First listen and then answer the question.
Why did the police have to push Jumbo off the main street?
Last Christmas, the circus owner, Jimmy Gates, decided2 to take some presents to a children's hospital. Dressed up as Father Christmas and accompanied by a 'guard of honour' of six pretty girls, he set off down the main street of the city riding a baby elephant called Jumbo. He should have known3 that the police would never allow this sort of thing. A policeman approached Jimmy and told him he ought to have gone along a side street as Jumbo was holding up the traffic. Though Jimmy agreed to go at once, Jumbo refused to move. Fifteen policemen had to push very hard to get him off the main street. The police had a difficult time, but they were most amused4. 'Jumbo must weigh a few tons,' said a policeman afterwards, 'so it was fortunate that we didn't have to carry him. Of course, we should arrest him, but as he has a good record, we shall let him off this time.'
New words and expressions 生词和短语
1．Jumbo versus the police,（标题）小象对警察。
Have you watched the game last night? It was France versus Italy.
2．Dressed up as Father Christmas and accompanied by a‘guard of honour’of six pretty girls, he set off down the main street of the city riding a baby elephant called Jumbo. 他打扮成圣诞老人，在由6个漂亮姑娘组成的“仪仗队”的陪同下，骑上一头名叫江伯的小象，沿着城里的主要街道出发了。
（1）dress up as表示“装扮成……（的样子）”，这里的 dressed 有表示状态的含义。
（2）在英国英语中，圣诞老人通常用 Father Christmas表示。Father大写可表示对老人的一种尊称：Father Baker（贝克大爷／老爹）。
Jane accompanied her mother to the theatre last night.
When I saw her yesterday, she was accompanied by her boyfriend.
（4）guard of honour指“仪仗队”， guard可表示“（一队）警卫队”、“（一队）卫兵／哨兵”等。of six pretty girls中的 of表示“由……组成的”：
A group of six Chinese boys took part in the competition.
Just walk down the street and you'll see the post office.
（6）baby可作形容词，表示“幼小的”、“小的”、“小型的”等含义：She likes to watch baby dogs.
She has a baby car.
3．…Jumbo was holding up the traffic. ……江伯阻碍了交通。
hold up 为固定短语，其含义之一为“阻止”、“使停顿”、“延误”、“阻碍”：
If you park the car in the street, it'll hold up the traffic.
4．to get him off the main street, 把它推离主要街道。get off在这里表示“从……移去／除去”：
Please get the box off the boat.
5．…they were most amused.……他们感到很有趣。
6．…but as he has a good record, we shall let him off this time. ……但由于它一贯表现很好，这次我们饶了它。
let…off 表示“放过”、“饶过”、“对……从轻处理”。record 可表示“履历”、“历史”或“成绩”等：
Her record as a secretary in the firm isn't very good.
Dan made a good/ poor record in school.
The thief has a long record.
语法 Grammar in use
表示“应该”和“必须”的情态助动词 should, ought, have to 与must
（1）在第17课的语法中，我们学习了表示不可逃避的义务或表示“必须”的must。must通常只用于现在时和将来时，其他时态则用 have to代替。have to比 must往往更强调客观的要求或外在的原因：
In the play, she must appear in a bright red dress and long black stockings6.
Last year in another play, she had to wear short socks and a bright, orange-coloured dress.
（2）should 和 ought to都可译为“应该”，表示义务、责任或某个正确的行为。ought to比 should语气略强些，多用于肯定句；疑问句与否定结构则多用 should。与它们相比， must和 have to 的语气要强得多，没有选择余地：
（3）had to表示过去必须做某事，而 should／ought to+have+过去分词则表示过去应该做（或完成）而没有做的事
词汇学习 Word study
The woman who let me in had a baby in her arms.
（2）let out的含义之一是“放走”、“释放”、“放出去”：You shouldn't have let the thief out.
Every evening they let the dog out.
I think we shall let him off this time.
The thief never dreamt that the police would let him off.
They need your help. Don't let them down.
He failed in the exam again and his parents felt let down.
2．agree 与 accept
I agree with you.
They invited me to their wedding and I've agreed to go.
She offered me some of her children's clothes and I accepted them.
（3）当 accept 表示“同意”、“接受”时，其含义与agree有相似之处，但用法不同：
I don't accept your opinion/ agree with your opinion.
3．dress 与dress up
（1）dress (vt., vi.)表示“穿衣”、“打扮”：
He did not like the way she was dressed.
She returned to the shop the following morning dressed in a fur coat.
Tom has nearly learned7 how to dress/ dress himself now.
（2）dress up表示“穿上盛装”、“精心打扮”、“装扮（成……）”等：Is everyone required to dress up for this party?
He dressed up as Father Christmas.
练习答案 Key to written exercises
C 1 should (or ought to) come
2 had to do
3 should (or ought to) have come
4 should (or ought to) have asked
5 had to explain
1 accepted…off 2 dress up…down
1 a 2d 3b 4b 5c 6a
7 a 8 d 9 c 10 c 11b 12 d
【new words and expressions】 生词和短语
★versus prep. 对
★christmas n. 圣诞节
father christmas :圣诞老人
★present n. 礼物
★accompany v. 陪伴，随行
i'll accompany you to your hotel.
i'll accompany you home.
★approach v. 走近
come nearer and nearer
the old man approaches 80 years old.
he is approaching me.
we have found an approach to success.
★ought modal verb. 应该
ought to do sth
should do sth.
you should knock at the door.
you ought to knock at the door.
★weigh v. 重
lose weight 减肥
dress up as ：打扮成为
dress up 打扮
a guard of honour:仪仗队
should have done :原本该做而没做
needn't have done :过去不必做但是做了
ought to :应该
所有的情态动词＋have done 都跟过去有关
１．跟虚拟语气有关的：would ahve done
2. 表示推测句型：may/must/can't have done
hold up the traffic:阻碍交通
agree to do :同意做某事
agree with sb
agree to (prep.)sth
I agree with you.
I agree to your advice
I agree to go with you.
off=away from 离开什么地方
must+v. 推测，have to:不得不
It was fortunate that...
should have done 跟过去有关系
let sb off(go):让某人走（离开）
set up a new world record
sb have a good record
情态动词＋have done 一定和过去有关系
2.虚拟语气相连：would have done
3.should have done :原本该做但是没做
4.needn't have done :原本不必做但是做了
have to :不得不
3...should have done...
4...ought to have done...
let sb off 让某人走
let sb down 让某人失望
let sb in/out :让某人进来／出去
Multiple choice questions】
as 后面要加句子，只有在the same as 结构时不加句子，或者是as...as
Lucy is the same as her sister
like me 像我这样
like London 像伦敦一样
He seemed rich 他看起来很富有
seem 后面会加to 这个不定式结构
He seemed to be rich
一个句型：It seemed that... 表示某件事情看起来似乎如此
It seemed that he is rich
seem 的后面常常会加as if
have to 当中的have 是实义动词
He decided to take some presents to a children's hospital.
He dressed up as Father Christmas.
He set off down the main street.
He was riding an elephant called Jumbo.
After 的后面可以直接加doing,也可以加having done
After knocking at the door
After having knocked at the door
After having decided to take presents to hospital and dressed up
as Father Christmas,he set off down the street riding a baby elephant called Jumbo.
2.On being that he was holding up the traffic,he agreed to go at once,but Jumbo refused to move,so fifteen policemen had to push him off main street.
on 加在动词前面，相当于as soon as
|n.长袜( stocking的名词复数 )；靺；袜子|