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大学英语精读第四册 Unit Ten:Why People Work

时间:2005-04-20 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:鱼尾巴   字体: [ ]
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Text
Do you view work as a burden or an opportunity? Are you the kind of person who looks for ways to save your energy or the kind that finds spending your energy satisfying? Why do people like to complain about work? Find the answers to question like these in the following essay.

WHY PEOPLE WORK

Leonard R. Sayles
Jobs and work do much more than most of us realize to provide happiness sand contentment. We're all used to thinking that work provides the material things of life -- the goods and services that make possible our modern civilization. But we are much less conscious of the extent to which work provides the more intangible, but more crucial, psychological well-being1 that can make the difference between a full and an empty life.
Historically, work has been associated with slavery and sin and punishment. And in our own day we are used to hearing the traditional complaints: "I can't wait for my vacation," "I wish I could stay home today," "My boss treats me poorly," "I've got too much work to do and not enough time to do it." Against this background, it may well come as a surprise to learn that not only psychologists but other behavioral scientists have come to accept the positive contribution of work to the individual's happiness and sense of personal achievement. Work is more than a necessity for most human beings; it is the focus of their lives, the source of their identity and creativity.
Rather than a punishment or a burden, work is the opportunity to realize one's potential. Many psychiatrists2 heading mental health clinics have observed its healing effect. A good many patients who feel depressed3 in clinics gain renewed self-confidence when gainfully employed and lose some, if not all, of their most acute symptoms. Increasingly, institutions dealing4 with mental health problems are establishing workshops wherein those too sick to get a job in "outside" industry can work, while every effort is exerted to arrange "real" jobs for those well enough to work outside.
And the reverse is true, too. For large numbers of people, the absence of work is harmful to their health. Retirement5 often brings many problems surrounding the "What do I do with myself?" question, even though there may be no financial cares. Large numbers of people regularly get headaches and other illnesses on weekends when they don't have their jobs to go to, and must fend6 for themselves. It has been observed that unemployment, quite aside from exerting financial pressures, brings enormous psychological troubles and that many individuals deteriorate7 rapidly when jobless.
But why? Why should work be such a significant source of human satisfaction? A good share of the answer rests in the kind of pride that is stimulated8 by the job, by the activity of accomplishing.

Pride in Accomplishment9
The human being longs for a sense of being accomplished10, of being able to do things, with his hand, with his mind, with his will. Each of us wants to feel he or she has the ability to do something that is meaningful and that serves as a tribute to our inherent abilities.
It is easiest to see this in the craftsman11 who lovingly shapes some cheap material into an object that may be either useful or beautiful or both. You can see the carpenter or bricklayer stand aside and admire the product of his personal skill.
But even where there is no obvious end product that is solely12 attributable to one person's skill, researchers have found that employees find pride in accomplishment. Our own research in hospitals suggests that even the houskeeping and laundry staffs take pride in the fact that in their own ways they are helping13 to cure sick people -- and thus accomplishing good deal.
We're often misled by the complaints surrounding difficult work; deep down most people regard their won capacity to conquer the tough job as the mark of their own unique personality. Complaining is just part of working After all, how else do you know who you are, except as you can demonstrate the ability of your mind to control you limbs ad hands and words? You are, in significant measure, what you can do.
Some are deceived into thinking that people like to store up energy, to rest and save themselves as much as possible. Just the opposite. It is energy expenditure14 that is satisfying.
Just watch an employee who must deal with countless15 other people because his or her job is at some central point in a communications network: a salesman at a busy counter, a stock broker16 on the phone, a customer representative. They will tell you how much skill and experience it takes to answer countless questions and handle various kinds of personalities17 every hour of the day. Not everyone can interact with such persistence18 and over long hours, but those who do, pride themselves on a distinctive19 ability that contributes mightily20 to the running of the organization.
But work is more than accomplishment and pride in being able to command the job, because except for a few craftsmen21 and artists most work takes place "out in the world," with an through other people.

Esprit de corps
Perhasps an example will make the point:
I remember viewing a half dozen me in a chair factory whose job it was to bend several pieces of steel and attach them so that a folding chair would result. While there were ten or twelve of these "teams" that worked together, one in particular was known for its perfect coordination22 and lightning-like efforts. The men knew they were good. They would work spurts23 for twenty or thirty minutes before taking a break -- to show themselves, bystanders and other groups what it was to be superbly skilled and self-controlled, to be the best in the factory.
When I talked with them, each expressed enormous pride in being a part of the fastest, best team. And this sense of belonging to an accomplished work group is one of the distinctive satisfactions of the world of work.
One further word about work group satisfactions. Unlike may other aspects of life, relationships among people at work tend to be simpler, less complicated, somewhat less emotional. This is not to say there aren't arguments and jealousies24, but, on the whole, behavioral research discloses that human relations at work are just easier, perhaps because they are more regular and predictable and thus simpler to adjust to than the sporadic25, the more intense and less regular relationships in the community. And the work group also gently pressures its members to learn how to adjust to one another so that the "rough edges" are worked off because people know they must do certain things with and through one another each day.
Beyond the team and the work group, there is the organization, whether it be company or hospital or university. The same pride in being part of a well-coordinated, successful unit is derived27 from being part of a larger collectivity. Working for a company that is though of as being part of the best in the community can provide employees with both status and self-confidence. They assume, usually with good reason, that others regard them more highly, even envy them, and that they are more competent than the average because of this association with a "winner," a prestigious28 institution. We in truth bask29 in the reflected glory of the institution, and we seek ways of asserting our membership so that others will know and can recognize our good fortune.

New Words
contentment
n. happiness; satisfaction 满足

civilization
n. 文明

intangible
a. that can not be touched or grasped 触摸不到的

crucial
a. decisive; critical 决定性的,关键的

pschological
a. of the soul or mind 心理的

historically
ad. in the course of history, in accordance with or in respect to history

associate
vt. connect or bring together in one's mind 联想

slavery
n. the system of having slaves; the condition of being a slave 奴隶制度;奴隶身份

sin
n. behavior that is against the principles of morality; an immoral30 act 罪孽

punishment
n. punishing or being punished 惩罚

complaint
n. complaining; a statement expressing unhappiness, pain, dissatisfaction 抱怨

behavioral
a. of or having to do with behavior 行为的
contribution
n. act of contributing; sth. contributed

necessity
n. sth. that is necessary; the condition of being necessary, needed or unavoidable 必需品;必要性

focus
n. the central point; centre of interest 焦点

creativity
n. the ability to produce new and orignal ideas and things; inventiveness创造性

clinic
n. building or part of a hospital where doctors give specialized31 medical treatment and advice; a medical institution for special purposes 诊所

heal
v. (cause to) become healthy 治愈,愈合,痊愈

depressed
a. sad; low in spirits 精神抑郁的,情绪沮丧的

depress
vt. make sad, low in spirits

renew
vt. reestablish; give new life and freshness to 使更新

gainfully
ad. profitably

acute
a. severe; strong 严重的,急性的

symptom
a. a change in the body's condition that indicates illness 症状

institution
n. a society, club, college or any organization established for some public or social purpose 公共机构

workshop
n. a room of building which contains tools or machinery32 for making or repairing things 车间,工场

wherein
conj. in which

exert
vt. use(strength, skill, etc.) 尽力

reverse
n. the opposite; the other way round, the back 相反,背面

absence
n. non-existence; lack

retirement
n. instance of retiring or being retired33; condition of being retired 退休

financial
a. relating to money 财政的;金融的

weekend
n. Saturday and Sunday, esp. when considered as a holiday from work

fend
vi. provide(for) 供养;照料

unemployment
n. the state of being unemployed34

significant
a. of noticeable importance or effect 重大的

significance n.

satisfaction
n. be state of being satisfied 满足

satisfactory a.

accomplished
a. skilled, expert 有才艺的;有造诣的

tribute
n. material evidence of one's worth, virtue35, etc.

inherent
a. existing as a natural and permanent part or quality of 内在的,生来的

craftsman
n. a highly skilled workman 手艺人,(名)工匠

bicklayer
n. a workman who builds with bricks

attributable
a. that can be attributed 可归因于……的

attribute
vt. 把……归因为

housekeeping
n. management of a home and its affairs 家政

staff
n. the group of workers who carry on a job (全体)员工

capacity
n. ability, power; the amount that sth. can hold or produce 能力;容量

tough
a. difficult to do or deal with 艰巨的

unique
n. being the only one of its type 独特的

limb
n. the leg, arm. or wing of an animal 肢,翼

opposite
n. a person or thing that is entirely36 different from another 对立面,对立物

countless
a. very many; too many to be counted

broker
n. person who buys and sells for others 经纪人,掮客

stock broker
n. a person who buys and sells stocks and bonds for other for a commission 证券经纪人

representative
n. a person acting37 in place of one or more others 代表

interact
vi. act on each other 相互作用

persistence
n. the act or fact of keeping on doing sth in spite of difficulty or opposition38 坚持

persist vi.

distinctive
a. clearly marking a person or thing as different from other 特殊的;与众不同的

mightily
ad. with power and strength; greatly

esprit de corps
n. (French) spirit of loyalty39 and devotion which unites the members of a group or society 团体精神,集体荣誉感

coordination
n. harmonious40 adjustment or working together 协调

coordinate26 vt.

lightning
闪电

bystander
n. a person standing41 near but not taking part in an event or activity; onlooker42 旁观者

superbly
ad. magnificently; first class

aspect
n. one side or view of a subject 方面

relationship
n. a friendship between people; connection 关系

disclose
make known; show by uncovering 揭示

sporadic
a. occurring now and then; occasional 零星发生的,偶尔的

collectivity
n. people collectively, especially as forming a community or state 集体

collective a.

status
n. (high) social or professional position 地位,身份

envy
vt. feel admiration43 or ill-will toward (sb.) because he has the good fortune one wishes to have 羡慕;妒忌

winner
n. one that wins or seems destined44 to win or be successful

prestigious
a. having respect that results from the good reputation (of a person, nation, etc.)有声望的

bask
vi. sit or lie in enjoyable warmth and light (舒适地) 取暖,享受

reflect
vt. throw back (light, heat, sound or image) 反射;反映

assert
vt. demonstrate the existence of; declare forcefully 宣称,断言

membership
n. the state of being a member, of a club, society, etc. all the members of a club, society, etc.

Phrases & Expressions
associate with
connect with (often mentally) 把…与…联系在一起

rather than
instead of

fend for oneself
look after oneself 照料自己,自行谋生

aside from
besides, apart from 除…以外

long for
desire (to have )sth. strongly 渴望

take pride in
fell please and happy because of 为…而感到得意

store up
put away for future use 储存,储备

pride oneself on
regard as a special reason for pride or satisfaction 以……自豪

make the/one's point
prove that sth. is true 证明一个论点

in particular
especially

at work
busy at a job; doing work

one the whole
considering everything; in general

work off
get rid of, dispose 除去,清除


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 well-being Fe3zbn     
n.安康,安乐,幸福
参考例句:
  • He always has the well-being of the masses at heart.他总是把群众的疾苦挂在心上。
  • My concern for their well-being was misunderstood as interference.我关心他们的幸福,却被误解为多管闲事。
2 psychiatrists 45b6a81e510da4f31f5b0fecd7b77261     
n.精神病专家,精神病医生( psychiatrist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • They are psychiatrists in good standing. 他们是合格的精神病医生。 来自辞典例句
  • Some psychiatrists have patients who grow almost alarmed at how congenial they suddenly feel. 有些精神分析学家发现,他们的某些病人在突然感到惬意的时候几乎会兴奋起来。 来自名作英译部分
3 depressed xu8zp9     
adj.沮丧的,抑郁的,不景气的,萧条的
参考例句:
  • When he was depressed,he felt utterly divorced from reality.他心情沮丧时就感到完全脱离了现实。
  • His mother was depressed by the sad news.这个坏消息使他的母亲意志消沉。
4 dealing NvjzWP     
n.经商方法,待人态度
参考例句:
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
5 retirement TWoxH     
n.退休,退职
参考例句:
  • She wanted to enjoy her retirement without being beset by financial worries.她想享受退休生活而不必为金钱担忧。
  • I have to put everything away for my retirement.我必须把一切都积蓄起来以便退休后用。
6 fend N78yA     
v.照料(自己),(自己)谋生,挡开,避开
参考例句:
  • I've had to fend for myself since I was 14.我从十四岁时起就不得不照料自己。
  • He raised his arm up to fend branches from his eyes.他举手将树枝从他眼前挡开。
7 deteriorate Zm8zW     
v.变坏;恶化;退化
参考例句:
  • Do you think relations between China and Japan will continue to deteriorate?你认为中日关系会继续恶化吗?
  • He held that this would only cause the situation to deteriorate further.他认为,这只会使局势更加恶化。
8 stimulated Rhrz78     
a.刺激的
参考例句:
  • The exhibition has stimulated interest in her work. 展览增进了人们对她作品的兴趣。
  • The award has stimulated her into working still harder. 奖金促使她更加努力地工作。
9 accomplishment 2Jkyo     
n.完成,成就,(pl.)造诣,技能
参考例句:
  • The series of paintings is quite an accomplishment.这一系列的绘画真是了不起的成就。
  • Money will be crucial to the accomplishment of our objectives.要实现我们的目标,钱是至关重要的。
10 accomplished UzwztZ     
adj.有才艺的;有造诣的;达到了的
参考例句:
  • Thanks to your help,we accomplished the task ahead of schedule.亏得你们帮忙,我们才提前完成了任务。
  • Removal of excess heat is accomplished by means of a radiator.通过散热器完成多余热量的排出。
11 craftsman ozyxB     
n.技工,精于一门工艺的匠人
参考例句:
  • A cabinet maker must be a master craftsman.家具木工必须是技艺高超的手艺人。
  • The craftsman is working up the mass of clay into a toy figure.艺人把一团泥捏成玩具形状。
12 solely FwGwe     
adv.仅仅,唯一地
参考例句:
  • Success should not be measured solely by educational achievement.成功与否不应只用学业成绩来衡量。
  • The town depends almost solely on the tourist trade.这座城市几乎完全靠旅游业维持。
13 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
14 expenditure XPbzM     
n.(时间、劳力、金钱等)支出;使用,消耗
参考例句:
  • The entry of all expenditure is necessary.有必要把一切开支入账。
  • The monthly expenditure of our family is four hundred dollars altogether.我们一家的开销每月共计四百元。
15 countless 7vqz9L     
adj.无数的,多得不计其数的
参考例句:
  • In the war countless innocent people lost their lives.在这场战争中无数无辜的人丧失了性命。
  • I've told you countless times.我已经告诉你无数遍了。
16 broker ESjyi     
n.中间人,经纪人;v.作为中间人来安排
参考例句:
  • He baited the broker by promises of higher commissions.他答应给更高的佣金来引诱那位经纪人。
  • I'm a real estate broker.我是不动产经纪人。
17 personalities ylOzsg     
n. 诽谤,(对某人容貌、性格等所进行的)人身攻击; 人身攻击;人格, 个性, 名人( personality的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • There seemed to be a degree of personalities in her remarks.她话里有些人身攻击的成分。
  • Personalities are not in good taste in general conversation.在一般的谈话中诽谤他人是不高尚的。
18 persistence hSLzh     
n.坚持,持续,存留
参考例句:
  • The persistence of a cough in his daughter puzzled him.他女儿持续的咳嗽把他难住了。
  • He achieved success through dogged persistence.他靠着坚持不懈取得了成功。
19 distinctive Es5xr     
adj.特别的,有特色的,与众不同的
参考例句:
  • She has a very distinctive way of walking.她走路的样子与别人很不相同。
  • This bird has several distinctive features.这个鸟具有几种突出的特征。
20 mightily ZoXzT6     
ad.强烈地;非常地
参考例句:
  • He hit the peg mightily on the top with a mallet. 他用木槌猛敲木栓顶。
  • This seemed mightily to relieve him. 干完这件事后,他似乎轻松了许多。
21 craftsmen craftsmen     
n. 技工
参考例句:
  • rugs handmade by local craftsmen 由当地工艺师手工制作的小地毯
  • The craftsmen have ensured faithful reproduction of the original painting. 工匠保证要复制一幅最接近原作的画。
22 coordination Ho8zt     
n.协调,协作
参考例句:
  • Gymnastics is a sport that requires a considerable level of coordination.体操是一项需要高协调性的运动。
  • The perfect coordination of the dancers and singers added a rhythmic charm to the performance.舞蹈演员和歌手们配合得很好,使演出更具魅力。
23 spurts 8ccddee69feee5657ab540035af5f753     
短暂而突然的活动或努力( spurt的名词复数 ); 突然奋起
参考例句:
  • Great spurts of gas shoot out of the sun. 太阳气体射出形成大爆发。
  • Spurts of warm rain blew fitfully against their faces. 阵阵温热的雨点拍打在他们脸上。
24 jealousies 6aa2adf449b3e9d3fef22e0763e022a4     
n.妒忌( jealousy的名词复数 );妒羡
参考例句:
  • They were divided by mutual suspicion and jealousies. 他们因为相互猜疑嫉妒而不和。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • I am tired of all these jealousies and quarrels. 我厌恶这些妒忌和吵架的语言。 来自辞典例句
25 sporadic PT0zT     
adj.偶尔发生的 [反]regular;分散的
参考例句:
  • The sound of sporadic shooting could still be heard.仍能听见零星的枪声。
  • You know this better than I.I received only sporadic news about it.你们比我更清楚,而我听到的只是零星消息。
26 coordinate oohzt     
adj.同等的,协调的;n.同等者;vt.协作,协调
参考例句:
  • You must coordinate what you said with what you did.你必须使你的言行一致。
  • Maybe we can coordinate the relation of them.或许我们可以调和他们之间的关系。
27 derived 6cddb7353e699051a384686b6b3ff1e2     
vi.起源;由来;衍生;导出v.得到( derive的过去式和过去分词 );(从…中)得到获得;源于;(从…中)提取
参考例句:
  • Many English words are derived from Latin and Greek. 英语很多词源出于拉丁文和希腊文。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He derived his enthusiasm for literature from his father. 他对文学的爱好是受他父亲的影响。 来自《简明英汉词典》
28 prestigious nQ2xn     
adj.有威望的,有声望的,受尊敬的
参考例句:
  • The young man graduated from a prestigious university.这个年轻人毕业于一所名牌大学。
  • You may even join a prestigious magazine as a contributing editor.甚至可能会加入一个知名杂志做编辑。
29 bask huazK     
vt.取暖,晒太阳,沐浴于
参考例句:
  • Turtles like to bask in the sun.海龟喜欢曝于阳光中。
  • In winter afternoons,he likes to bask in the sun in his courtyard.冬日的午后,他喜欢坐在院子晒太阳。
30 immoral waCx8     
adj.不道德的,淫荡的,荒淫的,有伤风化的
参考例句:
  • She was questioned about his immoral conduct toward her.她被询问过有关他对她的不道德行为的情况。
  • It is my belief that nuclear weapons are immoral.我相信使核武器是不邪恶的。
31 specialized Chuzwe     
adj.专门的,专业化的
参考例句:
  • There are many specialized agencies in the United Nations.联合国有许多专门机构。
  • These tools are very specialized.这些是专用工具。
32 machinery CAdxb     
n.(总称)机械,机器;机构
参考例句:
  • Has the machinery been put up ready for the broadcast?广播器材安装完毕了吗?
  • Machinery ought to be well maintained all the time.机器应该随时注意维护。
33 retired Njhzyv     
adj.隐退的,退休的,退役的
参考例句:
  • The old man retired to the country for rest.这位老人下乡休息去了。
  • Many retired people take up gardening as a hobby.许多退休的人都以从事园艺为嗜好。
34 unemployed lfIz5Q     
adj.失业的,没有工作的;未动用的,闲置的
参考例句:
  • There are now over four million unemployed workers in this country.这个国家现有四百万失业人员。
  • The unemployed hunger for jobs.失业者渴望得到工作。
35 virtue BpqyH     
n.德行,美德;贞操;优点;功效,效力
参考例句:
  • He was considered to be a paragon of virtue.他被认为是品德尽善尽美的典范。
  • You need to decorate your mind with virtue.你应该用德行美化心灵。
36 entirely entirely     
ad.全部地,完整地;完全地,彻底地
参考例句:
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
37 acting czRzoc     
n.演戏,行为,假装;adj.代理的,临时的,演出用的
参考例句:
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.别理她,她只是假装的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
38 opposition eIUxU     
n.反对,敌对
参考例句:
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
39 loyalty gA9xu     
n.忠诚,忠心
参考例句:
  • She told him the truth from a sense of loyalty.她告诉他真相是出于忠诚。
  • His loyalty to his friends was never in doubt.他对朋友的一片忠心从来没受到怀疑。
40 harmonious EdWzx     
adj.和睦的,调和的,和谐的,协调的
参考例句:
  • Their harmonious relationship resulted in part from their similar goals.他们关系融洽的部分原因是他们有着相似的目标。
  • The room was painted in harmonious colors.房间油漆得色彩调和。
41 standing 2hCzgo     
n.持续,地位;adj.永久的,不动的,直立的,不流动的
参考例句:
  • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
  • They're standing out against any change in the law.他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
42 onlooker 7I8xD     
n.旁观者,观众
参考例句:
  • A handful of onlookers stand in the field watching.少数几个旁观者站在现场观看。
  • One onlooker had to be restrained by police.一个旁观者遭到了警察的制止。
43 admiration afpyA     
n.钦佩,赞美,羡慕
参考例句:
  • He was lost in admiration of the beauty of the scene.他对风景之美赞不绝口。
  • We have a great admiration for the gold medalists.我们对金牌获得者极为敬佩。
44 destined Dunznz     
adj.命中注定的;(for)以…为目的地的
参考例句:
  • It was destined that they would marry.他们结婚是缘分。
  • The shipment is destined for America.这批货物将运往美国。
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