它们的宫殿和神殿成了墓穴。
3 lore Y0YxW     
n.传说;学问,经验,知识
参考例句:
  • I will seek and question him of his lore.我倒要找上他,向他讨教他的渊博的学问。
  • Early peoples passed on plant and animal lore through legend.早期人类通过传说传递有关植物和动物的知识。
4 legendary u1Vxg     
adj.传奇(中)的,闻名遐迩的;n.传奇(文学)
参考例句:
  • Legendary stories are passed down from parents to children.传奇故事是由父母传给孩子们的。
  • Odysseus was a legendary Greek hero.奥狄修斯是传说中的希腊英雄。
5 scenic aDbyP     
adj.自然景色的,景色优美的
参考例句:
  • The scenic beauty of the place entranced the visitors.这里的美丽风光把游客们迷住了。
  • The scenic spot is on northwestern outskirts of Beijing.这个风景区位于北京的西北远郊。
6 grassland 0fCxG     
n.牧场,草地,草原
参考例句:
  • There is a reach of grassland in the distance.远处是连绵一片的草原。
  • The snowstorm swept the vast expanse of grassland.暴风雪袭击了辽阔的草原。
7 grasslands 72179cad53224d2f605476ff67a1d94c     
n.草原,牧场( grassland的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Songs were heard ringing loud and clear over the grasslands. 草原上扬起清亮激越的歌声。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Grasslands have been broken and planted to wheat. 草原已经开垦出来,种上了小麦。 来自《简明英汉词典》
8 dreaded XuNzI3     
adj.令人畏惧的;害怕的v.害怕,恐惧,担心( dread的过去式和过去分词)
参考例句:
  • The dreaded moment had finally arrived. 可怕的时刻终于来到了。
  • He dreaded having to spend Christmas in hospital. 他害怕非得在医院过圣诞节不可。 来自《用法词典》
9 maple BBpxj     
n.槭树,枫树,槭木
参考例句:
  • Maple sugar is made from the sap of maple trees.枫糖是由枫树的树液制成的。
  • The maple leaves are tinge with autumn red.枫叶染上了秋天的红色。
10 farmhouse kt1zIk     
n.农场住宅(尤指主要住房)
参考例句:
  • We fell for the farmhouse as soon as we saw it.我们对那所农舍一见倾心。
  • We put up for the night at a farmhouse.我们在一间农舍投宿了一夜。
11 standing 2hCzgo     
n.持续,地位;adj.永久的,不动的,直立的,不流动的
参考例句:
  • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
  • They're standing out against any change in the law.他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
12 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,残留物;遗体,遗迹
参考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
13 creek 3orzL     
n.小溪,小河,小湾
参考例句:
  • He sprang through the creek.他跳过小河。
  • People sunbathe in the nude on the rocks above the creek.人们在露出小溪的岩石上裸体晒日光浴。
14 creeks creeks     
n.小湾( creek的名词复数 );小港;小河;小溪
参考例句:
  • The prospect lies between two creeks. 矿区位于两条溪流之间。 来自辞典例句
  • There was the excitement of fishing in country creeks with my grandpa on cloudy days. 有在阴雨天和姥爷一起到乡村河湾钓鱼的喜悦。 来自辞典例句
15 shrubs b480276f8eea44e011d42320b17c3619     
灌木( shrub的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The gardener spent a complete morning in trimming those two shrubs. 园丁花了整个上午的时间修剪那两处灌木林。
  • These shrubs will need more light to produce flowering shoots. 这些灌木需要更多的光照才能抽出开花的新枝。
16 scattered 7jgzKF     
adj.分散的,稀疏的;散步的;疏疏落落的
参考例句:
  • Gathering up his scattered papers,he pushed them into his case.他把散乱的文件收拾起来,塞进文件夹里。
17 zigzag Hf6wW     
n.曲折,之字形;adj.曲折的,锯齿形的;adv.曲折地,成锯齿形地;vt.使曲折;vi.曲折前行
参考例句:
  • The lightning made a zigzag in the sky.闪电在天空划出一道Z字形。
  • The path runs zigzag up the hill.小径向山顶蜿蜒盘旋。
18 zigzagged 81e4abcab1a598002ec58745d5f3d496     
adj.呈之字形移动的v.弯弯曲曲地走路,曲折地前进( zigzag的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • The office buildings were slightly zigzagged to fit available ground space. 办公大楼为了配合可用的地皮建造得略呈之字形。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • The lightning zigzagged through the church yard. 闪电呈之字形划过教堂的院子。 来自《简明英汉词典》
19 labored zpGz8M     
adj.吃力的,谨慎的v.努力争取(for)( labor的过去式和过去分词 );苦干;详细分析;(指引擎)缓慢而困难地运转
参考例句:
  • I was close enough to the elk to hear its labored breathing. 我离那头麋鹿非常近,能听见它吃力的呼吸声。 来自辞典例句
  • They have labored to complete the job. 他们努力完成这一工作。 来自辞典例句
20 refineries f6f752d4dedfa84ee0eead1d97a27bb2     
精炼厂( refinery的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The efforts on closedown and suspension of small sugar refineries, small saccharin refineries and small paper mills are also being carried out in steps. 关停小糖厂、小糖精厂、小造纸厂的工作也已逐步展开。
  • Hence the sitting of refineries is at a distance from population centres. 所以,炼油厂的厂址总在远离人口集中的地方。
21 buffalo 1Sby4     
n.(北美)野牛;(亚洲)水牛
参考例句:
  • Asian buffalo isn't as wild as that of America's. 亚洲水牛比美洲水牛温顺些。
  • The boots are made of buffalo hide. 这双靴子是由水牛皮制成的。
22 graceful deHza     
adj.优美的,优雅的;得体的
参考例句:
  • His movements on the parallel bars were very graceful.他的双杠动作可帅了!
  • The ballet dancer is so graceful.芭蕾舞演员的姿态是如此的优美。
23 antelope fwKzN     
n.羚羊;羚羊皮
参考例句:
  • Choosing the antelope shows that China wants a Green Olympics.选择藏羚羊表示中国需要绿色奥运。
  • The tiger was dragging the antelope across the field.老虎拖着羚羊穿过原野。
24 abounded 40814edef832fbadb4cebe4735649eb5     
v.大量存在,充满,富于( abound的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • Get-rich-quick schemes abounded, and many people lost their savings. “生财之道”遍地皆是,然而许多人一生积攒下来的钱转眼之间付之东流。 来自英汉非文学 - 政府文件
  • Shoppers thronged the sidewalks. Olivedrab and navy-blue uniforms abounded. 人行道上逛商店的人摩肩接踵,身着草绿色和海军蓝军装的军人比比皆是。 来自辞典例句
25 torrent 7GCyH     
n.激流,洪流;爆发,(话语等的)连发
参考例句:
  • The torrent scoured a channel down the hillside. 急流沿着山坡冲出了一条沟。
  • Her pent-up anger was released in a torrent of words.她压抑的愤怒以滔滔不绝的话爆发了出来。
26 terrain sgeyk     
n.地面,地形,地图
参考例句:
  • He had made a detailed study of the terrain.他对地形作了缜密的研究。
  • He knows the terrain of this locality like the back of his hand.他对这一带的地形了如指掌。
27 fawns a9864fc63c4f2c9051323de695c0f1d6     
n.(未满一岁的)幼鹿( fawn的名词复数 );浅黄褐色;乞怜者;奉承者v.(尤指狗等)跳过来往人身上蹭以示亲热( fawn的第三人称单数 );巴结;讨好
参考例句:
  • He fawns on anyone in an influential position. 他向一切身居要职的人谄媚。 来自辞典例句
  • The way Michael fawns on the boss makes heave. 迈克讨好老板的样子真叫我恶心。 来自互联网
28 halfway Xrvzdq     
adj.中途的,不彻底的,部分的;adv.半路地,在中途,在半途
参考例句:
  • We had got only halfway when it began to get dark.走到半路,天就黑了。
  • In study the worst danger is give up halfway.在学习上,最忌讳的是有始无终。
29 continental Zazyk     
adj.大陆的,大陆性的,欧洲大陆的
参考例句:
  • A continental climate is different from an insular one.大陆性气候不同于岛屿气候。
  • The most ancient parts of the continental crust are 4000 million years old.大陆地壳最古老的部分有40亿年历史。
30 gasp UfxzL     
n.喘息,气喘;v.喘息;气吁吁他说
参考例句:
  • She gave a gasp of surprise.她吃惊得大口喘气。
  • The enemy are at their last gasp.敌人在做垂死的挣扎。
31 gasped e6af294d8a7477229d6749fa9e8f5b80     
v.喘气( gasp的过去式和过去分词 );喘息;倒抽气;很想要
参考例句:
  • She gasped at the wonderful view. 如此美景使她惊讶得屏住了呼吸。
  • People gasped with admiration at the superb skill of the gymnasts. 体操运动员的高超技艺令人赞叹。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
32 disorder Et1x4     
n.紊乱,混乱;骚动,骚乱;疾病,失调
参考例句:
  • When returning back,he discovered the room to be in disorder.回家后,他发现屋子里乱七八糟。
  • It contained a vast number of letters in great disorder.里面七零八落地装着许多信件。
33 alley Cx2zK     
n.小巷,胡同;小径,小路
参考例句:
  • We live in the same alley.我们住在同一条小巷里。
  • The blind alley ended in a brick wall.这条死胡同的尽头是砖墙。
34 revolve NBBzX     
vi.(使)旋转;循环出现
参考例句:
  • The planets revolve around the sun.行星绕着太阳运转。
  • The wheels began to revolve slowly.车轮开始慢慢转动。
35 apparatus ivTzx     
n.装置,器械;器具,设备
参考例句:
  • The school's audio apparatus includes films and records.学校的视听设备包括放映机和录音机。
  • They had a very refined apparatus.他们有一套非常精良的设备。
36 catching cwVztY     
adj.易传染的,有魅力的,迷人的,接住
参考例句:
  • There are those who think eczema is catching.有人就是认为湿疹会传染。
  • Enthusiasm is very catching.热情非常富有感染力。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  精读  第四册
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