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SSS 2010-12-17

时间:2011-01-06 06:45来源:互联网 提供网友:tianshun   字体: [ ]
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This is Scientific American's 60-Second Science. I'm Cynthia Graber. This will just take a minute.

They call it culturomics: the obvious play on the word "genomics" looks at trends in human thought and culture. But scientists say culturomics has been hampered1 by a lack of quantitative2 data. So researchers at Harvard, along with Google, Encyclopedia3 Britannica, and the American Heritage Dictionary, have come up with a new tool.

It's a database of 5.2 million books, published since the year 1500. That's four percent of all the books ever published, with a total of 500 billion words. The focus is on English language culture, so three quarters of the books are in English.

Among the first findings of the research, published in the journal Science: about, 8500 new words enter the English language annually4. But many of them don't end up in dictionaries. And about fame—actors become famous around age 30, writers around 40, and politicians around 50. But the fame of politicians can eventually exceed that of actors.

A Google tool called the Books Ngram Viewer is available based on this data—users can track the usage and frequency of a word or phrase over the past few centuries. Thus, we can watch the fall and rise of Melville. And soon the rise and fall of Snooki.

Thanks for the minute. For Scientific American's 60-Second Science, I'm Cynthia Graber.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 hampered 3c5fb339e8465f0b89285ad0a790a834     
妨碍,束缚,限制( hamper的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • The search was hampered by appalling weather conditions. 恶劣的天气妨碍了搜寻工作。
  • So thought every harassed, hampered, respectable boy in St. Petersburg. 圣彼德堡镇的那些受折磨、受拘束的体面孩子们个个都是这么想的。
2 quantitative TCpyg     
adj.数量的,定量的
参考例句:
  • He said it was only a quantitative difference.他说这仅仅是数量上的差别。
  • We need to do some quantitative analysis of the drugs.我们对药物要进行定量分析。
3 encyclopedia ZpgxD     
n.百科全书
参考例句:
  • The encyclopedia fell to the floor with a thud.那本百科全书砰的一声掉到地上。
  • Geoff is a walking encyclopedia.He knows about everything.杰夫是个活百科全书,他什么都懂。
4 annually VzYzNO     
adv.一年一次,每年
参考例句:
  • Many migratory birds visit this lake annually.许多候鸟每年到这个湖上作短期逗留。
  • They celebrate their wedding anniversary annually.他们每年庆祝一番结婚纪念日。
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