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新概念英语85年上外美音版第四册 第19课

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  Lesson 19 English Social Differences 英国社会的差异
A gentleman is, rather than does. He is interested in nothing in a professional way. He is allowed to cultivate hobbies, even eccentricities1, but must not practise a vocation2. He must know how to ride and shoot and cast a fly. He should have relatives in the army and navy and at least one connection in the diplomatic service. But there are weaknesses in the English gentleman's ability to rule us today. He usually knows nothing of political economy and less about how foreign countries are governed. He does not respect learning and prefers 'sport '.The problem set for society is not the virtues5 of the type so much as its adequacy for its function, and here grave difficulties arise. He refuses to consider sufficiently6 the wants of the customer, who must buy, not the thing he desires but the thing the English gentleman wants to sell. He attends inadequately7 to technological8 development. Disbelieving in the necessity of large-scale production in the modern world, he is passionately9 devoted10 to excessive secrecy11, both in finance and method of production. He has an incurable12 and widespread nepotism13 in appointment, discounting ability and relying upon a mystic entity14 called 'character,' which means, in a gentleman's mouth, the qualities he traditionally possesses himself. His lack of imagination and the narrowness of his social loyal ties have ranged against him one of the fundamental estates of the realm. He is incapable15 of that imaginative realism which admits that this is a new world to which he must adjust himself and his institutions, that every privilege he formely took as of right he can now attain16 only by offering proof that it is directly relevant to social welfare.
professional n. 职业的  cultivate vt. 培养
hobby n. 业余爱好  eccentricity17 n. 怪癖
cast a fly 垂钓   diplomatic service 外交部门
govern vt. 治理   adequacy n. 适当
grave a. 严重的   sufficiently ad. 充分地
inadequately ad. 不充分地 disbelieve vt. 不相信
devoted a. 热心的   excessive a. 过分的
incurable a. 不可救药的 neotism n. 裙带关系
discount vt. 看轻   mystic a. 神秘的
entity n. 存在,本质  narrowness n. 狭隘
quality n. 品质   estate n. 社会阶层
realm n. 王国    realism n. 现实主义  adjust vt. 使适应
privilege n. 特权   relevant a. 有关的   difference n. 差异
1.professional n. 职业的 通常略写为prof  [反]amateur
[辨异]profession, occupation, job
profession “专业”,强调highly skilled/highly educated, such as lawyer, doctor, IT engineer, architect
occupation: normal and general, everybody can have an occupation.
job不仅指工作,还可以表示干活,例如家务活。
You did a good job.
[注意]technical/vocational school 职业学校
2.cultivate vt. 培养 [同]nurture, develop, foster
cultivate a hobby/habit
He is well cultivated/educated/bred/trained. 他很有教养。
3.hobby n. 业余爱好
[辨异]mania18, hobby, pastime, diversion
mania 颠狂,狂热,癖好 hobby n. 业余爱好
pastime 消遣  diversion 消遣,指转移注意力,换换脑筋。
4.eccentricity n. 怪癖 [同]odd
eccentric 古怪的,怪癖的
concentric  同轴的,同心的
[辨异]eccentric, outlandish, grotesque19  eccentric 古怪的,怪癖的
outlandish异国风味的,奇异的,古怪的  outlandish clothes奇装异服
grotesque 怪诞的,艺术、美术、文学中的怪异派、怪异的作品
5.cast a fly 垂钓[同]go fishing, on the fishing trip(悠闲垂钓)
cast a net 撒网,为了生存捕鱼
6.diplomatic service 外交部门
airline service航空公司  travel service/agency 旅行社
diplomacy20 外交 diplomat3 外交官
He is a diplomat. 他是一个左右逢源的人。 He is a philosopher.
他是一个夸夸其谈的人。
7.govern vt. 治理
government/governing body 政府  governor 州长
governess 女家教  benevolent21 government 仁政
8.adequacy n. 适当 [同]sufficient [反]inadequate
He often doubts his adequacy as a father.
=He often doubts whether he is adequate as a father.
他常常怀疑他是不是够格做父亲。
[辨异]deficient22, sparse23, meager24
deficient没有足够的,缺乏的
sparse 稀少  meager 贫乏的,不充分的,不足的  The food is meager for winter.
9.grave a. 严重的
[同]solemn, serious, severe have one foot in the grave 来日不多了
grave situation 严峻的形势 gravity 地球引力,严重
10.disbelieve vt. 不相信
dis- 多做动词的反义词 disappear 消失 disbelieve 不相信
11.devoted a. 热心的
[同]committed, dedicated25
devote v.  devote oneself to sth be devoted to sth
[注意]to后面一定要用名词或动名词
He devoted himself to researches.
He is devoted to researches. 他致力于研究。
She is devoted to her children. 她太溺爱孩子了。
这里,devoted相当于spoil, pamper26
12.excessive a. 过分的
[同]immoderate [反]moderate
Excessive studying bores/tires me.
过多的学习使我厌倦/疲惫不堪。
Excessive smoking harms/does harm to the health.
过度吸烟有害健康。
Excessive smoking is dangerous.
extreme 极端的
13.incurable a. 不可救药的
cure 治疗
cure sb 为某人治病
cure sb of 治某人的……病
curable 可治疗的
to breathe one’s last 奄奄一息
He is beyond cure/remedy.
他不行了/不可救了。
引申为他不可救药了。=He is rotten to the core.
People heat him to death.
人们都恨死他了。
I’m hungry to death.
我都快饿死了。
[注意]不能说成I starve to death.
14.neotism n. 裙带关系
It means giving of favors to his relatives/relations by a person/man in the high position or promoting the people closest to him
backdoor “后门”
15.discount vt. 看轻
count 数
I count on him. 我看重/器重他。
discount 打折 以物做宾语
I discount what he sales.
contempt/belittle/look down on 以人做宾语
16.mystic a. 神秘的,带有宗教色彩
mysterious则不带宗教色彩
occult 神秘的,玄妙的
supernatural 超自然的
metaphysical 形而上学的
Garden of Eden 伊甸园
nether27 world 阴间
heavenly world 天堂
17.narrowness n. 狭隘
He is narrow-minded. 他心胸狭窄。
He is narrow-sighted/shortsighted.
他目光短浅。
narrow escape 九死一生
18.quality n. 品质
He is a man of quality. 他是一个高尚的人。
a lady of quality 贵妇
19.estate n. 社会阶层,房地产
class, hierarchy28, stratification
都有阶层的意思。
real estate 不动产
personal estate 动产
estate agent 房地产商
20.realm n. 王国(抽象概念)
kingdom 具体概念
mental realm 思想境界
literature realm 文学界
flim/movie realm 电影界
[辨异]estate, domaln, sphere
estate 社会阶层
domaln
donaln name 域名
sphere 球,球形,球体,球面,范围,领域
realism n. 现实主义
realistic 现实主义的性格
realist 现实主义者[反]idealist理想主义者
21.adjust vt. 使适应
adjust oneself tonew environment
be adjust to
He is well adjustd.
他好相处。
22.privilege n. 特权,英国英语常用
有特权的人,例如
mp(member of parliament)议员
privileged class 特权阶层
underprivileged class 弱势阶层
privileged car/cab 专车
23.relevant a. 有关的
be relevant to 和…
24.difference n. 差异
make no difference 没关系
It makes no difference wheather you come or not.
make difference 关系重大
different from(英式英语)=different than (美式英语)
1.A gentleman is, rather than does.?尥荇憷髯??癞羽钴。?嘴钴腧拗憷“?尥”憷?哝吸?钴,憷烷憝嘴钴?啶。
2.in a professional way=professional
3.be allowed:绅士这一阶层受社会的约束,不是随便什么都可以做的。
practise:从事
practise law= to be a lawyer
practise medicine= to be a doctor
vocation: 职业 to offer help and aid, for example, priest, doctor, nurse
He is allowed to cultivate hobbies, even eccentricities, but must not practise a vocation.这句话的意思是:绅士是绝对不能脱离他的阶层,不允许mix with the masses(与大众为伍),否则就会很庸俗。
4.ride:骑马
navy:海军
army:陆军
5.rule:治国
6.political economy:政治经济学
less about:更不要提
=not to mention/not to speak of
I know nothing of maths, not to mention English. 我不懂数学,就更别提英语了。
7.learning:学术
sport:指前面说的” ride and shoot and cast a fly”
8.The problem set for society is not the virtues of the type so much as its adequacy for its function:社会要回答的问题并不是这类人物不无美德,而是他们是否胜任其职务。
set for society:做后置定语
virtue4:品德
the type= the kind= the class 阶层
so much as, not…… but, 前面有否定式,so much as= but
His success is not by talent so much as by energy.
他的成功不是来自天赋而是来自勤奋。
It is not the hours that tell so much as the way we use them.
重要的不是时间而是如何利用它。
It is the man that behind the gun tells.
胜败在人而不在武器。
adequate:能力
function:功能
9.arise= apper,常搭配副词here, there
want:需求
pursue: 追求
10.attend to= be concerned with 关注
attend to 后面只能跟名词、动名词
While I am out/away, please attend to my house.
当我不在时,请帮我照看一下家。
11.in finance and method of production:金融和生产方法
12.widespread: 普遍的
discounting ability:轻视才能
character= nature
in a gentleman’s mouth:在绅士的嘴里
the qualities he traditionally possesses himself:他自己传统上所拥有的品质
13.social loyalties= loyalty29 to society= social duties 社会职责
be loyal to 对……忠诚
have ranged against him one of the fundamental estates of the realm:已把自己放到这个王国中的基本社会阶层的对立面上去。
range: 排列
range against: 作对
incapable of that imaginative realism:无法接受充满想像力的现实
14.admit= demand 要求
institution= custom  社会习俗
he formerly30 took as of right:他以前取得作为……的权力
took as= regard as 看待
took as of 是古英语用法,相当于今天的took as
he is taken as a black sheep.
他被看作是害群之马。
right:权利
he can now attain only by offering proof that it is directly relevant to social welfare: 只能通过提供证据说明此项权力与社会福利直接有关才能得到
15.Lord Curzon, Miceroy of India, Invests the Maharajah of Cochin with the Star of India in 1903:派往印度的总督Curzon勋爵授予印度本土国王Cochin“印度之星”。
invest in:投资
invest with:授予
Lord:爵士,勋爵
 


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 eccentricities 9d4f841e5aa6297cdc01f631723077d9     
n.古怪行为( eccentricity的名词复数 );反常;怪癖
参考例句:
  • My wife has many eccentricities. 我妻子有很多怪癖。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • His eccentricities had earned for him the nickname"The Madman". 他的怪癖已使他得到'疯子'的绰号。 来自辞典例句
2 vocation 8h6wB     
n.职业,行业
参考例句:
  • She struggled for years to find her true vocation.她多年来苦苦寻找真正适合自己的职业。
  • She felt it was her vocation to minister to the sick.她觉得照料病人是她的天职。
3 diplomat Pu0xk     
n.外交官,外交家;能交际的人,圆滑的人
参考例句:
  • The diplomat threw in a joke, and the tension was instantly relieved.那位外交官插进一个笑话,紧张的气氛顿时缓和下来。
  • He served as a diplomat in Russia before the war.战前他在俄罗斯当外交官。
4 virtue BpqyH     
n.德行,美德;贞操;优点;功效,效力
参考例句:
  • He was considered to be a paragon of virtue.他被认为是品德尽善尽美的典范。
  • You need to decorate your mind with virtue.你应该用德行美化心灵。
5 virtues cd5228c842b227ac02d36dd986c5cd53     
美德( virtue的名词复数 ); 德行; 优点; 长处
参考例句:
  • Doctors often extol the virtues of eating less fat. 医生常常宣扬少吃脂肪的好处。
  • She delivered a homily on the virtues of family life. 她进行了一场家庭生活美德方面的说教。
6 sufficiently 0htzMB     
adv.足够地,充分地
参考例句:
  • It turned out he had not insured the house sufficiently.原来他没有给房屋投足保险。
  • The new policy was sufficiently elastic to accommodate both views.新政策充分灵活地适用两种观点。
7 inadequately TqQzb5     
ad.不够地;不够好地
参考例句:
  • As one kind of building materials, wood is inadequately sturdy. 作为一种建筑材料,木材不够结实。
  • Oneself is supported inadequately by the money that he earns. 他挣的钱不够养活自己。
8 technological gqiwY     
adj.技术的;工艺的
参考例句:
  • A successful company must keep up with the pace of technological change.一家成功的公司必须得跟上技术变革的步伐。
  • Today,the pace of life is increasing with technological advancements.当今, 随着科技进步,生活节奏不断增快。
9 passionately YmDzQ4     
ad.热烈地,激烈地
参考例句:
  • She could hate as passionately as she could love. 她能恨得咬牙切齿,也能爱得一往情深。
  • He was passionately addicted to pop music. 他酷爱流行音乐。
10 devoted xu9zka     
adj.忠诚的,忠实的,热心的,献身于...的
参考例句:
  • He devoted his life to the educational cause of the motherland.他为祖国的教育事业贡献了一生。
  • We devoted a lengthy and full discussion to this topic.我们对这个题目进行了长时间的充分讨论。
11 secrecy NZbxH     
n.秘密,保密,隐蔽
参考例句:
  • All the researchers on the project are sworn to secrecy.该项目的所有研究人员都按要求起誓保守秘密。
  • Complete secrecy surrounded the meeting.会议在绝对机密的环境中进行。
12 incurable incurable     
adj.不能医治的,不能矫正的,无救的;n.不治的病人,无救的人
参考例句:
  • All three babies were born with an incurable heart condition.三个婴儿都有不可治瘉的先天性心脏病。
  • He has an incurable and widespread nepotism.他们有不可救药的,到处蔓延的裙带主义。
13 nepotism f5Uzs     
n.任人唯亲;裙带关系
参考例句:
  • The congressman lashed the president for his nepotism.国会议员抨击总统搞裙带关系。
  • Many will regard his appointment as the kind of nepotism British banking ought to avoid.很多人会把他的任命看作是英国银行业应该避免的一种裙带关系。
14 entity vo8xl     
n.实体,独立存在体,实际存在物
参考例句:
  • The country is no longer one political entity.这个国家不再是一个统一的政治实体了。
  • As a separate legal entity,the corporation must pay taxes.作为一个独立的法律实体,公司必须纳税。
15 incapable w9ZxK     
adj.无能力的,不能做某事的
参考例句:
  • He would be incapable of committing such a cruel deed.他不会做出这么残忍的事。
  • Computers are incapable of creative thought.计算机不会创造性地思维。
16 attain HvYzX     
vt.达到,获得,完成
参考例句:
  • I used the scientific method to attain this end. 我用科学的方法来达到这一目的。
  • His painstaking to attain his goal in life is praiseworthy. 他为实现人生目标所下的苦功是值得称赞的。
17 eccentricity hrOxT     
n.古怪,反常,怪癖
参考例句:
  • I can't understand the eccentricity of Henry's behavior.我不理解亨利的古怪举止。
  • His eccentricity had become legendary long before he died.在他去世之前他的古怪脾气就早已闻名遐尔了。
18 mania 9BWxu     
n.疯狂;躁狂症,狂热,癖好
参考例句:
  • Football mania is sweeping the country.足球热正风靡全国。
  • Collecting small items can easily become a mania.收藏零星物品往往容易变成一种癖好。
19 grotesque O6ryZ     
adj.怪诞的,丑陋的;n.怪诞的图案,怪人(物)
参考例句:
  • His face has a grotesque appearance.他的面部表情十分怪。
  • Her account of the incident was a grotesque distortion of the truth.她对这件事的陈述是荒诞地歪曲了事实。
20 diplomacy gu9xk     
n.外交;外交手腕,交际手腕
参考例句:
  • The talks have now gone into a stage of quiet diplomacy.会谈现在已经进入了“温和外交”阶段。
  • This was done through the skill in diplomacy. 这是通过外交手腕才做到的。
21 benevolent Wtfzx     
adj.仁慈的,乐善好施的
参考例句:
  • His benevolent nature prevented him from refusing any beggar who accosted him.他乐善好施的本性使他不会拒绝走上前向他行乞的任何一个乞丐。
  • He was a benevolent old man and he wouldn't hurt a fly.他是一个仁慈的老人,连只苍蝇都不愿伤害。
22 deficient Cmszv     
adj.不足的,不充份的,有缺陷的
参考例句:
  • The crops are suffering from deficient rain.庄稼因雨量不足而遭受损害。
  • I always have been deficient in selfconfidence and decision.我向来缺乏自信和果断。
23 sparse SFjzG     
adj.稀疏的,稀稀落落的,薄的
参考例句:
  • The teacher's house is in the suburb where the houses are sparse.老师的家在郊区,那里稀稀拉拉有几处房子。
  • The sparse vegetation will only feed a small population of animals.稀疏的植物只够喂养少量的动物。
24 meager zB5xZ     
adj.缺乏的,不足的,瘦的
参考例句:
  • He could not support his family on his meager salary.他靠微薄的工资无法养家。
  • The two men and the woman grouped about the fire and began their meager meal.两个男人同一个女人围着火,开始吃起少得可怜的午饭。
25 dedicated duHzy2     
adj.一心一意的;献身的;热诚的
参考例句:
  • He dedicated his life to the cause of education.他献身于教育事业。
  • His whole energies are dedicated to improve the design.他的全部精力都放在改进这项设计上了。
26 pamper y4uzA     
v.纵容,过分关怀
参考例句:
  • Don't pamper your little daughter.别把你的小女儿娇坏了!
  • You need to pamper yourself and let your charm come through.你需要对自己放纵一些来表现你的魅力。
27 nether P1pyY     
adj.下部的,下面的;n.阴间;下层社会
参考例句:
  • This terracotta army well represents his ambition yet to be realized in the nether-world.这一批兵马俑很可能代表他死后也要去实现的雄心。
  • He was escorted back to the nether regions of Main Street.他被护送回中央大道南面的地方。
28 hierarchy 7d7xN     
n.等级制度;统治集团,领导层
参考例句:
  • There is a rigid hierarchy of power in that country.那个国家有一套严密的权力等级制度。
  • She's high up in the management hierarchy.她在管理阶层中地位很高。
29 loyalty gA9xu     
n.忠诚,忠心
参考例句:
  • She told him the truth from a sense of loyalty.她告诉他真相是出于忠诚。
  • His loyalty to his friends was never in doubt.他对朋友的一片忠心从来没受到怀疑。
30 formerly ni3x9     
adv.从前,以前
参考例句:
  • We now enjoy these comforts of which formerly we had only heard.我们现在享受到了过去只是听说过的那些舒适条件。
  • This boat was formerly used on the rivers of China.这船从前航行在中国内河里。
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