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新概念英语第三册lesson 14 A noble gangster

时间:2005-04-24 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:yaopf   字体: [ ]
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Lesson 14: A noble gangster1
             贵族歹徒
         
Listen to the tape then answer the question below.
听录音,然后回答以下问题。
How did Haywood make in times of peace?

    There was a time when the owners of shops and businesses in Chicago had to pay large sums of money to gangsters2 in return for 'protection.' If the money was not paid promptly3, the gangsters would quickly put a man out of business by destroying his shop. Obtaining 'protection money' is not a modern crime. As long ago as the fourteenth century, an Englishman, Sir John Hawkwood, made the remarkable4 discovery that people would rather pay large sums of money than have their life work destroyed by gangsters.
    Six hundred years ago, Sir Johan Hawkwood arrived in Italy with a band of soldiers and settled near Florence. He soon made a name for himself and came to be known to the Italians as Giovanni Acuto. Whenever the Italian city-states were at war with each other, Hawkwood used to hire his soldiers to princes who were willing to pay the high price he demanded. In times of peace, when business was bad, Hawkwood and his men would march into a city-state and, after burning down a few farms, would offer to go away protection money was paid to them. Hawkwood made large sums of money in this way. In spite of this, the Italians regarded him as a sort of hero. When he died at the age of eighty, the Florentines gave him a state funeral and had a pictured with as dedicated5 to the memory of 'the most valiant6 soldier and most notable leader, Signor Giovanni Haukodue.'

New words and expressions 生词和短语

     gangster
n.   歹徒,强盗

     Chicago
n.   芝加哥(美国城市)

     protection
n.   保护

     promptly
adv. 准时地

     destroy
v.   毁掉;消灭

     remarkable
adj. 不寻常的

     band
n.   帮,团伙

     Florence
n.   佛罗伦萨(意大利城市)

     city-state
n.   (古代)城邦

     hire
v.   租出,雇给

     prince
n.   君主,诸候

     Florentine
n.   佛罗伦萨人

     funeral
n.   葬礼

     dedicate
v.   奉献,题献给

     memory
n.   纪念

     valiant
adj. 英勇的

参考译文

    曾经有一个时期,芝加哥的店主和商行的老板们不得不拿出大笔的钱给歹徒以换取"保护"。如果交款不及时,歹徒们就会很快捣毁他的商店,让他破产.榨取"保护金"并不是一种现代的罪恶行径.早在14世纪,英国人约翰.霍克伍德就有过非凡的发现:"人们情愿拿出大笔的钱,也不愿毕生的心血毁于歹徒之手.
    600年前,约翰.霍克伍德爵士带着一队士兵来到意大利,在佛罗伦萨附近驻扎下来,很快就出了名.意大利人叫他乔凡尼.阿库托.每次意大利各城邦之间打伏,霍克伍德把他的士兵雇佣给愿给他出高价的君主。和平时期,当生意萧条时,霍克伍德便带领士兵进入某个城邦,纵火烧毁一两个农场,然后提出,如向他们缴纳保护金,他们便主动撤离。霍克伍德用这种方法挣了大笔钱.尽管如此,意大利人还是把他视作某种英雄。他80岁那年死去时,佛罗伦萨人为他举行了国葬,并为他画像以纪念这位"骁勇无比的战士、杰出的领袖乔凡尼.阿库托先生."

新概念英语正版图书购买

 

  自学导读
Notes on the text课文注释

1  in return for…,作“作为……的报答”讲。
2  out of business, 倒闭,破产。
3  as long ago as, 作“追溯到”、“早在”讲。注意要与as long as分开,后面这个短语作“只要”或“长达……之久”讲。
4  people would rather pay large sums of money than have their life work destroyed by gangsters,
人们情愿支付一大笔钱,也不愿自己毕生的心血毁于歹徒之手。
5  made a name for himself, 出名了。
6  be at war with…, 与……处于战争状态。
7  in times of peace, 在和平时期。
8  a sort of hero, 某种英雄。sort of作“可以说是一种”讲。


  Multiple choice questions多项选择题
Choose the correct answers to the following questions.
Comprehension 理解
1  What‘protection’ did Chicago gangsters give to those who paid them?
a.They saved those people's businesses from destruction.
b.They left those people's business premises7 unharmed.
c.They protected those people against criminals like Sir John Hawkwood.
d.They did not take those people's lives.
2  Sir John Hawkwood's Italian name, ‘Giovanni Acuto’, was one which ______ .
a.he gave himself in order to become better known to the Italians
b.he earned through his sharp practice of selling his‘protection’
c.he needed in order to hire his soldiers to Italian princes
d.was given him in recognition of his services to the Italian states
3  The Italians regarded Hawkwood as a sort of hero ______ .
a.in that they could not help admiring his boldness and bravery
b.as he helped the citizens in peacetime when business was bad for them
c.despite the protection money he offered to those whose farms he burnt
d.for he lived so long and was given a state funeral by the Florentines
Structure结构
4  Obtaining‘protection money’is a crime which ______ practised for a long time. (1.5)
a.has been
b.is
c.was
d.is being
5  People prefer paying large sums of money ______ their life work destroyed by gangsters. (11.7-8)
a.than have
b.to have
c.to having
d.than they have
6  Princes used to hire ______ Hawkwood. (11.11-12)
a.his soldiers from
b.soldiers from
c.soldiers of
d.some soldiers of
7  They would refuse to go away ______ protection money was paid to them. (11.13-14)
a.unless
b.provided that
c.except that
d.without
8  ______ at the age of eighty, the Florentines gave him…(11.15-16)
a.On dying
b.Having died
c.On his death
d.Dead
Vocabulary词汇
9  Six hundred years have ______ since Sir John Hawkwood arrived in…(11.9-10)
a.past
b.passed
c.been
d.departed
10  ----princes who were ______ to pay the high price he demanded. (11.11-12)
a.agreeable
b.accepting
c.desirable
d.prepared
11  Hawkwood made large sums of money ______ . (1.14)
a.by the way
b.with such manners
c.on this road
d.like this
12  ‘the most ______ soldier and most notable leader’…(11.16-17)
a.valuable
b.worthy8
c.brave
d.hardy9


  New words and expressions】 生词和短语
★gangster
n.   歹徒,强盗
a band of gangsters 一伙强盗
robber 抢劫犯,抢劫者;bandit强盗,土匪
brigand10 强盗,土匪,盗贼,草寇;书面用语
hooligan 流氓,不良分子
hoodlum 罪犯,恶汉;口语
rascal11 淘气,捣蛋鬼;口语
★Chicago
n.   芝加哥(美国城市)
★protection
n.   保护
protection money 保护费
protect v.: protect from
We must protect our eyes from the sunshine.
protective adj. 保护的
protector n. 保护者
protege n. 被保护者
★promptly
adv. 准时地
I give him a ring and he call me back promptly
He was so sleepy that he went to sleep promptly.
on time 准时/in time 及时
punctually adv. 守时地
★destroy
v.   毁掉;消灭
destroy n. 强盗毁灭,消灭,完全的摧毁
The earthquake destroyed the city./You destroyed his dream.
damage n. v.强调受损程度不很严重,可以被修复
The big clock was damaged.
break v.n. 强调弄坏,弄断
Two of the strings12 were broken.
spoil v. 强调把事情搅和了
spoil the party; spoil the holiday
★remarkable
adj. 不寻常的
remarkable adj.: unusual; uncommon13; extraordinary
a remarkable event 不同寻常的事件;an extraordinary event
outstanding adj.突出的,杰出的,卓越的
Our headmaster is an outstanding youth.
distinguished14 adj. 杰出的,卓越的,不同非凡的
eminent15 adj. 显赫的,杰出的,有名的,优良的
a distinguished physicist16; an eminent surgeon; an eminent judge
a distinguished layer
well-known adj. 强调众所周知的
famous adj. 因卓越的贡献和成绩而流芳百世的
She is well-known in the musical world/This is well-known fact.
He is a famous moviestar./ Luxun is famous for his articles.
notorious adj. 臭明昭著的,臭名远扬的;be famous for bad things
Hitler is notorious.
infamous17 adj. 身名狼藉的
renowned18 adj. 某人或某事以其独特的品质、个性而闻名
Hangzhou is renowned for...
★hand
n.   帮,团伙
a band of robbers 一伙强盗
mob n. 表示贬义色彩的团伙、帮派;a mob of hooligans 一伙流氓
gang n. 一伙;a gang of thieves
nest n. 窝;a nest of bandits
pack n. 团伙、帮派;a pack of hoodlums
★Florence
n.   佛罗伦萨(意大利城市)
★city-state
n.   (古代)城邦
★hire
v.   租出,雇给
hire;rent;let;employ
hire out; rent out 租给
Does this firm hire out cars?
rent out 租给,雇给;主要强调出租房屋
He rent out his house to a tourist.
let 出租房屋;let his house/Please let your house to me.
hire from; rent hrom 租进来
He hired a car from us/ I rent a room from Mrs.Johnson.
hire 指短期雇佣体力劳动者
employ 指长期雇佣或聘用脑力劳动者
We employed her as our advisor19.
The factory employed 500 workers.
He hired two helpers
★prince
n.   君主,诸候
★Florentine
n.   佛罗伦萨人
★funeral
n.   葬礼
★dedicate
v.   奉献,题献给
dedicate to
He dedicated his first book to his mother
dedicate 献身,奉献;比devote更为正式而庄重
I devote my time to helping20 my students.
He dedicates his life to his motherland.
He dedicated his life to science.
★memory
n.   纪念
You have a  good memory
in memory of/to the memory of
If my memory serves me well,you're Tom.
★valiant
adj. 英勇的
brave adj. 勇敢的
The boy is brave.
During war,soldiers are valiant.
fearless adj. 大无畏的,无所畏惧的
We are fearless in time of danger.
courageous21 adj. 有胆量的,有勇气的


  【课文讲解】
pay large sums of money to sb. 向某人付大笔大笔的费用
in return for 目的是为了换取----作为对……的回报
Eg.: He gave me some books in return for my help.
when 引导状语从句修饰time
There was a time when mini skirt was in fashion.
promptly: immediately
put a man out of business: 使某人失业
put sb./sth.out of...使某人失去……
Eg.: You are putting me out of patience.
Eg.: You have already put everything out of order.
put it out of your mind 忘记这件事情吧
by destroying his shop 通过……手段
Eg.: You are putting me out of patience by disturbing me.
obtaining...
obtaining: getting
as long ago as 追溯回到; dating back to
Eg.: I knew Jane as long ago as the year 1980.
John Hawkwood's discovery was quite remarkable
make the remarkable discovery 做出不同寻常的发现
would rather ...than...宁愿而不
Eg.: He would rather die than surrender.
Eg.: I would rather play tennis than swim.
would prefer to do ... than do...
would prefer doing ... to doing...
Eg.: He would prefer to die than surrender.
Eg.: He would prefer dying to surrendering.
would rather: sooner+ that 宾语从句(过去式)
Eg.  : I would rather that you were not here.
Eg.: I would rather that I didn't see you.
Eg.: He would rather that he didn't hear the news.
life work 毕生的事业
Eg.: I want to have the tree cut down.
Six hundred years ago...
settled near Florence 定居在 Florence 附近
made a name for himself: become famous
Eg.: They soon made quite a name for themselves as pop singers.
come to/get to 渐渐的
come to be known 渐渐被人所熟知
Eg.: I come to be known to my students.
Eg.: I got to know him
whenever 无论什么时候
at war 交战; at war with 于……交战
hire 表示出租
who 指代prince
he demanded: Hawkwood demanded
in time of peace 在和平期间
march into 大踏步行军
burn down 烧毁/burn up 烧光/burn out 烧空
would offer to go away: would promise to go away
The house was burned out only...
in spite of this 尽管如此
People in different countries have different opinions.
Eg.: the Italians regarded him as a sort of hero.
give sb.a state funeral 给某人举行国葬
have sth.done
Signor 意大利语,先生
which 指代picture
be dedicated to the memory of sb.
the most valiant 比较级的最高级形式


Special difficulties】
would rather,would sooner:
would rather do than do
would rather that (that宾语从句中要出现动词的过去时)
(1)...go...
(2)...left... 省略了that
(3)...did not speak...
(4)...not speak...  否定形式结构:"宁愿不做..."would rather not do
(5)...settled...
(6)...didn't tell...


  【Multiple choice questions】
(1)...b...
premises: 房产
unharmed替代原文的destroy
(2)...b...
他获取自己的名字是依据自己的所作所为
(3)...a...
in that=because "因为",表示一种原因
(4)...a...
段时间——for a long time(现在完成式)
(5)...c...
prefer doing + to + 动名词
(6)...b...
hire: 从某人租得某物
(7)...a...
if not: 如果不=unless
provided---条件是...
(8)...c...
介词on和名词death相搭配,表示去世的状态
介词on和动名词搭配,表示一个动作。"一...就..."
on seeing him,I ran away.
(9)...b...
动词的过去分词
(10)..d...
prepared: 心甘情愿的(=willing)
be willing to do,be prepared to do
agreeable: 宜人的,惬意的
desirable: 吸引人的(=attractive)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 gangster FfDzH     
n.匪徒,歹徒,暴徒
参考例句:
  • The gangster's friends bought off the police witness.那匪徒的朋友买通了警察方面的证人。
  • He is obviously a gangster,but he pretends to be a saint.分明是强盗,却要装圣贤。
2 gangsters ba17561e907047df78d78510bfbc2b09     
匪徒,歹徒( gangster的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The gangsters offered him a sum equivalent to a whole year's earnings. 歹徒提出要给他一笔相当于他一年收入的钱。
  • One of the gangsters was caught by the police. 歹徒之一被警察逮捕。
3 promptly LRMxm     
adv.及时地,敏捷地
参考例句:
  • He paid the money back promptly.他立即还了钱。
  • She promptly seized the opportunity his absence gave her.她立即抓住了因他不在场给她创造的机会。
4 remarkable 8Vbx6     
adj.显著的,异常的,非凡的,值得注意的
参考例句:
  • She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.她在写作技巧方面有了长足进步。
  • These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.这些汽车因发动机没有噪音而不同凡响。
5 dedicated duHzy2     
adj.一心一意的;献身的;热诚的
参考例句:
  • He dedicated his life to the cause of education.他献身于教育事业。
  • His whole energies are dedicated to improve the design.他的全部精力都放在改进这项设计上了。
6 valiant YKczP     
adj.勇敢的,英勇的;n.勇士,勇敢的人
参考例句:
  • He had the fame of being very valiant.他的勇敢是出名的。
  • Despite valiant efforts by the finance minister,inflation rose to 36%.尽管财政部部长采取了一系列果决措施,通货膨胀率还是涨到了36%。
7 premises 6l1zWN     
n.建筑物,房屋
参考例句:
  • According to the rules,no alcohol can be consumed on the premises.按照规定,场内不准饮酒。
  • All repairs are done on the premises and not put out.全部修缮都在家里进行,不用送到外面去做。
8 worthy vftwB     
adj.(of)值得的,配得上的;有价值的
参考例句:
  • I did not esteem him to be worthy of trust.我认为他不值得信赖。
  • There occurred nothing that was worthy to be mentioned.没有值得一提的事发生。
9 hardy EenxM     
adj.勇敢的,果断的,吃苦的;耐寒的
参考例句:
  • The kind of plant is a hardy annual.这种植物是耐寒的一年生植物。
  • He is a hardy person.他是一个能吃苦耐劳的人。
10 brigand cxdz6N     
n.土匪,强盗
参考例句:
  • This wallace is a brigand,nothing more.华莱士只不过是个土匪。
  • How would you deal with this brigand?你要如何对付这个土匪?
11 rascal mAIzd     
n.流氓;不诚实的人
参考例句:
  • If he had done otherwise,I should have thought him a rascal.如果他不这样做,我就认为他是个恶棍。
  • The rascal was frightened into holding his tongue.这坏蛋吓得不敢往下说了。
12 strings nh0zBe     
n.弦
参考例句:
  • He sat on the bed,idly plucking the strings of his guitar.他坐在床上,随意地拨着吉他的弦。
  • She swept her fingers over the strings of the harp.她用手指划过竖琴的琴弦。
13 uncommon AlPwO     
adj.罕见的,非凡的,不平常的
参考例句:
  • Such attitudes were not at all uncommon thirty years ago.这些看法在30年前很常见。
  • Phil has uncommon intelligence.菲尔智力超群。
14 distinguished wu9z3v     
adj.卓越的,杰出的,著名的
参考例句:
  • Elephants are distinguished from other animals by their long noses.大象以其长长的鼻子显示出与其他动物的不同。
  • A banquet was given in honor of the distinguished guests.宴会是为了向贵宾们致敬而举行的。
15 eminent dpRxn     
adj.显赫的,杰出的,有名的,优良的
参考例句:
  • We are expecting the arrival of an eminent scientist.我们正期待一位著名科学家的来访。
  • He is an eminent citizen of China.他是一个杰出的中国公民。
16 physicist oNqx4     
n.物理学家,研究物理学的人
参考例句:
  • He is a physicist of the first rank.他是一流的物理学家。
  • The successful physicist never puts on airs.这位卓有成就的物理学家从不摆架子。
17 infamous K7ax3     
adj.声名狼藉的,臭名昭著的,邪恶的
参考例句:
  • He was infamous for his anti-feminist attitudes.他因反对女性主义而声名狼藉。
  • I was shocked by her infamous behaviour.她的无耻行径令我震惊。
18 renowned okSzVe     
adj.著名的,有名望的,声誉鹊起的
参考例句:
  • He is one of the world's renowned writers.他是世界上知名的作家之一。
  • She is renowned for her advocacy of human rights.她以提倡人权而闻名。
19 advisor JKByk     
n.顾问,指导老师,劝告者
参考例句:
  • They employed me as an advisor.他们聘请我当顾问。
  • The professor is engaged as a technical advisor.这位教授被聘请为技术顾问。
20 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
21 courageous HzSx7     
adj.勇敢的,有胆量的
参考例句:
  • We all honour courageous people.我们都尊重勇敢的人。
  • He was roused to action by courageous words.豪言壮语促使他奋起行动。
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