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SSS 2008-11-12

时间:2010-05-15 06:16来源:互联网 提供网友:木渐浅。   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

This is Scientific American's 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin. This will just take a minute.

 

They say that the best offense1 is a good defense2. And the best defense might be the most offensive. Take, for example, the barfing caterpillars4 of the beet5 armyworm moth6. When threatened by marauding fire ants, these caterpillars regurgitate on their foes7, rendering8 them less able to put up a fight. But what’s so debilitating9 about a little caterpillar3 puke? Scientists used to think that bugs10 that protect themselves by projectile11 vomiting12 were taking advantage of chemicals they borrowed from the plants they eat—essentially spitting plant toxins13 at their enemies. But the beet armyworm will eat almost anything, from cauliflower to corn, and most of those plants don’t produce anything that can be weaponized.

Instead, scientists have found that these caterpillars upchuck a fluid that’s chock full of surfactants: chemicals that help make liquids easier to spread. The enhanced spreadability allows the spit-up to ooze14 over the surface of an unsuspecting ant, who then has to stop to clean the stuff off while the caterpillar makes his escape. The results were published by the Royal Society on November 5th. Some pesticides15 rely on surfactants to protect crops. So biotech companies might look to the caterpillar when they need some fresh ideas to throw up on the board.

 

Thanks for the minute for Scientific American's 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

 


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 offense HIvxd     
n.犯规,违法行为;冒犯,得罪
参考例句:
  • I hope you will not take any offense at my words. 对我讲的话请别见怪。
  • His words gave great offense to everybody present.他的发言冲犯了在场的所有人。
2 defense AxbxB     
n.防御,保卫;[pl.]防务工事;辩护,答辩
参考例句:
  • The accused has the right to defense.被告人有权获得辩护。
  • The war has impacted the area with military and defense workers.战争使那个地区挤满了军队和防御工程人员。
3 caterpillar ir5zf     
n.毛虫,蝴蝶的幼虫
参考例句:
  • A butterfly is produced by metamorphosis from a caterpillar.蝴蝶是由毛虫脱胎变成的。
  • A caterpillar must pass through the cocoon stage to become a butterfly.毛毛虫必须经过茧的阶段才能变成蝴蝶。
4 caterpillars 7673bc2d84c4c7cba4a0eaec866310f4     
n.毛虫( caterpillar的名词复数 );履带
参考例句:
  • Caterpillars eat the young leaves of this plant. 毛毛虫吃这种植物的嫩叶。
  • Caterpillars change into butterflies or moths. 毛虫能变成蝴蝶或蛾子。 来自辞典例句
5 beet 9uXzV     
n.甜菜;甜菜根
参考例句:
  • He farmed his pickers to work in the beet fields. 他出租他的摘棉工去甜菜地里干活。
  • The sugar beet is an entirely different kind of plant.糖用甜菜是一种完全不同的作物。
6 moth a10y1     
n.蛾,蛀虫
参考例句:
  • A moth was fluttering round the lamp.有一只蛾子扑打着翅膀绕着灯飞。
  • The sweater is moth-eaten.毛衣让蛀虫咬坏了。
7 foes 4bc278ea3ab43d15b718ac742dc96914     
敌人,仇敌( foe的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • They steadily pushed their foes before them. 他们不停地追击敌人。
  • She had fought many battles, vanquished many foes. 她身经百战,挫败过很多对手。
8 rendering oV5xD     
n.表现,描写
参考例句:
  • She gave a splendid rendering of Beethoven's piano sonata.她精彩地演奏了贝多芬的钢琴奏鸣曲。
  • His narrative is a super rendering of dialect speech and idiom.他的叙述是方言和土语最成功的运用。
9 debilitating RvIzXw     
a.使衰弱的
参考例句:
  • The debilitating disease made him too weak to work. 这个令他衰弱的病,使他弱到没有办法工作。
  • You may soon leave one debilitating condition or relationship forever. 你即将永远地和这段霉运说拜拜了。
10 bugs e3255bae220613022d67e26d2e4fa689     
adj.疯狂的,发疯的n.窃听器( bug的名词复数 );病菌;虫子;[计算机](制作软件程序所产生的意料不到的)错误
参考例句:
  • All programs have bugs and need endless refinement. 所有的程序都有漏洞,都需要不断改进。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The sacks of rice were swarming with bugs. 一袋袋的米里长满了虫子。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 projectile XRlxv     
n.投射物,发射体;adj.向前开进的;推进的;抛掷的
参考例句:
  • The vertical and horizontal motions of a projectile can be treated independently.抛射体的竖直方向和水平方向的运动能够分开来处理。
  • Have you altered the plans of the projectile as the telegram suggests?你已经按照电报的要求修改炮弹图样了吗?
12 vomiting 7ed7266d85c55ba00ffa41473cf6744f     
参考例句:
  • Symptoms include diarrhoea and vomiting. 症状有腹泻和呕吐。
  • Especially when I feel seasick, I can't stand watching someone else vomiting." 尤其晕船的时候,看不得人家呕。”
13 toxins 18c3f40d432ba8dc33bad8fb82873ea8     
n.毒素( toxin的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The seas have been used as a receptacle for a range of industrial toxins. 海洋成了各种有毒工业废料的大容器。
  • Most toxins are naturally excreted from the body. 大部分毒素被自然排出体外。 来自《简明英汉词典》
14 ooze 7v2y3     
n.软泥,渗出物;vi.渗出,泄漏;vt.慢慢渗出,流露
参考例句:
  • Soon layer of oceanic ooze began to accumulate above the old hard layer.不久后海洋软泥层开始在老的硬地层上堆积。
  • Drip or ooze systems are common for pot watering.滴灌和渗灌系统一般也用于盆栽灌水。
15 pesticides abb0488ed6905584ea91347395a890e8     
n.杀虫剂( pesticide的名词复数 );除害药物
参考例句:
  • vegetables grown without the use of pesticides 未用杀虫剂种植的蔬菜
  • There is a lot of concern over the amount of herbicides and pesticides used in farming. 人们对农业上灭草剂和杀虫剂的用量非常担忧。 来自《简明英汉词典》
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TAG标签:   SSS  armyworm
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