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新概念英语第三册 lesson 3 An unknown goddess

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Lesson 3:An unknown goddess 无名女神

Listen to the tape then answer the question below.
听录音,然后回答以下问题。
How did the archaeologists know that the statue was a goddess?

    Some time ago, an interesting discovery was made by archaeologists on the Aegean island of Kea. An American team explored a temple which stands in an ancient city on the promontory1 of Ayia Irini. The city at one time must have been prosperous, for it enjoyed a high level of civilization. Houses -- often three storeys high -- were built of stone. They had large rooms with beautifully decorated walls. The city was equipped with a drainage system, for a great many clay pipes were found beneath the narrow streets.
    The temple which the archaeologists explored was used as a place of worship from the fifteenth century B.C. until Roman times. In the most sacred room of temple, clay fragments of fifteen statues were found. Each of these represented a goddess and had, at one time, been painted. The body of one statue was found among remains3 dating from the fifteenth century B.C. It's missing head happened to be among remains of the fifth century B.C. This head must have been found in Classical times and carefully preserved. It was very old and precious even then. When the archaeologists reconstructed the fragments, they were amazed to find that the goddess turned out to be a very modern-looking woman. She stood three feet high and her hands rested on her hips4. She was wearing a full-length skirt which swept the ground. Despite her great age, she was very graceful5 indeed, but, so far, the archaeologists have been unable to discover her identity.

New words and expressions 生词和短语

     goddess(tile)
n.   女神

     archaeologist
n.   考古学家

     Aegean
adj. 爱玲海的

     explore
v.   考察,勘探

     promontory
n.   海角

     prosperous
adj. (经济上)繁荣的,昌盛的

     civilization
n.   文明

     storey
n.   楼层

     drainage
n.   排水

     worship
n.   祟拜

     sacred
adj. 宗教的,神圣的

     fragment
n.   碎片

     remains
n.   遗物,遗迹,废墟

     classical
adj. (希腊和罗马)古化的

     reconstruct
v.   修复

     rest
v.   倚放,放置

     hip2
n.   屁股,臀部

     full-length
adj. (裙衣)拖地长的

     graceful
adj. 优雅的

     identity
n.   身份

参考译文

    不久之前,在爱琴海的基亚岛上,考古工作者有一项有趣的发现。一个美国考古队在阿伊亚.依里尼海角的一座古城里考察了一座庙宇。这座古城肯定一度很繁荣,因为它曾享有高度的文明,房子一般有3层楼高,用石块修建。里面房间很大,墙壁装饰华丽。城里甚至还敷设了排水系统,因为在狭窄的街道底下发现了许许多多陶土制作的排水管道。
    考古工作者考察的这座庙宇从公元前15世纪直到罗马时代一直是祭祀祈祷的场所。在庙中最神圣的一间殿堂里发现了15尊陶雕像的碎片。每一尊雕像代表一位女神,而且一度上过色。其中有一尊雕像,她的躯体是在公元前15世纪的历史文物中发现的,而她那身异处的脑袋却碰巧是在公元前5世纪的文物中找到的。她的脑袋一定是在古希腊罗马时代就为人所发现,并受到精心的保护。却使在当时,它也属历史悠久的珍奇之物。考古工作者把这些碎片重新拼装起来后,惊奇地发现那位女神原来是一位相貌十分摩登的女郎。她身高3英尺,双手叉腰。身穿一条拖地长裙,尽管上了年纪,但体态确实优美。不过,考古工作者至今未能确定这位女神的身份。
 

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  自学导读
New words and expressions】 生词和短语
★goddess(tile)
n.   女神
★archaeologist
n.   考古学家
★Aegean
adj. 爱玲海的
★explore
v.   考察,勘探
The archaeologists are exploring the cave.
exploration n.
explorer n. 探险家
★promontory
n.   海角
★prosperous
adj. (经济上)繁荣的,昌盛的
our finance is prosperous
thriving 昌盛的,兴旺的
booming  蓬勃的,景气的
flourishing  繁茂的,健康的
★civilization
n.   文明
high level of civilization
高度文明
civilize6 v.
★storey
n.   楼层
★drainage
n.   排水
★worship
n.   祟拜
respect;admire
Who do you worship in the world?
warship7 n. 军舰战船
★sacred
adj. 宗教的,神圣的
holy adj. 神圣的,圣洁的
solemn adj. 庄严的,庄重的
sacred music 圣乐
sacred promise 神圣的诺言
★fragment
n.   碎片
★remains
n.   遗物,遗迹,废墟
★classical
adj. (希腊和罗马)古化的
classical music 古典音乐
classical education  人文科学教育
classic adj. 第一流的
This is the classic example of love at the first sight.
classic n. 杰作,经典之作
★reconstruct
v.   修复
re-重新,再次
construct 构造,建造,组织
build house 造建造物
put up a tent
construct a sentence
construct a broken statuary
erect8: build high buildings
erect monument 建造纪念碑
erect clock tower 建造钟楼
setup; establish; found 建立
setup students' union
establish a school/rule
found a country
construction n.
constructive9 adj. 有教育意义的
constructor n.
★rest
v.   倚放,放置
★hip
n.   屁股,臀部
hip n. [口]在服用兴奋剂、宗教信仰方面赶时髦的人;消息灵通人士;adj.通晓的,见闻广的
Mary is a real hip.
The guy isn't a hip.
joined at the hip  表示交情极厚的
Eg.: These two are joined at the hip.
shoot from the hip 信口开河
Eg.:Sorry,I said that I shouldn't have shot from the hip.
★full-length
adj. (裙衣)拖地长的
a full-length dress 拽地长裙
★graceful
adj. 优雅的
a graceful lady
elegant(behavier)
★identity
n.   身份


课文讲解】

an interesting discovery : 强调discovery,体现发现这个动作被考古学家做出
主动语态难以突出重点 archaeologists made an interesting discovery
英文表达:事件、结果、影响、效果为主语、强调对客观事实的陈述
An American team explored a temple which....
which引导定语从句,修饰限定temple
which stands in an ancient city on...
which = that; stand = lie,situate(vt.),locate(vt.)
An American team explored a temple which is located/situated in...
An American team explored a temple which lies in
stand 表示高高坐落于,矗立于
She stands 1.75m./A great tree stands on the mount.
The city at one time must have been prosperous,for it...
for 引导原因状语从句,对主句的附加说明和解释,提供更多的信息
because 引导原因状语从句,重点突出原因
Eg.:The day broke for the birds were singing.
at one time 表达曾经,一度;过去时态的标志,once
must have been 对过去事实肯定的推测
enjoyed a high level of civilization 享有高度文明
with...
a young man with broad shoulders/an old lady with balck hair
beautifully decorated 过去分词做定语
a beautifully dressed lady 衣着漂亮的女士/a deserted10 carpark
废弃的停车场    a white painted door 被刷成白色的门
现在分词做定语,被修饰词与修饰词之间为逻辑主动关系
a boy climbing the tree/the students reading in the room
The city was even equipped with...for ...were found
be equipped with 配备,装备
the car was equipped with air conditioning.
for 引导原因状语从句
beneath the narrow streets /under the narrow streets
prep. beneath=under 正下方
He is standing11 under/beneath the umbrella
under在进行中:under control 控制之中;under discussion讨论之中
under repairs修理之中
below 在下方,强调在斜下方
She is sitting below the window
The temple which....
be used as/be used to be把……用作为
The box was used as a desk in the small village school.
The wooden box was used as a bookcase
The wooden box is used to contain books
in the most sacred room of...
Each of these represented...been painted.
represent vt. 代表
I represent all the classmates.
The body of one statue was found...
dating 现在分词,修饰remains
the customs dating from 1990
The tradit
ion dates from the time when his grandfather was young .
The castle dates from the 14th century.
The castle dates back to the 14th century.
Its missing head happened to be among remains of...
happen to 强调事情的偶然发生
I happen to have driven that kind of car.
He happened to find the ticket in his pocket.
句式:It happens that...
It happened that I met her on my way to work.
I happened to meet her on my way work.
happen on 巧遇,偶然
I happened on this old picture in the back of the drawer.
Guess,who I happened on while I was in London last month?
reconstruct: put together,piece together,restore
amazed;very much surprised
surprised;astonished;amazed;astounded12感到惊讶,语气递增
astonished;much surprised;amazed; very much surprised 惊奇
astounded 非常惊讶、惊奇、惊愕
to find.../to discover.../to realize...
I'm not surprised to see you here
turn out 表示结果;prove
turn out(to be)+ n./adj.
The concert turned out to be a failure.
Our party turned out (to be)a suxxess.
It turned out that....
that 从句,或其他名词从句;it作形式主语
It turned out that the diamonds had been in the bank all the time.
It turned out that his statement was false.
as it turns out
Eg.: As it turned out,there was no need to worry.
Eg.: As it turned out,the report was mistaken.
She stood three feet high and her hands rested on her hips.
rest on = depend on,lean on
His hand rested lightly on my shoulder
which swept the ground 近一步说明拖地的,拽地的
despite=in spite of + n./动名词
It is still a problem for the archaeologists up to now.
so far,up to now 完成时的标志
discover her identity; find out her identity


Special difficulties】
happen(to),it happened that...


Exercise练习
Suppose that each of the following verbs were used to describe what happened yesterday.  What would be their correct form?
Yesterday I… leave, lay, lie, choose, raise, rise, beat, bite, catch, hear, sing, think, show, run, lose, begin, fall, feel.


Special difficulties难点
Words often misused13 and confused
A  Happen. Study these examples:
Its missing head Happened to be among remains of the fifth century B. C. (By chance) (11. 12-13)
I happened to find the ticket in my pocket. (By chance. )
It happened that I found the ticket in my pocket. (By chance. )
I couldn't find out what had happened. (What had taken place. )
B  Storey and Story. Study these examples:
Houses-often three storeys high-were built of stone. (11. 5-6)
C  Worship and Warship. Study these examples:
The temple… was used as a place of worship(11. 9-10)
The Arethusa used to be a warship


  Exercises练习
A  Complete the following making a sentence out of each:
1  She happened ______ .
2  It happened ______ .
3  Tell me what ______ .
4  If you happen ______ .
B  Use the words storey, story, worship, and warship in sentences of your own.
Multiple choice questions多项选择题
Choose the correct answers to the following questions.
Comprehension理解
1  The interesting discovery made by the archaeologists was ______ .
a.that the city had once been prosperous
b. that the temple had been used as a place of worship
c. they found the fifteen statues had been painted
d. that they were not the first to have found the head of the goddess
2  The city‘enjoyed a high level of civilization’. This is confirmed by the fact that ______ .
a. some of the houses were built only one storey high
b. a great number of fragments were found in the temple
c. the city had been built on clay
d. advanced techniques had been employed in building and decorating
3  In seeking to establish the identity of the reconstructed statue, the archaeologists ______ .
a. tried to determine which goddess it represented
b. pieced together the fragments they found
c. discovered that it was more modern than any of the other statues
d. wondered whether it belonged to the fifth or the fifteenth century
Structure结构
4  The city had once known ______ . (11. 4-5)
a.a prosperity
b.the prosperous
c.the prosperity
d.prosperity
5  The temple ______ used as a place of worship since Roman times. (11. 9-10)
a. was
b. has not been
c. had been
d. was not
6  They found ______ that the goddess turned out to be…(11. 14-15)
a. surprisingly
b. with surprise
c. to their surprise
d. a surprise
7  ______ being very old,  she was very graceful. (11. 16-17)
a. Although
b. In spite of
c. Even
d. Even though
8  So far, the archaeologists ______ to discover her identity. (1. 17)
a. have been impossible
b. have not been able
c. cannot have been
d. could not
Vocabulary词汇
9  In the most ______ room of the temple…(1. 10)
a.holy
b.religious
c.frightening
d.colourful
10  The head was carefully preserved. It was ______ . (1. 13)
a.well done
b.conserved15
c.maintained
d.in good condition
11  The goddess ______ to be a very modern-looking woman. (1. 15)
a.appeared
b.proved
c.resolved
d.changed
12  But, ______ the archaeologists have been unable…(1. 17)
a. beforehand
b. until now
c. for a long time
d.at this distance


  【Multiple choice questions】
(1)...d...
'Its missing head happened to be among remains of the fifth century B.C.'
(2)...d...
this is comfirmed by the fact that 引导同位语从句,补充说明fact的内容
be employed in :被应用在...方面
(3)...a...
in doing sth.:在...方面
(4)...
know:知道,认识;经历过,曾经有过(=experience)
文学用语,比experience更加正式
(5)...b...
since:自从
主干的时态为现在完成时
(6)...c...
to one's surprise:使某人感到惊讶的是
(在句中可做独立的状语,句子的主语不必是某个人)
with surprise: 惊讶地
(首先,必须与行为动词连用,其次,句子的主语必须是某个人)
To my great disappointment the train had already left
With satisfaction/delight/dismay
He smoked his last cigarette with satisfaction.
He went home with dismay.
To our dismay the party proved to be a failure.
Structure
(7)...b...
despite = in spite of (可以和名词、代词、动名词搭配)
(8)...b...
so far——现在完成时的标志
如果用possible/impossible,要采用形势主语it
...it has been impossible for the archaeologists to discover her identity.
Vocabulary
(9)...a...
原文中用到sacred(宗教的,神圣的)
religious:宗教的
frightening:令人害怕的
colourful: 丰富多彩的
(10)...d...
state
well done 侧重强调做得好
conserve14=keep from being wasted,damaged,lost,destroyed
“不用尽或耗尽某物,保留”
conserve your energy you needed.
we must conserve our forest
maintain:通过修缮保养,不使...破损(强调动作的过程)“维修,保养”
(11)...b...
turn out=prove
(12)...
so far=>until now,up till now
befroehand :(a)事先=in advance
at this distance (of/in time):时隔已久
I can hardly remember him at this distance of time


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 promontory dRPxo     
n.海角;岬
参考例句:
  • Genius is a promontory jutting out of the infinite.天才是茫茫大地突出的岬角。
  • On the map that promontory looks like a nose,naughtily turned up.从地图上面,那个海角就像一只调皮地翘起来的鼻子。
2 hip 1dOxX     
n.臀部,髋;屋脊
参考例句:
  • The thigh bone is connected to the hip bone.股骨连着髋骨。
  • The new coats blouse gracefully above the hip line.新外套在臀围线上优美地打着褶皱。
3 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,残留物;遗体,遗迹
参考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
4 hips f8c80f9a170ee6ab52ed1e87054f32d4     
abbr.high impact polystyrene 高冲击强度聚苯乙烯,耐冲性聚苯乙烯n.臀部( hip的名词复数 );[建筑学]屋脊;臀围(尺寸);臀部…的
参考例句:
  • She stood with her hands on her hips. 她双手叉腰站着。
  • They wiggled their hips to the sound of pop music. 他们随着流行音乐的声音摇晃着臀部。 来自《简明英汉词典》
5 graceful deHza     
adj.优美的,优雅的;得体的
参考例句:
  • His movements on the parallel bars were very graceful.他的双杠动作可帅了!
  • The ballet dancer is so graceful.芭蕾舞演员的姿态是如此的优美。
6 civilize 1VcyC     
vt.使文明,使开化 (=civilise)
参考例句:
  • We must civilize away the boy's bad habit.我们必须教育这孩子使其改掉恶习。
  • Those facilities are intended to civilize people.那些设施的目的在于教化民众。
7 warship OMtzl     
n.军舰,战舰
参考例句:
  • He is serving on a warship in the Pacific.他在太平洋海域的一艘军舰上服役。
  • The warship was making towards the pier.军舰正驶向码头。
8 erect 4iLzm     
n./v.树立,建立,使竖立;adj.直立的,垂直的
参考例句:
  • She held her head erect and her back straight.她昂着头,把背挺得笔直。
  • Soldiers are trained to stand erect.士兵们训练站得笔直。
9 constructive AZDyr     
adj.建设的,建设性的
参考例句:
  • We welcome constructive criticism.我们乐意接受有建设性的批评。
  • He is beginning to deal with his anger in a constructive way.他开始用建设性的方法处理自己的怒气。
10 deserted GukzoL     
adj.荒芜的,荒废的,无人的,被遗弃的
参考例句:
  • The deserted village was filled with a deathly silence.这个荒废的村庄死一般的寂静。
  • The enemy chieftain was opposed and deserted by his followers.敌人头目众叛亲离。
11 standing 2hCzgo     
n.持续,地位;adj.永久的,不动的,直立的,不流动的
参考例句:
  • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
  • They're standing out against any change in the law.他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
12 astounded 7541fb163e816944b5753491cad6f61a     
v.使震惊(astound的过去式和过去分词);愕然;愕;惊讶
参考例句:
  • His arrogance astounded her. 他的傲慢使她震惊。
  • How can you say that? I'm absolutely astounded. 你怎么能说出那种话?我感到大为震惊。
13 misused 8eaf65262a752e371adfb992201c1caf     
v.使用…不当( misuse的过去式和过去分词 );把…派作不正当的用途;虐待;滥用
参考例句:
  • He misused his dog shamefully. 他可耻地虐待自己的狗。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He had grossly misused his power. 他严重滥用职权。 来自《简明英汉词典》
14 conserve vYRyP     
vt.保存,保护,节约,节省,守恒,不灭
参考例句:
  • He writes on both sides of the sheet to conserve paper.他在纸张的两面都写字以节省用纸。
  • Conserve your energy,you'll need it!保存你的精力,你会用得着的!
15 conserved d1dc02a3bfada72e10ece79fe3aa19af     
v.保护,保藏,保存( conserve的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • He conserved his energy for the game. 他为比赛而养精蓄锐。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Under these conditions, the total mechanical energy remains constant, or is conserved. 在这种条件下,总机械能保持不变或机械能保存。 来自辞典例句
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