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SSS 2011-03-15

时间:2011-04-27 05:31来源:互联网 提供网友:geologyforget   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

This is Scientific American’s 60-Second Science. I’m Cynthia Graber. This will just take a minute.

Imagine life without fire. A lot of huddling1 for warmth.

The consensus2 was that humans could make and control fire when they first migrated north to colder Europe, about a million years ago. But new research says those initial Europeans may not have been fire experts until much later. The study was published in the

Proceedings3 of the National Academy of Sciences.

Archaeologists identify ancient open-air encampments through tools, tool production and food remains4. To check for evidence of fire, they may look for charred5 bones and pieces of charcoal6. But those artifacts could be from volcanic7 eruptions8 or natural fires.

Such heated remains would be more clearly linked to humans when found in caves. Two northern European caves in particular show clear evidence of fire. But only relatively9 recently compared with when humans first showed up.

And in the Arago cave in France there’s evidence of fire from settlements younger than 350,000 years, but no such evidence in the older layers. The scientists say these findings show that the use of fire was not controlled for the first 600,000 years after humans arrived in Europe, which made for quite a few long, chilly10 winters.

Thanks for the minute. For Scientific American’s 60-Second Science, I’m Cynthia Graber


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 huddling d477c519a46df466cc3e427358e641d5     
n. 杂乱一团, 混乱, 拥挤 v. 推挤, 乱堆, 草率了事
参考例句:
  • Twenty or thirty monkeys are huddling along the thick branch. 三十只猴子挤在粗大的树枝上。
  • The defenders are huddling down for cover. 捍卫者为了掩护缩成一团。
2 consensus epMzA     
n.(意见等的)一致,一致同意,共识
参考例句:
  • Can we reach a consensus on this issue?我们能在这个问题上取得一致意见吗?
  • What is the consensus of opinion at the afternoon meeting?下午会议上一致的意见是什么?
3 proceedings Wk2zvX     
n.进程,过程,议程;诉讼(程序);公报
参考例句:
  • He was released on bail pending committal proceedings. 他交保获释正在候审。
  • to initiate legal proceedings against sb 对某人提起诉讼
4 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,残留物;遗体,遗迹
参考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
5 charred 2d03ad55412d225c25ff6ea41516c90b     
v.把…烧成炭( char的过去式);烧焦
参考例句:
  • the charred remains of a burnt-out car 被烧焦的轿车残骸
  • The intensity of the explosion is recorded on the charred tree trunks. 那些烧焦的树干表明爆炸的强烈。 来自《简明英汉词典》
6 charcoal prgzJ     
n.炭,木炭,生物炭
参考例句:
  • We need to get some more charcoal for the barbecue.我们烧烤需要更多的碳。
  • Charcoal is used to filter water.木炭是用来过滤水的。
7 volcanic BLgzQ     
adj.火山的;象火山的;由火山引起的
参考例句:
  • There have been several volcanic eruptions this year.今年火山爆发了好几次。
  • Volcanic activity has created thermal springs and boiling mud pools.火山活动产生了温泉和沸腾的泥浆池。
8 eruptions ca60b8eba3620efa5cdd7044f6dd0b66     
n.喷发,爆发( eruption的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • There have been several volcanic eruptions this year. 今年火山爆发了好几次。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Over 200 people have been killed by volcanic eruptions. 火山喷发已导致200多人丧生。 来自辞典例句
9 relatively bkqzS3     
adv.比较...地,相对地
参考例句:
  • The rabbit is a relatively recent introduction in Australia.兔子是相对较新引入澳大利亚的物种。
  • The operation was relatively painless.手术相对来说不痛。
10 chilly pOfzl     
adj.凉快的,寒冷的
参考例句:
  • I feel chilly without a coat.我由于没有穿大衣而感到凉飕飕的。
  • I grew chilly when the fire went out.炉火熄灭后,寒气逼人。
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