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SSS 2011-11-23

时间:2011-12-02 06:08来源:互联网 提供网友:gmeng   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

 Confessing to a crime usually is not enough to throw you behind bars. Many states require independent evidence to corroborate1 a confession2. But if a suspect confesses and forensic3 investigators4 know, it can cause them to favor evidence in support of a guilty verdict—even if the confession is coerced6 or false. So says a study in the journal Psychological Science. 

 
Researchers analyzed7 241 cases from the Innocence8 Project, which uses DNA9 tests to try to exonerate10 prisoners who are in fact not guilty. Most of the wrongful convictions were based on eyewitness11 mistakes. But a quarter of the bad verdicts involved false confessions12.
 
And such cases were much more likely to involve botched forensic evidence—which tended to pile up after the confessions were made. That sequence suggests that investigators' scientific conclusions were corrupted13 by belief in the defendant's guilt5.
 
Even more troubling, the authors say, is that tainted14 evidence can influence a trial long after a confession has been thrown out—as with the Amanda Knox trial in Italy. For judges and juries, the message is clear: even evidence that appears to be a smoking gun may be smoke and mirrors.
 
Thanks for the minute. For Scientific American's 60-Second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.

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1 corroborate RoVzf     
v.支持,证实,确定
参考例句:
  • He looked at me anxiously,as if he hoped I'd corroborate this.他神色不安地看着我,仿佛他希望我证实地的话。
  • It appeared that what he said went to corroborate my account.看来他所说的和我叙述的相符。
2 confession 8Ygye     
n.自白,供认,承认
参考例句:
  • Her confession was simply tantamount to a casual explanation.她的自白简直等于一篇即席说明。
  • The police used torture to extort a confession from him.警察对他用刑逼供。
3 forensic 96zyv     
adj.法庭的,雄辩的
参考例句:
  • The report included his interpretation of the forensic evidence.该报告包括他对法庭证据的诠释。
  • The judge concluded the proceeding on 10:30 Am after one hour of forensic debate.经过近一个小时的法庭辩论后,法官于10时30分宣布休庭。
4 investigators e970f9140785518a87fc81641b7c89f7     
n.调查者,审查者( investigator的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • This memo could be the smoking gun that investigators have been looking for. 这份备忘录可能是调查人员一直在寻找的证据。
  • The team consisted of six investigators and two secretaries. 这个团队由六个调查人员和两个秘书组成。 来自《简明英汉词典》
5 guilt 9e6xr     
n.犯罪;内疚;过失,罪责
参考例句:
  • She tried to cover up her guilt by lying.她企图用谎言掩饰自己的罪行。
  • Don't lay a guilt trip on your child about schoolwork.别因为功课责备孩子而使他觉得很内疚。
6 coerced d9f1e897cffdd8ee96b8978b69159a6b     
v.迫使做( coerce的过去式和过去分词 );强迫;(以武力、惩罚、威胁等手段)控制;支配
参考例句:
  • They were coerced into negotiating a settlement. 他们被迫通过谈判解决。
  • He was coerced into making a confession. 他被迫招供。 来自《简明英汉词典》
7 analyzed 483f1acae53789fbee273a644fdcda80     
v.分析( analyze的过去式和过去分词 );分解;解释;对…进行心理分析
参考例句:
  • The doctors analyzed the blood sample for anemia. 医生们分析了贫血的血样。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The young man did not analyze the process of his captivation and enrapturement, for love to him was a mystery and could not be analyzed. 这年轻人没有分析自己蛊惑著迷的过程,因为对他来说,爱是个不可分析的迷。 来自《简明英汉词典》
8 innocence ZbizC     
n.无罪;天真;无害
参考例句:
  • There was a touching air of innocence about the boy.这个男孩有一种令人感动的天真神情。
  • The accused man proved his innocence of the crime.被告人经证实无罪。
9 DNA 4u3z1l     
(缩)deoxyribonucleic acid 脱氧核糖核酸
参考例句:
  • DNA is stored in the nucleus of a cell.脱氧核糖核酸储存于细胞的细胞核里。
  • Gene mutations are alterations in the DNA code.基因突变是指DNA密码的改变。
10 exonerate FzByr     
v.免除责任,确定无罪
参考例句:
  • Nothing can exonerate her from that.任何解释都难辞其咎。
  • There is no reason to exonerate him from the ordinary duties of a citizen.没有理由免除他做公民应尽的义务。
11 eyewitness VlVxj     
n.目击者,见证人
参考例句:
  • The police questioned several eyewitness to the murder.警察询问了谋杀案的几位目击者。
  • He was the only eyewitness of the robbery.他是那起抢劫案的唯一目击者。
12 confessions 4fa8f33e06cadcb434c85fa26d61bf95     
n.承认( confession的名词复数 );自首;声明;(向神父的)忏悔
参考例句:
  • It is strictly forbidden to obtain confessions and to give them credence. 严禁逼供信。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Neither trickery nor coercion is used to secure confessions. 既不诱供也不逼供。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
13 corrupted 88ed91fad91b8b69b62ce17ae542ff45     
(使)败坏( corrupt的过去式和过去分词 ); (使)腐化; 引起(计算机文件等的)错误; 破坏
参考例句:
  • The body corrupted quite quickly. 尸体很快腐烂了。
  • The text was corrupted by careless copyists. 原文因抄写员粗心而有讹误。
14 tainted qgDzqS     
adj.腐坏的;污染的;沾污的;感染的v.使变质( taint的过去式和过去分词 );使污染;败坏;被污染,腐坏,败坏
参考例句:
  • The administration was tainted with scandal. 丑闻使得政府声名狼藉。
  • He was considered tainted by association with the corrupt regime. 他因与腐败政府有牵连而名誉受损。 来自《简明英汉词典》
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